Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Scaling modern technology or scaling exclusion? The socio-political dynamics of accessing in malt barley innovation in two highland communities in Southern Ethiopia
Roo, N. de; Almekinders, C.J.M. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Tefera, Tewodros - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 174 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 52 - 62.
In this article we explore whether and how the dynamics of access shape the scaling of modern agricultural technologies. It is based on the experience of an agricultural research for development (AR4D) project called CASCAPE, which aims to validate and scale agricultural best practices for smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. The socio-political dynamics of external interventions are often taken for granted contextual factors in AR4D projects.By contrast, this article takes this context as the point of departure for its analysis. The aim of this in-depth case study is to unpack the concept of access as condition for scaling of agricultural technologies. We identify and analyse the mechanisms that determine access to the various components of a malt barley technology package which was introduced in two highland communities in southern Ethiopia (and later ‘scaled’ to a range of other communities). Our research approach is technographic, implying that we consider the technology to contain both material and social components. The findings suggest that social and clan-based exchange mechanisms(such as clan-based loyalty, reciprocity and vertical accountability) are often rendered invisible even though they are of critical importance in governing access to the material and social components of modern agricultural technologies. Ignoring this socio-political context in the malt barley interventions resulted in an unintended scaling effect in terms of widening the social and economic gap between a few better off farmers and a larger group of poor farmers. The paper thus provides evidence that the socio-political dynamics of access to technology can have an important influence on its wide spread application and may complicate efforts to scale the uptake of technology. Paying more attention to such processes would help to improve the effectiveness of AR4D efforts.
On-farm trials as 'infection points'? a response to Wall et al.
Andersson, J.A. ; Krupnik, T.J. ; Roo, N. De - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 195 - 199.

In their response to our paper on the problems of using on-farm trials in efforts to scale-out new crop production technologies and practices among smallholder farmers, Wall et al. (2018) focus on our descriptions of on-farm trials in just one of the three case studies of Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) projects that were presented. They argue we did not understand the projects' philosophy and that the biases in farmer and site selection we discussed, do not exist in the southern Africa case study.

Assessing the impact of human interventions on floods and low flows in the Wei River Basin in China using the LISFLOOD model
Gai, Lingtong ; Nunes, João P. ; Baartman, Jantiene E.M. ; Zhang, Hongming ; Wang, Fei ; Roo, Ad de; Ritsema, Coen J. ; Geissen, Violette - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 653 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1077 - 1094.
Flood return period - Hydrological model - Land use - LISFLOOD - Reservoir - Water diversion

Floods are extreme hydroclimatic events that threaten societies and ecosystems. The effects of these events are greatly influenced by the changes that humans have imposed on the environment. The LISFLOOD model is a physically based rainfall-runoff model that simulates the hydrological processes in a catchment. Using globally available land cover, soil, and vegetation as well as meteorological and geographical datasets as input, the LISFLOOD model has the potential to be applied worldwide, even for regions where data are lacking. This study first calibrated and validated the LISFLOOD model in the Wei River Basin in China (432,000 km2) for the years between 2000 and 2010 at 0.05° resolution with a monthly Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.79 at the Huaxian station located at the catchment outlet. The outlets of 17 tributaries draining into the main river were then identified in order to assess the contribution of each tributary to the total runoff occurring as a result of flooding. Four categories of scenarios focusing on human interventions in the basin were created and evaluated: 1) Business as usual, 2) Additional reservoirs constructed in different catchments, 3) Land use as in 1980, and 4) Water diversion plan with a pipeline injection of a fixed daily inflow from an adjacent catchment. The results of the scenarios are presented for three strategically important cities located on the floodplain. In general, the construction of the reservoirs could have an effect on reducing peak flows and decreasing the flood return periods while increasing the low flows. The water diversion plan scenarios increased the low flow by 41 times averaged for the three cities. In conclusion, the LISFLOOD model is a sophisticated model for land and water management planning on the catchment scale for reducing the effects of flood and drought.

On-farm trials for development impact? the organisation of research and the scaling of agricultural technologies
Roo, Nina de; Andersson, Jens A. ; Krupnik, Timothy J. - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)2. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 163 - 184.
Changes in donor priorities have meant that agronomists working in the tropics find themselves in a fundamentally new operational space, one that demands rapid improvements in farmers' livelihoods resulting from the large-scale adoption of new technologies and crop management practices. As a result, on-farm trials in contemporary Agricultural Research for Development (AR4D) are increasingly implemented both to collect data and to spur farmer adoption. We examine the different interpretations and organisational practices of AR4D organisations in this new operational space, and reflect on the usefulness of on-farm trials for agricultural technology scaling. Three case studies are presented to address these questions – two in sub-Saharan Africa and one in South Asia. Each study is considered in light of Science and Technology Studies theory and locates science as a politically situated practice, recognising the tension that scientists face between providing evidence and persuading selected audiences. The case studies show that this tension results in the introduction of several biases that limit the scalability of the technologies under investigation. These include biases at the level of the trial location, host-farmer selection, trial design, management and evaluation. We conclude by discussing how the contemporary political and institutional environment of AR4D produces project beneficiaries and research outcomes on selected farms, but not necessarily impacts at scale.
Quantification of food polysaccharide mixtures by ¹H NMR
Merkx, Donny W.H. ; Westphal, Yvonne ; Velzen, Ewoud J.J. van; Thakoer, Kavish V. ; Roo, Niels de; Duynhoven, John P.M. van - \ 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers 179 (2018). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 379 - 385.
Food polysaccharides - Mixture analysis - Non-instantaneous monosaccharide release - qNMR - Saeman hydrolysis

Polysaccharides are food ingredients that critically determine rheological properties and shelf life. A qualitative and quantitative assessment on food-specific polysaccharide mixtures by 1H NMR is presented. The method is based on the identification of intact polysaccharides, combined with a quantitative analysis of their monosaccharide constituents. Identification of the polysaccharides is achieved by 1H NMR line shape fitting with pure compound spectra. The monomeric composition was determined using the Saeman hydrolysis procedure, followed by direct monosaccharide quantification by 1H NMR. In the quantification, both the monosaccharide degradation during hydrolysis, as well as a correction for the non-instantaneous polysaccharide dissolution were taken into account. These factors were particularly important for the quantification of pectins. The method showed overall good repeatability (RSDr = 4.1 ± 0.9%) and within-laboratory reproducibility (RSDR = 6.1 ± 1.4%) for various food polysaccharides. Polysaccharide mixtures were quantitatively resolved by a non-negative least squares estimation, using identified polysaccharides and their molar monosaccharide stoichiometry as prior knowledge. The accuracy and precision of the presented method make it applicable to a wide range of food polysaccharide mixtures with complex and overlapping 1H NMR spectra.

Effect of theobromine consumption on serum lipoprotein profiles in apparently healthy humans with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations
Jacobs, Doris M. ; Smolders, Lotte ; Lin, Yuguang ; Roo, Niels de; Trautwein, Elke A. ; Duynhoven, John van; Mensink, Ronald P. ; Plat, Jogchum ; Mihaleva, Velitchka V. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences 4 (2017)AUG. - ISSN 2296-889X
HDL - Lipoprotein - NMR - PLS model - Theobromine
Scope: Theobromine is a major active compound in cocoa with allegedly beneficial effect on high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH). We have investigated the effect of theobromine (TB) consumption on the concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CH) in various lipoprotein (LP) subclasses. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 44 apparently healthy women and men (age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 29 ± 3 kg/m2) with low baseline HDL-CH concentrations consumed a drink supplemented with 500 mg/d theobromine for 4 weeks. TG and CH concentrations in 15 LP subclasses were predicted from diffusion-edited 1H NMR spectra of fasting serum. Results: The LP phenotype of the subjects was characterized by low CH concentrations in the large HDL particles and high TG concentrations in large VLDL and chylomicron (CM) particles, which clearly differed from a LP phenotype of subjects with normal HDL-CH. TB only reduced CH concentrations in the LDL particles by 3.64 and 6.79%, but had no effect on TG and CH in any of the HDL, VLDL and CM subclasses. Conclusion: TB was not effective on HDL-CH in subjects with a LP phenotype characterized by low HDL-CH and high TG in VLDL.
Human-water interface in hydrological modelling : Current status and future directions
Wada, Yoshihide ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Roo, Ad de; Dirmeyer, Paul A. ; Famiglietti, James S. ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Konar, Megan ; Liu, Junguo ; Schmied, Hannes Möller ; Oki, Taikan ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Troy, Tara J. ; Dijk, Albert I.J.M. Van; Emmerik, Tim Van; Huijgevoort, Marjolein H.J. Van; Lanen, Henny A.J. van; Vörösmarty, Charles J. ; Wanders, Niko ; Wheater, Howard - \ 2017
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 21 (2017)8. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4169 - 4193.

Over recent decades, the global population has been rapidly increasing and human activities have altered terrestrial water fluxes to an unprecedented extent. The phenomenal growth of the human footprint has significantly modified hydrological processes in various ways (e.g. irrigation, artificial dams, and water diversion) and at various scales (from a watershed to the globe). During the early 1990s, awareness of the potential for increased water scarcity led to the first detailed global water resource assessments. Shortly thereafter, in order to analyse the human perturbation on terrestrial water resources, the first generation of largescale hydrological models (LHMs) was produced. However, at this early stage few models considered the interaction between terrestrial water fluxes and human activities, including water use and reservoir regulation, and even fewer models distinguished water use from surface water and groundwater resources. Since the early 2000s, a growing number of LHMs have incorporated human impacts on the hydrological cycle, yet the representation of human activities in hydrological models remains challenging. In this paper we provide a synthesis of progress in the development and application of human impact modelling in LHMs. We highlight a number of key challenges and discuss possible improvements in order to better represent the human-water interface in hydrological models.

Toward Reliable Lipoprotein Particle Predictions from NMR Spectra of Human Blood : An Interlaboratory Ring Test
Monsonis Centelles, Sandra ; Hoefsloot, Huub C.J. ; Khakimov, Bekzod ; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh ; Lind, Mads V. ; Kristensen, Mette ; Roo, Niels De; Jacobs, Doris M. ; Duynhoven, John Van; Cannet, Claire ; Fang, Fang ; Humpfer, Eberhard ; Schäfer, Hartmut ; Spraul, Manfred ; Engelsen, Søren B. ; Smilde, Age K. - \ 2017
Analytical Chemistry 89 (2017)15. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 8004 - 8012.
Lipoprotein profiling of human blood by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a rapid and promising approach to monitor health and disease states in medicine and nutrition. However, lack of standardization of measurement protocols has prevented the use of NMR-based lipoprotein profiling in metastudies. In this study, a standardized NMR measurement protocol was applied in a ring test performed across three different laboratories in Europe on plasma and serum samples from 28 individuals. Data was evaluated in terms of (i) spectral differences, (ii) differences in LPD predictions obtained using an existing prediction model, and (iii) agreement of predictions with cholesterol concentrations in high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) particles measured by standardized clinical assays. ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) of the ring test spectral ensemble that contains methylene and methyl peaks (1.4-0.6 ppm) showed that 97.99% of the variance in the data is related to subject, 1.62% to sample type (serum or plasma), and 0.39% to laboratory. This interlaboratory variation is in fact smaller than the maximum acceptable intralaboratory variation on quality control samples. It is also shown that the reproducibility between laboratories is good enough for the LPD predictions to be exchangeable when the standardized NMR measurement protocol is followed. With the successful implementation of this protocol, which results in reproducible prediction of lipoprotein distributions across laboratories, a step is taken toward bringing NMR more into scope of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers, reducing the need for less efficient methods such as ultracentrifugation or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
System Analysis in AIS: Potentials and Pitfalls
Schut, M. ; Roo, N. de; Salomons, M. ; Beshah, T. ; Hawkins, R. - \ 2017
KIT Publishers
Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin
Santangelo, C. ; Filesi, C. ; Varì, R. ; Scazzocchio, B. ; Filardi, T. ; Fogliano, V. ; D’Archivio, M. ; Giovannini, C. ; Lenzi, A. ; Morano, S. ; Masella, R. - \ 2016
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 39 (2016)11. - ISSN 0391-4097 - p. 1295 - 1301.
Cytokines - HbA1c - Olive oil - Polyphenols - Type 2 diabetes mellitus - Visfatin

Aim: Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Methods: Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. Results: HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Conclusions: Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

Promoting Sustainable Seed Sector Development
Roo, N. de; Gildemacher, Peter - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 84 p.
Promouvoir le développement durable du secteur des semences
Roo, N. de; Gildemacher, Peter - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 92 p.
Food and Nutrition Security Training 17 -21 April 2016 : ICF Conference Hall, Bangladesh Agriculture University Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Bosch, D.R.B. ; Roo, N. de - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 48 p.
Gender Analysis in CASCAPE Interventions : Gender-based roles and constraints in agricultural production
Roo, N. de; Assefa, B. ; Ahmed, A. ; Boka, B. ; Tadesse, M. ; Tariku, J. ; Tekie, H. ; Zelleke, B. ; Spanjer, M. - \ 2016
Centre for Development Innovation - 60 p.
Evolutionary Governance Theory and the Adaptive Capacity of the Dutch Planning System
Beunen, R. ; Duineveld, M. ; Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2016
In: Spatial planning in a complex unpredictable world of change / Boelens, Luuk, de Roo, Gert, Groningen : InPlanning - ISBN 9789491937279 - p. 98 - 116.
Penghijauan Kota Tua (Jakarta, Indonesia) dengan Pendeakatan Konsep Kota Hijau
Reuler, H. van; Roo, Michelle de - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 12 p.
Greening Kota Tua (Jakarta, Indonesia) : A green city approach
Reuler, H. van; Roo, Michelle de - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 12 p.
Corrigendum to "Strategy to identify and quantify polysaccharide gums in gelled food concentrates" (Food Chemistry (2015) 166, (42-49)
Grün, Christian H. ; Sanders, Peter ; Burg, Monique Van Der; Schuurbiers, Eric ; Adrichem, Linda Van; Velzen, Ewoud J.J. Van; Roo, Niels De; Brunt, Kommer ; Westphal, Yvonne ; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 172 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 929 - 929.
An overview of informal seed systems with references to Ethiopia and Ghana
Moraes Sarmento, Ariana Sousa de; Subedi, A. ; Roo, N. de; Kraaijvanger, Richard - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 60 p.
Exploring the potential for an Integrated Seed Sector Ghana program : Program Design - Final Report, January 16, 2015 Commissioned by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Roo, N. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-15-017 )
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