Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Atmospheric deposition, CO2, and change in the land carbon sink
Fernández-Martínez, M. ; Vicca, S. ; Janssens, I.A. ; Ciais, P. ; Obersteiner, M. ; Bartrons, M. ; Sardans, Jordi ; Verger, Aleixandre ; Canadell, J.G. ; Chevallier, F. ; Wang, X. ; Bernhofer, C. ; Curtis, P.S. ; Gianelle, D. ; Grünwald, T. ; Heinesch, B. ; Ibrom, A. ; Knohl, A. ; Laurila, T. ; Law, Beverly E. ; Limousin, J.M. ; Longdoz, B. ; Loustau, D. ; Mammarella, I. ; Matteucci, G. ; Monson, R.K. ; Montagnani, L. ; Moors, E.J. ; Munger, J.W. ; Papale, D. ; Piao, S.L. ; Peñuelas, J. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 13 p.

Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling.

Trends in soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations across European forests
Camino-Serrano, Marta ; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth ; Vicca, Sara ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Jonard, Mathieu ; Ciais, Philippe ; Guenet, Bertrand ; Gielen, Bert ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Sardans, Jordi ; Waldner, Peter ; Sawicka, Kasia - \ 2016
Biogeosciences 13 (2016)19. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 5567 - 5585.

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is connected to DOC in soil solution through hydrological pathways. Therefore, it is expected that long-term dynamics of DOC in surface waters reflect DOC trends in soil solution. However, a multitude of site studies have failed so far to establish consistent trends in soil solution DOC, whereas increasing concentrations in European surface waters over the past decades appear to be the norm, possibly as a result of recovery from acidification. The objectives of this study were therefore to understand the long-term trends of soil solution DOC from a large number of European forests (ICP Forests Level II plots) and determine their main physicochemical and biological controls. We applied trend analysis at two levels: (1) to the entire European dataset and (2) to the individual time series and related trends with plot characteristics, i.e., soil and vegetation properties, soil solution chemistry and atmospheric deposition loads. Analyses of the entire dataset showed an overall increasing trend in DOC concentrations in the organic layers, but, at individual plots and depths, there was no clear overall trend in soil solution DOC. The rate change in soil solution DOC ranged between-16.8 and +23%yr-1 (median=+0.4%yr-1 across Europe. The non-significant trends (40 %) outnumbered the increasing (35 %) and decreasing trends (25 %) across the 97 ICP Forests Level II sites. By means of multivariate statistics, we found increasing trends in DOC concentrations with increasing mean nitrate (NO3 -) deposition and increasing trends in DOC concentrations with decreasing mean sulfate (SO2- 4) deposition, with the magnitude of these relationships depending on plot deposition history. While the attribution of increasing trends in DOC to the reduction of SO2- 4 deposition could be confirmed in low to medium N deposition areas, in agreement with observations in surface waters, this was not the case in high N deposition areas. In conclusion, longterm trends of soil solution DOC reflected the interactions between controls acting at local (soil and vegetation properties) and regional (atmospheric deposition of SO2- 4 and inorganic N) scales.

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