Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Welkom: PlantgezondheidEvent, 8 maart 2018
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2018
Green challenges: improving resilience of horticultural systems using concepts from soil microbial ecology
Wal, A. van der; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Salm, C. van der; Hofland-Zijlstra, J. - \ 2018
Green Challenges: Waar blijft de trips?
Bloemhard, C.M.J. ; Catala Senent, Laura ; Gerards, Bob ; Shinde, Anup ; Messelink, G.J. ; Salm, C. van der; Kruidhof, H.M. - \ 2018
Changes in soil phosphorus pools of grasslands following 17 yrs of balanced application of manure and fertilizer
Salm, C. van der; Middelkoop, J.C. van; Ehlert, P.A.I. - \ 2017
Soil Use and Management 33 (2017)1. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 2 - 12.
balanced fertilizer application - grassland - long-term experiments - soil P balance - Soil test P

Limiting the use of phosphorous (P) in intensive agriculture is necessary to decrease losses to surface waters. Balanced fertilizer application (P supply equals P offtake by the crop) is a first step to limit the use of P. However, it is questioned whether this balance approach is sufficient to maintain soil fertility. A long-term field experiment (17 yr), on grazed grassland, has been conducted on sandy soil, marine clay soil and peat soil to obtain insight into the effects of balanced P fertilizer application on soil test P values and to explain the results by changes in P pools in the soil. The balance approach led to a gradual decline in plant available P, measured as P-AL, in the topsoil (<0.10 m deep). This decline was accompanied by a decline in oxalate extractable P, dithionite extractable P and inorganic P (0.5 m H2SO4). The decline in these mineral P pools in the topsoil was (partly) compensated by an increase in the amount of organic P. There was evidence for the accumulation of P in an occluded form, especially at one of sites which received P as Gafsa rock phosphate [Ca3(PO4)2].

Toetsen systeemsprongen gewasgezondheid start binnenkort
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2017
Biochar for horticultural rooting media improvement : Evaluation of Biochar from gasification and slow pyrolysis
Blok, Chris ; Salm, Caroline van der; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke ; Streminska, Marta ; Eveleens-Clark, Barbara ; Regelink, Inge ; Fryda, Lydia ; Visser, Rianne - \ 2017
Agronomy 7 (2017)1. - ISSN 2073-4395
Alkalinity - Biochar - Degradability - Gasification - pH - Phytotoxicity - Pyrolysis - Salinity - Stability

Peat is used as rooting medium in greenhouse horticulture. Biochar is a sustainable alternative for the use of peat, which will reduce peat derived carbon dioxide emissions. Biochar in potting soil mixtures allegedly increases water storage, nutrient supply, microbial life and disease suppression but this depends on feedstock and the production process. The aim of this paper is to find combinations of feedstock and production circumstances which will deliver biochars with value for the horticultural end user. Low-temperature (600 °C-750 °C) gasification was used for combined energy and biochar generation. Biochars produced were screened in laboratory tests and selected biochars were used in plant experiments. Tests included dry bulk density, total pore space, specific surface area, phytotoxicity, pH, EC, moisture characteristics and microbial stability. We conclude that biochars from nutrient-rich feedstocks are too saline and too alkaline to be applied in horticultural rooting media. Biochars from less nutrient-rich feedstocks can be conveniently neutralized by mixing with acid peat. The influence of production parameters on specific surface area, pH, total pore space and toxicity is discussed. Biochar mildly improved the survival of beneficial micro-organisms in a mix with peat. Overall, wood biochar can replace at least 20% v/v of peat in potting soils without affecting plant growth.

Expert Meeting Green Challenge Plantweerbaarheid en Sensoren
Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2016
mmv Caroline van der Salm, Marjolein Kruidhof, Ellen Beerling, Tycho Vermeulen, Jochen Hemming, Carolien Zijlstra, Luc Stevens, Ric de Vos
Grond voor de toekomst : is er toekomst voor de grond?
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2016
Green Challenges, sprong naar duurzame glastuinbouw
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2016


Does balanced phosphorus fertilisation sustain high herbage yields and phosphorus contents in alternately grazed and mown pastures?
Middelkoop, Jantine van; Salm, C. van der; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Oenema, O. - \ 2016
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 106 (2016)1. - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 93 - 111.
Dry matter yield - Grazed grassland - P-AL-value - Phosphorus content - Phosphorus surplus - Phosphorus yield - Soil P status

Many soils of agricultural land in affluent countries have been enriched with phosphorus (P), because P application via fertilisers and manures was larger than P withdrawal via harvested biomass. This practice threatens the long-term availability of P fertilisers derived from finite rock phosphates, as well as surface water quality because of P leaching and run-off losses. In response, restrictions on P fertilisation have been implemented in some countries. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of balanced P fertilisation in comparison to a surplus P fertilisation on dry matter (DM) grass yield, grass quality, and soil P status. A 15 years’ lasting field experiment was conducted on four permanent grassland sites, on sand (two sites), peat and young marine clay in the Netherlands. Fertilisation levels, including cattle slurry, were aimed to implement P surpluses of 0, 9, and 18 kg P ha−1 year−1, and N surpluses of 180 and 300 kg ha−1 year−1. Grasslands were alternately grazed and mown, and grass yields and soil P levels were measured. Annual DM yield, P content, and P yield of grazed grassland were lower at balanced P fertilisation than at a surplus of 9 or 18 kg P ha−1 year−1 on sand and peat. Differences between P treatments remained constant over time. On the recently reclaimed marine clay, DM yield did not differ between P treatments, but P content and P yield did respond to different P surpluses. Differences between sites in the response to P surpluses were related to differences in soil P status, according to P-AL (capacity indicator) and P-CaCl2 (intensity indicator). At balanced P fertilisation, P-AL tended to decrease, while P-CaCl2 tended to remain constant. At surplus P, P-AL tended to increase and P-CaCl2 tended to remain constant. Herbage yield and P uptake also strongly responded to N treatments. In conclusion, there is a risk that balanced P fertilisation reduces herbage yield and P content relative to surplus P fertilisation, even at relatively high soil P status. The risk of yield reduction seems to be related to the ratio between the P intensity indicator and P capacity indicator.

Evaluation of different approaches to describe the sorption and desorption of phosphorus in soils on experimental data
Salm, Caroline van der; Kros, Hans ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 571 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 292 - 306.
(De)sorption - Field experiments - Model performance - Phosphate - Pot experiments - Simulation model

Phosphorus is an essential element to enhance the needed increase in crop production in the forthcoming century. On the other hand environmental losses of phosphorus cause eutrophication of surface waters. Both problems call for reliable models to predict the behaviour of phosphorus in agricultural soils. In this study the performances of five different sorption approaches were evaluated. The ultimate aim was to identify the most suitable concept for large scale predictions of P dynamics in soils, in terms of a high comparability between observations and predictions with a minimum amount of input data. The model results were compared with unique data from long term (10–15 years) experimental field studies of grassland including situations with P mining, equilibrium P fertilization and P surpluses and a pot experiment with P mining. The model performance was evaluated while using site specific constants and generic constants for adsorption and desorption. Three rate limited models (DPPS, INITIATOR and ANIMO) showed good performance when site specific constants were used but the performance of the equilibrium model (NEWS-Dynamic) was reasonably comparable. Model performance was better for experiments with a P surplus than for P mining and was also better for sandy soils as compared to clay and peat soils. However, long term desorption rates had to be calibrated for each application rate. The performance of all models declined when generic data were used. We conclude that none of the included models properly describe what happens when the soil changes its P status, considering that parameterization needs to be treatment-specific to obtain reliable predictions. Considering this flaw, models of intermediate complexity, including both equilibrium and rate limited sorption, and a limited data demand, like DPPS and INITIATOR, seem most suited for regional model application.

Geïntegreerde beheersing ziekten en plagen in robuuste teeltsystemen : 'Systeemsprongen' geven richting aan onderzoeksagenda
Salm, Caroline van der - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - agricultural research - integrated control - plant protection - cropping systems - plant breeding - crop monitoring - marketing - workshops (programs)

De glastuinbouw wil nagenoeg emissie- en residuvrij produceren en minder afhankelijk worden van chemische gewasbescherming. Caroline van de Salm van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw is projectleider van deze PPS.

Waterkwaliteit nu en in de toekomst : Eindrapport ex ante evaluatie van de Nederlandse plannen voor de Kaderrichtlijn Water : beleidsstudie
Gaalen, F. van; Tiktak, A. ; Franken, Ron ; Boekel, E.M.P.M. van; Puijenbroek, P. ; Muilwijk, Hanneke ; Grinsven, H. van; Rougoor, C. ; Salm, C. van der; Groenendijk, P. ; Cleij, P. ; Roovaart, Joost van den - \ 2016
Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie / Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving 1727) - 54 p.
waterkwaliteit - kaderrichtlijn water - oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - pesticiden - stroomgebieden - water quality - water framework directive - surface water - surface water quality - water management - pesticides - watersheds
De Nederlandse stroomgebiedbeheerplannen voor de periode 2016-2021 zijn in december 2015 vastgesteld. Het PBL heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) op basis van metingen en modelberekeningen geëvalueerd of de voorgestelde maatregelen in de plannen en het vijfde nitraatactieprogramma afdoende zijn om de gestelde doelen voor 2027 te halen. Het voorliggende rapport is een vervolg op de in mei 2015 door het PBL gepubliceerde tussentijdse rapportage (PBL 2015). Nieuw in dit eindrapport zijn onder andere de onderdelen verontreinigende stoffen en rijkswateren, waarvoor destijds nog geen gegevens beschikbaar waren. Ook nieuw zijn de resultaten van een analyse waarin op basis van meetgegevens de toestand en trend in het verleden zijn bepaald.
Investeringsvolgorde.De ervaringen van Kenya, Egypte en Jordanie
Blok, Chris - \ 2015
Met van Os, E. en van der Salm, C. 8 persons; TKI consortium on its way.
A quick scan to reduce P emissions from agricultural soils to surface water
Schipper, P.N.M. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Salm, C. van der - \ 2015
Leaching of phosphorus (P) from agricultural soils is an important factor determining the surface water quality in the Netherlands. The ongoing reduction in P application rates will prevent a further enrichment of the soil with P and improve surface water quality in the forthcoming decade. However, these measures are not sufficient to reach surface water quality standards of the European WFD in 2015 in all sensitive areas. Geographically differentiated information on the effect of different mitigation options on the P emission is essential for a cost effective implementation of the water framework directive. A quick scan of the effect of five promising mitigation measures in 2027 (manure policy, controlled drainage, mining, improvement of the soil structure, converting agriculture to nature) has been carried out for the Netherlands. Basis of this quick scan is a detailed map of the present P emissions to surface waters, based on the observed P contents in the soil and the simple emission model PLEASE (van der Salm et al., 2014). PLEASE is a static model which as such cannot be used as a tool to predict future P emissions. To predict reductions in P emissions this model has been combined with simple rules based on more detailed models (national emissions model STONE) or expert knowledge. Strong differences were found in the effect of a selected measure. The median reduction of the five measures is close to zero, whereas the 95 percentile ranges from 0.2 kg/ha for the present manure policy to more than 4 kg/ha for mining. Selecting the right measure at the right place is thus of utmost importance to decrease the emissions in a efficient way. The effects of the measures show distinct regional differences. Improving the drainage system, by converting conventional drainage to controlled drainage, is the most promising measure in the western and northern part of the Netherlands. In the sandy parts of the country, mining (no P- application) and the transformation of agriculture to nature have the largest impact on P losses. The effects of the current manure policy are minimal. The average reduction in P emission in the Netherlands in 2027, as a response to the most efficient measure, is 25%. Phosphate losses to surface waters mainly occur in a narrow zone across watercourses. In large parts of the Netherlands this zone is less than 5 m. wide. Measures might thus be partly restricted to these zones.
Nitraat en N- en P-uitspoeling bij de gebruiksnormen van het 5de NAP : modelberekeningen met MAMBO en STONE
Groenendijk, P. ; Renaud, L.V. ; Salm, C. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Blokland, P.W. ; Koeijer, T.J. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2647) - 54
waterkwaliteit - nitraten - fosfaten - bodemtypen - fosfaatuitspoeling - nitraatuitspoeling - berekening - modellen - milieubeleid - water quality - nitrates - phosphates - soil types - phosphate leaching - nitrate leaching - calculation - models - environmental policy
De aanscherping van de mestnormen leidt tot een geringe verandering van het gebruik van dierlijke mest en kunstmest in de Nederlandse landbouw. De grootste verandering wordt berekend voor landbouw op zand- en lössgronden in de zuidelijke provincies, waar het gebruik van stikstof met dierlijke mestgiften gemiddeld 12 kg stikstof ha-1 jr-1 afneemt. In de komende 15 jaar zullen de nitraatconcentraties in geringe mate dalen, gedeeltelijk veroorzaakt door de aanscherping van de mestnormen in het 5de Actieprogramma. Op termijn wordt op de zanden lössgronden gemiddeld aan de nitraatnorm van 50 mg L-1 voldaan, maar in de zuidelijke provincies zal de nitraatnorm nog ruim worden overschreden. Het effect op de stikstofvracht naar het oppervlaktewater is beperkt. De grootste effecten treden op in de zuidelijke provincies. Voor de fosfaatvracht naar het oppervlaktewater worden geen of slechts geringe effecten berekend.
Opties voor benutten van de bodem voor schoon oppervlaktewater
Salm, C. van der; Groenendijk, P. ; Hendriks, R.F.A. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Renaud, L.V. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2588) - 111
bodemchemie - fosfaatuitspoeling - emissiereductie - waterverontreiniging - fosfor - maatregelen - drainage - milieueffect - mestbeleid - monitoring - voorspellingen - kaderrichtlijn water - modellen - soil chemistry - phosphate leaching - emission reduction - water pollution - phosphorus - measures - environmental impact - manure policy - forecasts - water framework directive - models
In deze studie is een quickscan uitgevoerd naar het effect van een zestal maatregelen op de uitspoeling van fosfaat naar het oppervlaktewater in 2027. De vergeleken maatregelen zijn: huidige mestbeleid, fosfaattoestand ‘voldoende’, drainage, uitmijnen, omzetten landbouw in natuur en structuurverbetering. De effecten van de maatregelen verschillen in omvang en vertonen grote regionale verschillen. Belasting van het oppervlaktewater vindt vooral plaats vanuit een smalle zone langs waterlopen. In een groot deel van Nederland is deze zone smaller dan 5 meter. Maatregelen zouden dus deels tot deze zones beperkt kunnen worden.
35 years of DEB research
Meer, J. van der; Klok, T.C. ; Kearney, M.R. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Kooijman, S.A.L.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Sea Research 94 (2014). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 1 - 4.
energy budget model - covariation method - parameters
Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.
Landelijk beeld van fosfaatverliezen naar het oppervlaktewater : een analyse met het model PLEASE
Salm, C. van der; Walvoort, D.J.J. ; Massop, H.T.L. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2565) - 39
bodemchemie - fosfaatuitspoeling - bodemgeschiktheid - fosfor - waterkwaliteit - kaderrichtlijn water - inventarisaties - modellen - nederland - soil chemistry - phosphate leaching - soil suitability - phosphorus - water quality - water framework directive - inventories - models - netherlands
Landsdekkende kaarten zijn gemaakt voor zowel fosfaattoestand als het fosfaatbindend vermogen door relaties af te leiden tussen uitspoelings parameters (vanuit model PLEASE) en vlakdekkende informatie (bodemtype, Gt en landgebruik). Gemiddeld voor heel Nederland (inclusief natuur) bedraagt de langjarige gemiddelde fosforuitspoeling 0,75 kg/ha/jr.
The need for institutional change in capacity development of tertiary agricultural education : Report from CDI-ICRA-KIT writeshop, October 2013
Salm, A.N. ; Baltissen, G. ; Hawkins, R. ; Sol, A.J. ; Ludemann, R.J. ; Eerdewijk, A. van; Wongtschowski, M. ; Enserink, D. ; Roefs, M.M.I. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI report CDI-14-012)
This paper argues that Dutch-funded capacity development projects in developing countries for tertiary agricultural education organisations as they are currently carried out are not able to successfully achieve the sustained changes required. That is, changes in how an organisation functions, its cultural norms and rules, and also in how it interacts within wider networks. Rather, long-term institutional change is needed. The reasons behind this conclusion, and how the project development process can be strengthened are discussed by the authors of this paper, coming from ICRA (International Centre for Development-oriented Research in Agriculture), KIT (Royal Tropical Institute), and CDI (Centre for Development Innovation - part of Wageningen University & Research centre). Report number CDI-14-012
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