- Ine Fels van der (1)
- R.S. Hails (1)
- Petra Hiller (1)
- A. Huesken (1)
- Jennifer L. Banach (1)
- M. Lavielle (1)
- A. Leman (1)
- Anneluise Mader (1)
- Helmut Mank (1)
- M. Marvier (1)
- J.N. Perry (1)
- J. Pijnakker (1)
- M. Scardi (1)
- Sara Schaarschmidt (1)
- F. Schaarschmidt (1)
- K. Schmidt (1)
- Franziska Spradau (1)
- B. Tothmeresz (1)
- H. Voet van der (1)
- Heidi Wichmann-Schauer (1)
Public and private standards for dried culinary herbs and spices—Part II : Production and product standards for ensuring microbiological safety
Schaarschmidt, Sara ; Spradau, Franziska ; Mank, Helmut ; Banach, Jennifer L. ; Fels, Ine van der; Hiller, Petra ; Appel, Bernd ; Bräunig, Juliane ; Wichmann-Schauer, Heidi ; Mader, Anneluise - \ 2016
Food Control 70 (2016). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 360 - 370.
Bacillus cereus - Clostridium perfringens - Food safety testing - Good practices - Microbiological criteria - Salmonella spp.
Dried culinary herbs and spices (DCHS) are minor food components with widespread use. Despite their low water activity, some microorganisms—including pathogenic and toxigenic ones—can survive in DCHS. The addition of microbial contaminated DCHS to ready-to-eat food in combination with improper food storage can pose a serious health risk for the consumer. In the past, several food-borne disease outbreaks were related to microbial contaminated spices. The aim of this study was to provide an overview on (i) spice/herb production standards important for promoting food safety by preventing microbial contaminations, (ii) public and private standards providing microbiological criteria to assess the microbiological safety of DCHS, and (iii) product testing performed by DCHS producing/processing businesses to comply with these standards. For that, a literature search and a survey among herb/spice businesses were conducted. Several good practices and production guidelines specific for the primary production and/or processing of culinary herbs and spices were found. Microbiological criteria specific for DCHS are usually rare, but some national standards (mostly of non-EU member states) as well as recommendations by private bodies could be identified. By EU law, no mandatory microbiological criteria specific for DCHS are laid down. The survey indicated a frequent application of business-to-business agreements. The microbiological quality of DCHS was tested by the survey participants mainly in a routine manner by checking every lot or based on buyer–seller agreements. Risk-based testing was less common, which differed to chemical safety testing. Upon import into the EU, testing appeared to be performed predominantly in a routine manner for the pathogenic bacteria Salmonella spp., sulphite-reducing clostridia (including Clostridium perfringens), Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus.
Bestrijding van weekhuidmijten in gerbera
Pijnakker, J. ; Leman, A. - \ 2011
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1105) - 35
tarsonemus - mijtenbestrijding - roofmijten - amblyseius - gerbera - teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - biologische bestrijding - nederland - mite control - predatory mites - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers - biological control - netherlands
Nine species of Phytoseiidae were evaluated as predators of Tarsonemus violae (Schaarschmidt) and the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) on gerbera plants in experimental and commercial greenhouses. Amblyseius cucumeris, Amblyseius swirskii, Typhlodromips montdorensis and Amblyseius andersoni appeared to possess the best abilities to control tarsonemids in this crop. These species showed good survival and reduced mite densities at low levels directly after their releases. However, curative releases did not effectively eliminate tarsonemids and the predators could not keep pests density below economic damage threshold year round without further releases. The importance of repeated introductions of suitable predators at an early stage of infestation was demonstrated in the experiments. We recommend releases of A. swirskii, A. cucumeris and T. montdorensis.
Commentary: Statistical aspects of environmental risk assessment of GM plants for effects on non-target organisms
Perry, J.N. ; Braak, C.J.F. ter; Dixon, P.M. ; Duan, J.J. ; Hails, R.S. ; Huesken, A. ; Lavielle, M. ; Marvier, M. ; Scardi, M. ; Schmidt, K. ; Tothmeresz, B. ; Schaarschmidt, F. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2009
Environmental Biosafety Research 8 (2009)2. - ISSN 1635-7922 - p. 65 - 78.
Previous European guidance for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants emphasized the concepts of statistical power but provided no explicit requirements for the provision of statistical power analyses. Similarly, whilst the need for good experimental designs was stressed, no minimum guidelines were set for replication or sample sizes. Furthermore, although substantial equivalence was stressed as central to risk assessment, no means of quantification of this concept was given. This paper suggests several ways in which existing guidance might be revised to address these problems. One approach explored is the ;bioequivalence' test, which has the advantage that the error of most concern to the consumer may be set relatively easily. Also, since the burden of proof is placed on the experimenter, the test promotes high-quality, well-replicated experiments with sufficient statistical power. Other recommendations cover the specification of effect sizes, the choice of appropriate comparators, the use of positive controls, meta-analyses, multivariate analysis and diversity indices. Specific guidance is suggested for experimental designs of field trials and their statistical analyses. A checklist for experimental design is proposed to accompany all environmental risk assessments