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Brucella pinnipedialis in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands
Kroese, Michiel V. ; Beckers, Lisa ; Bisselink, Yvette J.W.M. ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Tulden, Peter W. van; Koene, Miriam G.J. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Ruuls, Robin C. ; Backer, Jantien A. ; Ijzer, Jooske ; Giessen, Joke W.B. van der; Willemsen, Peter T.J. - \ 2018
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54 (2018)3. - ISSN 0090-3558 - p. 439 - 449.
Brucella pinnipedialis - Halichoerus grypus - MALDI-TOF MS - Marine mammals - MLST - MLVA-16 - Phoca vitulina - The Netherlands
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with terrestrial or marine wildlife animals as potential reservoirs for the disease in livestock and human populations. The primary aim of this study was to assess the presence of Brucella pinnipedialis in marine mammals living along the Dutch coast and to observe a possible correlation between the presence of B. pinnipedialis and accompanying pathology found in infected animals. The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. antibodies in sera from healthy wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus; n=11) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina; n=40), collected between 2007 and 2013 ranged from 25% to 43%. Additionally, tissue samples of harbor seals collected along the Dutch shores between 2009 and 2012, were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. In total, 77% (30/ 39) seals were found to be positive for Brucella by IS711 real-time PCR in one or more tissue samples, including pulmonary nematodes. Viable Brucella was cultured from 40% (12/30) real-time PCR-positive seals, and was isolated from liver, lung, pulmonary lymph node, pulmonary nematode, or spleen, but not from any PCR-negative seals. Tissue samples from lung and pulmonary lymph nodes were the main source of viable Brucella bacteria. All isolates were typed as B. pinnipedialis by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis-16 clustering and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and of sequence type ST25 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. No correlation was observed between Brucella infection and pathology. This report displays the isolation and identification of B. pinnipedialis in marine mammals in the Dutch part of the Atlantic Ocean.
LPS challenge in jonge biggen : VDI-12: effect voerinterventie op biggen
Greeff, Astrid de; Allaart, Janneke ; Bruijn, Carlijn de; Schokker, Dirkjan ; Roubos, Petra ; Winkelman-Goedhart, Hélène ; Vastenhouw, Stéphanie ; Ruuls, Lisette ; Rebel, Johanna ; Smits, Mari - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1009) - 21
biggen - maatregel op voedingsgebied - adequate immuniteit - diergezondheid - lipopolysacchariden - varkenshouderij - dierhouderij - immunologie - piglets - nutritional intervention - immune competence - animal health - lipopolysaccharides - pig farming - animal husbandry - immunology
Supplementation of piglets with nutrient-dense complex milk replacer improves intestinal development and microbial fermentation
Greeff, A. de; Resink, J.W. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Ruuls, L. ; Klaassen, G.J. ; Rouwers, S.M.G. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1012 - 1019.
Circular intestinal growth - Gene expression - Gut health - Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer - Pig
Weaning of piglets causes stress due to environmental, behavioral, and nutritional stressors and can lead to postweaning diarrhea and impaired gut development. The diet changes experienced during weaning require extensive adaptation of the digestive system. A well-developed piglet that had creep-feed experience before weaning performs better after weaning. In the current study, the effect of providing sow-fed piglets with a supplemental nutrient-dense complex milk replacer (NDM) on gut development and growth performance was studied. Litters of sows with similar parities (3.6 ± 0.8) and similar numbers of live born piglets (13.5 ± 0.3) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 1 group of piglets had ad libitum access to NDM from Day 2 through 21 after birth, whereas the other group was used as controls. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer–fed piglets were shown to be significantly heavier after 21 d of supplementation compared with the control piglets. At Day 21, 3 piglets from each litter were euthanized for morphological and functional analyses of the intestinal tract. The small intestines of NDM-fed piglets had significantly higher weights (g) as well as significantly higher relative weight:length ratios (g//cm) compared with the small intestines of control piglets (P <0.05). Morphometric analysis demonstrated that villi length and numbers of goblet cells did not differ between groups. However, NDM-fed piglets had deeper crypts (P <0.001) and an increased expression of the cell-proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen in crypts (P <0.05), suggesting higher cell-proliferation rates. The gene encoding IGF- 1 showed a tendency to higher gene expression in the jejunum from NDM-fed piglets (P = 0.07) compared with the jejunum from control piglets, suggesting that IGF-1 might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and intestinal growth. Finally, as a result of dietary fiber in NDM, piglets showed significantly increased concentrations of metabolic fermentation products. This suggests differences in metabolic activity in the colon between treatment groups. In conclusion, providing sow-fed piglets with NDM before weaning stimulates intestinal proliferation, leading to increased circular growth. Nutrient-dense complex milk replacer supplementation might, therefore, help piglets through the transition period at weaning by increased BW and increased capacity for uptake of nutrients.
Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.
Maio, E. ; Begeman, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Hiemstra, S. ; Ruuls, R. ; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Microbiology 173 (2014)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 118 - 124.
marine mammal brucella - north-sea - adjacent waters - infection - pinnipedialis - ceti - cetaceans - lungworms - emphasis - exposure
The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.
A multiplex bead-based suspension array assay for interrogation of phylogenetically informative single nucleotide polymorphisms for Bacillus anthracis
Thierry, S. ; Hamidjaja, R.A. ; Girault, G. ; Lofstrom, C. ; Ruuls-van Stalle, E.M.F. ; Sylviane, D. - \ 2013
Journal of Microbiological Methods 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 357 - 365.
tandem-repeat analysis - large-scale - listeria-monocytogenes - pathogen detection - genotyping assays - dna - probes - discrimination - amplification - pcr
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are abundant in genomes of all species and represent informative DNA markers extensively used to analyze phylogenetic relationships between strains. Medium to high throughput, open methodologies able to test many SNPs in a minimum time are therefore in great need. By using the versatile Luminex (R) xTAG technology, we developed an efficient multiplexed SNP genotyping assay to score 13 phylogenetically informative SNPs within the genome of Bacillus anthracis. The Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation-PCR procedure (MOL-PCR) described by Deshpande et al., 2010 has been modified and adapted for simultaneous interrogation of 13 biallelic canonical SNPs in a 13-plex assay. Changes made to the originally published method include the design of allele-specific dual-priming-oligonucleotides (DPOs) as competing detection probes (MOLigo probes) and use of asymmetric PCR reaction for signal amplification and labeling of ligation products carrying SNP targets. These innovations significantly reduce cross-reactivity observed when initial MOLigo probes were used and enhance hybridization efficiency onto the microsphere array, respectively. When evaluated on 73 representative samples, the 13-plex assay yielded unambiguous SNP calls and lineage affiliation. Assay limit of detection was determined to be 2 ng of genomic DNA. The reproducibility, robustness and easy-of-use of the present method were validated by a small-scale proficiency testing performed between four European laboratories. While cost-effective compared to other singleplex methods, the present MOL-PCR method offers a high degree of flexibility and scalability. It can easily accommodate newly identified SNPs to increase resolving power to the canSNP typing of B. anthracis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Brucella ceti in Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Netherlands
Begeman, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Maio, E. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Gröne, A. - \ 2013
In silico and in vitro evaluation of PCR-based assays for the detection of Bacillus anthracis chromosomal signature sequences
Agren, J. ; Hamidjaja, R.A. ; Hansen, T. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Thierry, S. ; Vigre, H. ; Janse, I. ; Sundström, A. ; Segerman, B. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Löfström, Ch. ; Rotterdam, B. van; Derzelle, S. - \ 2013
Virulence 4 (2013)8. - ISSN 2150-5594 - p. 671 - 685.
real-time pcr - single-nucleotide polymorphisms - closely-related bacteria - rapid-detection methods - cereus group - environmental-samples - multiplex pcr - toxin genes - nasal swabs - identification
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a zoonotic pathogen that is relatively common throughout the world and may cause life threatening diseases in animals and humans. There are many PCR-based assays in use for the detection of B. anthracis. While most of the developed assays rely on unique markers present on virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, relatively few assays incorporate chromosomal DNA markers due to the close relatedness of B. anthracis to the B. cereus group strains. For the detection of chromosomal DNA, different genes have been used, such as BA813, rpoB, gyrA, plcR, S-layer, and prophage-lambda. Following a review of the literature, an in silico analysis of all signature sequences reported for identification of B. anthracis was conducted. Published primer and probe sequences were compared for specificity against 134 available Bacillus spp. genomes. Although many of the chromosomal targets evaluated are claimed to be specific to B. anthracis, cross-reactions with closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were often observed. Of the 35 investigated PCR assays, only 4 were 100% specific for the B. anthracis chromosome. An interlaboratory ring trial among five European laboratories was then performed to evaluate six assays, including the WHO recommended procedures, using a collection of 90 Bacillus strains. Three assays performed adequately, yielding no false positive or negative results. All three assays target chromosomal markers located within the lambdaBa03 prophage region (PL3, BA5345, and BA5357). Detection limit was further assessed for one of these highly specific assays.
Early host response in the mammary gland after experimental Streptococcus uberis challenge in heifers
Greeff, A. de; Zadoks, R.N. ; Ruuls, L. ; Toussaint, M. ; Nguyen, T.K. ; Downing, A. ; Rebel, J.M.J. ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. ; Smith, H.E. - \ 2013
Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3723 - 3736.
innate immune-response - lipopolysaccharide-binding protein - clinical mastitis - intramammary infections - staphylococcus-aureus - lipoteichoic acid - bovine mastitis - dairy-cattle - 2 strains - epidemiology
Streptococcus uberis is a highly prevalent causative agent of bovine mastitis, which leads to large economic losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the host response during acute inflammation after experimental challenge with capsulated Strep. uberis. Gene expression in response to Strep. uberis was compared between infected and control quarters in 3 animals. All quarters (n=16) were sampled at 16 different locations. Microarray data showed that 239 genes were differentially expressed between infected and control quarters. No differences in gene expression were observed between the different locations. Microarray data were confirmed for several genes using quantitative PCR analysis. Genes differentially expressed due to early Strep. uberis mastitis represented several stages of the process of infection: (1) pathogen recognition; (2) chemoattraction of neutrophils; (3) tissue repair mechanisms; and (4) bactericidal activity. Three different pathogen recognition genes were induced: ficolins, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and toll-like receptor 2. Calgranulins were found to be the most strongly upregulated genes during early inflammation. By histology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that changes in gene expression in response to Strep. uberis were induced both in infiltrating somatic milk cells and in mammary epithelial cells, demonstrating that the latter cell type plays a role in milk production as well as immune responsiveness. Given the rapid development of inflammation or mastitis after infection, early diagnosis of (Strep. uberis) mastitis is required for prevention of disease and spread of the pathogen. Insight into host responses could help to design immunomodulatory therapies to dampen inflammation after (early) diagnosis of Strep. uberis mastitis. Future research should focus on development of these early diagnostics and immunomodulatory components for mastitis treatment.
|In-silico and in-vitro evaluation of published PCRs for anthrax to assess their specificity
Agren, J. ; Derzelle, S. ; Hamidjaja, R. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Löfström, Ch. ; Janse, I. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Knutsson, R. ; Thierry, J.C. ; Hansen, T. ; Rotterdam, B. van - \ 2012
|2011 The screening of Brucella ceti in Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on the dutch coast
Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2012
|2011 The screening of Brucella ceti in Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on the dutch coast
Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2012
Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tilburg, J.H.H.C. ; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H. ; Klaassen, C.H.W. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. Van den; Dercksen, D. ; Wouda, W. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Spek, A.N. Van der; Buijs, R. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011)4. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 668 - 675.
goats - history
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands
Inter-laboratory comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction methods to detect Coxiella burnettii, the causative agent of Q fever
Jones, R.M. ; Hertwig, S. ; Pitman, J. ; Vipond, R. ; Aspán, A. ; Bölske, G. ; McCaughey, C. ; McKenna, J.P. ; Rotterdam, B.J. Van; Bruin, A. De; Ruuls, R. ; Buijs, R. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2011
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 23 (2011). - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 108 - 111.
long-term persistence - dairy-cows - transmission - netherlands - diagnosis - abortion - sheep - pcr
The bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which has a wide host range, causes Q fever. Infection with C. burnetii can cause abortions, stillbirth, and the delivery of weak offspring in ruminants. Coxiella burnetii infection is zoonotic, and in human beings it can cause chronic, potentially fatal disease. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is increasingly being used to detect the organism and to aid in diagnosis both in human and animal cases. Many different real-time PCR methods, which target different genes, have been described. To assess the comparability of the C. burnetii real-time PCR assays in use in different European laboratories, a panel of nucleic acid extracts was dispatched to 7 separate testing centers. The testing centers included laboratories from both human and animal health agencies. Each laboratory tested the samples using their in-house real-time PCR methods. The results of this comparison show that the most common target gene for real-time PCR assays is the IS1111 repeat element that is present in multiple copies in the C. burnetii genome. Many laboratories also use additional real-time PCR tests that target single-copy genes. The results of the current study demonstrate that the assays in use in the different laboratories are comparable, with general agreement of results for the panel of samples.
Large scale detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (M. ptb in faecal samples using immunomagnetic capture and TaqMan PCR
Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Damman, M. ; Bakker, D. - \ 2008
Avian influenza (H5N1) susceptibility and receptors in dogs
Maas, R. van der; Tacken, M.G.J. ; Ruuls-van Stalle, E.M.F. ; Koch, G. ; Rooij, E.M.A. van; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N. - \ 2007
Emerging Infectious Diseases 13 (2007)8. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1219 - 1221.
Inoculation of influenza (H5N1) into beagles resulted in virus excretion and rapid seroconversion with no disease. Binding studies that used labeled influenza (H5N1) showed virus attachment to higher and lower respiratory tract tissues. Thus, dogs that are subclinically infected with influenza (H5N1) may contribute to virus spread.
Llama heavy-chain V regions consist of at least four distinct subfamilies revealing novel sequence features
Ruuls, R.C. ; Nijman, I.J. ; Niewold, T.A. ; Frenken, L.G.J. ; Geus, B. de - \ 2000
Molecular Immunology 37 (2000)10. - ISSN 0161-5890 - p. 579 - 590.
In addition to conventional antibodies (Abs), camelids possess Abs consisting of only heavy chains. The variable domain of such a heavy-chain Ab (VHH) is fully capable of antigen (Ag) binding. Earlier analysis of 47 VHHs showed sequence features unique to VHH domains. These include the presence of characteristic amino acid substitutions in positions which, in conventional VH domains are involved in interdomain interactions, and the presence of a long third complementarity-determining region (CDR3) which is frequently constrained by an interloop disulphide bond. Here, we describe a large (152) set of Lama glama VHH cDNAs. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, these and other published camelid VHHs were classified into four subfamilies. Three subfamilies are absent in dromedaries, which have been the primary source of VHHs thus far. Comparison of these subfamilies to conventional VH regions reveals new features characteristic of VHHs and shows that many features earlier regarded as characteristic of VHHs in general are actually subfamily specific. A long CDR3 with a concomitant putative additional disulphide bond is only observed in two VHH subfamilies. Furthermore, we identified new VHH-characteristic residues at positions forming interdomain sites in conventional VH domains. The VHH subfamilies also differ from each other and conventional VH domains in the canonical structure of CDR1 and CDR2, mean CDR3 length, and amino acid residue variability. Since different VHH-characteristic residues are observed in all four subfamilies, these subfamilies must have evolved independently from classical VH domains.
|Comparison of physical chemical properties of Ilama Vhh antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies
Linden, R.H.J. van der; Frenken, L.G.J. ; Geus, B. de; Harmsen, M.M. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Stok, W. ; Ron, L. de; Wilson, S. ; Davis, P. ; Verrips, C.T. - \ 1999
Biochimica et biophysica acta-protein structure and molecular enzymology 1431 (1999). - ISSN 0167-4838 - p. 37 - 46.
Spontaneous BHV1 recombinants in which the gI/gE/US9 region is replaced by a duplication/inversion of the US1.5/US2 region
Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Verschuren, S.B.E. ; Madic, J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Renaud, P. ; Oirschot, J.T. van - \ 1999
Archives of Virology 144 (1999). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 1 - 11.
Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull
Oirschot, J.T. van; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Straver, P.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Quak, J. ; Davidse, A. ; Westenbrink, E. ; Gielkens, A.L.J. ; Dijk, J.E. van; Moerman, A. - \ 1995
Veterinary Record 137 (1995)10. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 235 - 239.
A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact cattle. However, the isolate induced severe signs of rhinotracheitis and vulvovaginitis in cattle that were inoculated by the intravaginal, intranasal or intravenous routes, but did not infect the fetus. The isolate was therefore not of low virulence. Analysis with DNA restriction enzymes could not assign the isolate to either the BHV-1.1 or BHV-1.2 genotype.