Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Tackling the increasing problem of malnutrition in older persons : The Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub
Visser, Marjolein ; Volkert, D. ; Corish, C. ; Geisler, C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Cruz-Jentoft, A.J. ; Lohrmann, C. ; O'Connor, E.M. ; Schindler, K. ; Schueren, D.E. van der - \ 2017
Nutrition Bulletin 42 (2017)2. - ISSN 1471-9827 - p. 178 - 186.
In order to tackle the increasing problem of malnutrition (i.e. protein-energy malnutrition) in the older population, the Joint Action Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub has been recently launched as part of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life (HDHL). This paper introduces this new European initiative and describes its objectives and design. The MaNuEL consortium consists of 22 research groups from seven countries (Austria, France, Germany, Ireland, Spain, The Netherlands and New Zealand). The Consortium aims to extend scientific knowledge; strengthen evidence-based practice in the management of malnutrition in older persons; build a sustainable, transnational, competent network of malnutrition experts; and harmonise research and clinical practice. MaNuEL is built on five interconnected work packages that focus on (i) defining treatable malnutrition; (ii) screening of malnutrition in different settings; (iii) determinants of malnutrition; (iv) prevention and treatment of malnutrition; and (v) policies and education regarding malnutrition screening and treatment in older persons across Europe. Systematic literature reviews will be performed to assess current research on malnutrition and identify potential knowledge gaps. Secondary data analyses of nutritional intervention trials and observational studies will also be conducted. Using Web-based questionnaires, MaNuEL will provide insight into current clinical practice, policies and health professionals’ education on malnutrition and will make recommendations for improvement. MaNuEL is being advised by a stakeholder board of five experts in geriatric nutrition who represent relevant European professional societies.
Alien Pathogens on the Horizon : Opportunities for Predicting their Threat to Wildlife
Roy, Helen E. ; Hesketh, Helen ; Purse, Bethan V. ; Eilenberg, Jørgen ; Santini, Alberto ; Scalera, Riccardo ; Stentiford, Grant D. ; Adriaens, Tim ; Bacela-Spychalska, Karolina ; Bass, David ; Beckmann, Katie M. ; Bessell, Paul ; Bojko, Jamie ; Booy, Olaf ; Cardoso, Ana Cristina ; Essl, Franz ; Groom, Quentin ; Harrower, Colin ; Kleespies, Regina ; Martinou, Angeliki F. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Peeler, Edmund J. ; Pergl, Jan ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Roques, Alain ; Schaffner, Francis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Schmidt, Benedikt R. ; Schönrogge, Karsten ; Smith, Jonathan ; Solarz, Wojciech ; Stewart, Alan ; Stroo, Arjan ; Tricarico, Elena ; Turvey, Katharine M.A. ; Vannini, Andrea ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Woodward, Stephen ; Wynns, Anja Amtoft ; Dunn, Alison M. - \ 2017
Conservation Letters 10 (2017)4. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 477 - 484.
Environmental hazard - Horizon scanning - Invasive alien species - Legislation - Wildlife diseases
According to the Convention on Biological Diversity, by 2020 invasive alien species (IAS) should be identified and their impacts assessed, so that species can be prioritized for implementation of appropriate control strategies and measures put in place to manage invasion pathways. For one quarter of the IAS listed as the "100 of the world's worst" environmental impacts are linked to diseases of wildlife (undomesticated plants and animals). Moreover, IAS are a significant source of "pathogen pollution" defined as the human-mediated introduction of a pathogen to a new host or region. Despite this, little is known about the biology of alien pathogens and their biodiversity impacts after introduction into new regions. We argue that the threats posed by alien pathogens to endangered species, ecosystems, and ecosystem services should receive greater attention through legislation, policy, and management. We identify 10 key areas for research and action, including those relevant to the processes of introduction and establishment of an alien pathogen and to prediction of the spread and associated impact of an alien pathogen on native biota and ecosystems. The development of interdisciplinary capacity, expertise, and coordination to identify and manage threats was seen as critical to address knowledge gaps.
Evaluating early-warning indicators of critical transitions in natural aquatic ecosystems
Gsell, A.S. ; Scharfenberger, Ulrike ; Özkundakci, Deniz ; Walters, Annika ; Hansson, Lars Anders ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Nõges, Peeter ; Reid, Philip C. ; Schindler, Daniel E. ; Donk, Ellen Van ; Dakos, Vasilis ; Adrian, Rita - \ 2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016)50. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E8089 - E8095.
Competition - Intraguild predation - Resilience indicators - Time series - Trophic cascade

Ecosystems can show sudden and persistent changes in state despite only incremental changes in drivers. Such critical transitions are difficult to predict, because the state of the system often shows little change before the transition. Early-warning indicators (EWIs) are hypothesized to signal the loss of system resilience and have been shown to precede critical transitions in theoretical models, paleo-climate time series, and in laboratory as well as whole lake experiments. The generalizability of EWIs for detecting critical transitions in empirical time series of natural aquatic ecosystems remains largely untested, however. Here we assessed four commonly used EWIs on long-term datasets of five freshwater ecosystems that have experienced sudden, persistent transitions and for which the relevant ecological mechanisms and drivers are well understood. These case studies were categorized by three mechanisms that can generate critical transitions between alternative states: competition, trophic cascade, and intraguild predation. Although EWIs could be detected in most of the case studies, agreement among the four indicators was low. In some cases, EWIs were detected considerably ahead of the transition. Nonetheless, our results show that at present, EWIs do not provide reliable and consistent signals of impending critical transitions despite using some of the best routinely monitored freshwater ecosystems. Our analysis strongly suggests that a priori knowledge of the underlying mechanisms driving ecosystem transitions is necessary to identify relevant state variables for successfully monitoring EWIs.

Selecting appropriate methods of knowledge synthesis to inform biodiversity policy
Pullin, Andrew ; Frampton, Geoff ; Jongman, Rob ; Kohl, Christian ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Lux, Alexandra ; Pataki, György ; Petrokofsky, Gillian ; Podhora, Aranka ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Santamaria, Luis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Sousa-pinto, Isabel ; Vandewalle, Marie ; Wittmer, Heidi - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1285 - 1300.
Responding to different questions generated by biodiversity and ecosystem services policy or management requires different forms of knowledge (e.g. scientific, experiential) and knowledge synthesis. Additionally, synthesis methods need to be appropriate to policy context (e.g. question types, budget, timeframe, output type, required scientific rigour). In this paper we present a range of different methods that could potentially be used to conduct a knowledge synthesis in response to questions arising from knowledge needs of decision makers on biodiversity and ecosystem services policy and management. Through a series of workshops attended by natural and social scientists and decision makers we compiled a range of question types, different policy contexts and potential methodological approaches to knowledge synthesis. Methods are derived from both natural and social sciences fields and reflect the range of question and study types that may be relevant for syntheses. Knowledge can be available either in qualitative or quantitative form and in some cases also mixed. All methods have their strengths and weaknesses and we discuss a sample of these to illustrate the need for diversity and importance of appropriate selection. To summarize this collection, we present a table that identifies potential methods matched to different combinations of question types and policy contexts, aimed at assisting teams undertaking knowledge syntheses to select appropriate methods.
The Network of Knowledge approach: improving the science and society dialogue on biodiversity and ecosystem services in Europe
Nesshöver, Carsten ; Vandewalle, Marie ; Wittmer, Heidi ; Balian, Estelle V. ; Carmen, Esther ; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R. ; Görg, Christoph ; Jongman, Rob ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Santamaria, Luis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Settele, Josef ; Sousa Pinto, Isabel ; Török, Katalin ; Dijk, Jiska Van; Watt, Allan D. ; Young, Juliette C. ; Zulka, Klaus Peter - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1215 - 1233.
The absence of a good interface between scientific and other knowledge holders and decision-makers in the area of biodiversity and ecosystem services has been recognised for a long time. Despite recent advancements, e.g. with the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), challenges remain, particularly concerning the timely provision of consolidated views from different knowledge domains. To address this challenge, a strong and flexible networking approach is needed across knowledge domains and institutions. Here, we report on a broad consultation process across Europe to develop a Network of Knowledge on biodiversity and ecosystem services (NoK), an approach aiming at (1) organising institutions and knowledge holders in an adaptable and responsive framework and (2) informing decision-makers with timely and accurate biodiversity knowledge. The consultation provided a critical analysis of the needs that should be addressed by a NoK and how it could complement existing European initiatives and institutions at the interface between policy and science. Among other functions, the NoK provides consolidated scientific views on contested topics, identification of research gaps to support relevant policies, and horizon scanning activities to anticipate emerging issues. The NoK includes a capacity building component on interfacing activities and contains mechanisms to ensure its credibility, relevance and legitimacy. Such a network would need to ensure credibility, relevance and legitimacy of its work by maximizing transparency and flexibility of processes, quality of outputs, the link to data and knowledge provision, the motivation of experts for getting involved and sound communication and capacity building.
Governance options for science–policy interfaces on biodiversity and ecosystem services : comparing a network versus a platform approach
Görg, Christoph ; Wittmer, Heidi ; Carter, Caitriona ; Turnhout, Esther ; Vandewalle, Marie ; Schindler, Stefan ; Livorell, Barbara ; Lux, Alexandra - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1235 - 1252.
Biodiversity - Ecosystem services - European environmental policy - Research networking - Science–policy-interface

Science–policy-interfaces (SPIs) are expected to go beyond the linear model of scientific policy advice through creating spaces for exchange and dialogue between ‘policy’ and ‘knowledge’. Given that most environmental issues require inter- and transdisciplinary approaches, SPIs must take into account a variety of knowledge types, views and interests of scientists, policymakers and other decision makers. Moreover, acceptance and durability of SPIs depend largely on their perceived legitimacy and the credibility of their knowledge-gathering processes, providing additional challenges for their internal organisation. As the interplay between different knowledge types and decision making is far from neutral, a reflexive approach is required in the design of an SPI so that it is capable of learning from past experiences. The aim of this article is to discuss which governance arrangements could best support the development of an effective and legitimate SPI for European biodiversity politics. We analyse different options for facilitating the implementation of a ‘Network of Knowledge’ approach. This approach has been developed to improve the interface between diverse knowledge-holder communities and decision making processes for biodiversity and ecosystem services—a field where multi-scalar and multi-dimensional problems arise. In this article, we develop and discuss two stylized extreme governance models as our starting point: an `informal network model´, which almost entirely depends on the dedication of individuals, versus a more formalized `platform model´, predominantly based on the needs and interests of the organisations involved. We discuss the pros and cons of each of these models in reaching their objectives and in developing sound governing processes for a ‘Network of Knowledge’. From this discussion, we derive a recommended design for the reflexive governance of such a network in the context of the European Union and finish by discussing some more general lessons learnt.

Multifunctional floodplain management and biodiversity effects : a knowledge synthesis for six European countries
Schindler, Stefan ; O’Neill, Fionnuala H. ; Biró, Marianna ; Damm, Christian ; Gasso, Viktor ; Kanka, Robert ; Sluis, Theo van der; Krug, Andreas ; Lauwaars, Sophie G. ; Sebesvari, Zita ; Pusch, Martin ; Baranovsky, Boris ; Ehlert, Thomas ; Neukirchen, Bernd ; Martin, James R. ; Euller, Katrin ; Mauerhofer, Volker ; Wrbka, Thomas - \ 2016
Biodiversity and Conservation 25 (2016)7. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1349 - 1382.
Ecosystem services - Flood protection - Green infrastructure - River Regulation - River restoration - Water framework directive

Floodplain ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots and supply multiple ecosystem services. At the same time they are often prone to human pressures that increasingly impact their intactness. Multifunctional floodplain management can be defined as a management approach aimed at a balanced supply of multiple ecosystem services that serve the needs of the local residents, but also those of off-site populations that are directly or indirectly impacted by floodplain management and policies. Multifunctional floodplain management has been recently proposed as a key concept to reconcile biodiversity and ecosystem services with the various human pressures and their driving forces. In this paper we present biophysics and management history of floodplains and review recent multifunctional management approaches and evidence for their biodiversity effects for the six European countries Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, Slovakia, Hungary and the Ukraine. Multifunctional use of floodplains is an increasingly important strategy in some countries, for instance in the Netherlands and Hungary, and management of floodplains goes hand in hand with sustainable economic activities resulting in flood safety and biodiversity conservation. As a result, biodiversity is increasing in some of the areas where multifunctional floodplain management approaches are implemented. We conclude that for efficient use of management resources and ecosystem services, consensual solutions need to be realized and biodiversity needs to be mainstreamed into management activities to maximize ecosystem service provision and potential human benefits. Multifunctionality is more successful where a broad range of stakeholders with diverse expertise and interests are involved in all stages of planning and implementation.

Multifunctionality of floodplain landscapes: relating management options to ecosystem services
Schindler, S. ; Sebesvari, Z. ; Damm, C. ; Sluis, T. van der - \ 2014
Landscape Ecology 29 (2014)2. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 229 - 244.
biodiversity conservation - restoration - indicators - ecology - scales - assessments - knowledge - policy - rivers - reach
The concept of green infrastructure has been recently taken up by the European Commission for ensuring the provision of ecosystem services (ESS). It aims at the supply of multiple ESS in a given landscape, however, the effects of a full suite of management options on multiple ESS and landscape multifunctionality have rarely been assessed. In this paper we use European floodplain landscapes as example to develop an expert based qualitative conceptual model for the assessment of impacts of landscape scale interventions on multifunctionality. European floodplain landscapes are particularly useful for such approach as they originally provided a high variety and quantity of ESS that has declined due to the strong human impact these landscapes have experienced. We provide an overview of the effects of floodplain management options on landscape multifunctionality by assessing the effects of 38 floodplain management interventions on 21 relevant ESS, as well as on overall ESS supply. We found that restoration and rehabilitation consistently increased the multifunctionality of the landscape by enhancing supply of provisioning, regulation/maintenance, and cultural services. In contrast, conventional technical regulation measures and interventions related to extraction, infrastructure and intensive land use cause decrease in multifunctionality and negative effects for the supply of all three aspects of ESS. The overview of the effects of interventions shall provide guidance for decision makers at multiple governance levels. The presented conceptual model could be effectively applied for other landscapes that have potential for a supply of a high diversity of ESS.
Coupled human and natural system dynamics as key to the sustainability of Lake Victoria’s ecosystem services
Downing, A.S. ; Nes, E.H. van; Balirwa, J.S. ; Beuving, J. ; Bwathondi, P.O.J. ; Chapman, L.J. ; Cornelissen, I.J.M. ; Cowx, I.G. ; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Hecky, R.E. ; Janse, J.H. ; Janssen, A.B.G. ; Kaufman, L. ; Kishe-Machumu, M.A. ; Kolding, J. ; Ligtvoet, W. ; Mbabazi, D. ; Medard, M. ; Mkumbo, O.C. ; Mlaponi, E. ; Munyaho, A.T. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. ; Ojwang, W.O. ; Peter, H.K. ; Schindler, D.E. ; Seehausen, O. ; Sharpe, D. ; Silsbe, G.M. ; Sitoki, L. ; Tumwebaze, R. ; Tweddle, D. ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Dijk, J.W.M. van; Donk, E. van; Rijssel, J.C. van; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Wanink, J. ; Witte, F. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2014
Ecology and Society 19 (2014)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
cyprinid rastrineobola-argentea - perch lates-niloticus - nile perch - east-africa - water hyacinth - mwanza gulf - oreochromis-niloticus - morphological-changes - introduced predator - biological-control
East Africa’s Lake Victoria provides resources and services to millions of people on the lake’s shores and abroad. In particular, the lake’s fisheries are an important source of protein, employment, and international economic connections for the whole region. Nonetheless, stock dynamics are poorly understood and currently unpredictable. Furthermore, fishery dynamics are intricately connected to other supporting services of the lake as well as to lakeshore societies and economies. Much research has been carried out piecemeal on different aspects of Lake Victoria’s system; e.g., societies, biodiversity, fisheries, and eutrophication. However, to disentangle drivers and dynamics of change in this complex system, we need to put these pieces together and analyze the system as a whole. We did so by first building a qualitative model of the lake’s social-ecological system. We then investigated the model system through a qualitative loop analysis, and finally examined effects of changes on the system state and structure. The model and its contextual analysis allowed us to investigate system-wide chain reactions resulting from disturbances. Importantly, we built a tool that can be used to analyze the cascading effects of management options and establish the requirements for their success. We found that high connectedness of the system at the exploitation level, through fisheries having multiple target stocks, can increase the stocks’ vulnerability to exploitation but reduce society’s vulnerability to variability in individual stocks. We describe how there are multiple pathways to any change in the system, which makes it difficult to identify the root cause of changes but also broadens the management toolkit. Also, we illustrate how nutrient enrichment is not a self-regulating process, and that explicit management is necessary to halt or reverse eutrophication. This model is simple and usable to assess system-wide effects of management policies, and can serve as a paving stone for future quantitative analyses of system dynamics at local scales.
Complementary symbiont contributions to plant decomposition in a fungus-farming termite
Poulsen, M. ; Hu, H. ; Li, C. ; Chen, Z. ; Xu, L. ; Otani, S. ; Nygaard, S. ; Nobre, T. ; Klaubauf, S. ; Schindler, P.M. ; Hauser, F. ; Pan, H. ; Yang, Z. ; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Beer, W. de; Zhang, Y. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P. ; Vries, R.P. de; Korb, J. ; Aanen, D.K. ; Wang, J. ; Boomsma, J.J. ; Zhang, G. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)40. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14500 - 14505.
growing termites - bacterial community - gut microbiota - markov-models - genomes - termitomyces - evolution - tool - macrotermitinae - lignocellulose
Termites normally rely on gut symbionts to decompose organic matter but the Macrotermitinae domesticated Termitomyces fungi to produce their own food. This transition was accompanied by a shift in the composition of the gut microbiota, but the complementary roles of these bacteria in the symbiosis have remained enigmatic. We obtained high-quality annotated draft genomes of the termite Macrotermes natalensis, its Termitomyces symbiont, and gut metagenomes from workers, soldiers, and a queen. We show that members from 111 of the 128 known glycoside hydrolase families are represented in the symbiosis, that Termitomyces has the genomic capacity to handle complex carbohydrates, and that worker gut microbes primarily contribute enzymes for final digestion of oligosaccharides. This apparent division of labor is consistent with the Macrotermes gut microbes being most important during the second passage of comb material through the termite gut, after a first gut passage where the crude plant substrate is inoculated with Termitomyces asexual spores so that initial fungal growth and polysaccharide decomposition can proceed with high efficiency. Complex conversion of biomass in termite mounds thus appears to be mainly accomplished by complementary cooperation between a domesticated fungal monoculture and a specialized bacterial community. In sharp contrast, the gut microbiota of the queen had highly reduced plant decomposition potential, suggesting that mature reproductives digest fungal material provided by workers rather than plant substrate.
Floodplain management in temperate regions: is multifunctionality enhancing biodiversity?
Schindler, S. ; Kropik, M. ; Euller, K. ; Sluis, T. van der - \ 2013
Environmental Evidence 2 (2013). - ISSN 2047-2382 - 11 p.
Background: Floodplains are among the most diverse, dynamic, productive and populated but also the most threatened ecosystems on Earth. Threats are mainly related to human activities that alter the landscape and disrupt fluvial processes to obtain benefits related to multiple ecosystem services (ESS). Floodplain management therefore requires close coordination among interest groups with competing claims and poses multi-dimensional challenges to policy-makers and project managers. The European Commission proposed in its recent Biodiversity Strategy to maintain and enhance European ecosystems and their services by establishing green infrastructure (GI). GI is assumed to provide multiple ecosystem functions and services including the conservation of biodiversity in the same spatial area. However, evidence for biodiversity benefits of multifunctional floodplain management is scattered and has not been synthesised. Methods/design: This protocol specifies the methods for conducting a systematic review to answer the following policy-relevant questions: a) what is the impact of floodplain management measures on biodiversity; b) how does the impact vary according to the level of multifunctionality of the measures; c) is there a difference in the biodiversity impact of floodplain management across taxa; d) what is the effect of the time since implementation on the impact of the most important measures; and e) are there any other factors that significantly modify the biodiversity impact of floodplain management measures? Within this systematic review we will assess multifunctionality in terms of ESS that are affected by an implemented intervention. Biodiversity indicators included in this systematic review will be related to the diversity, richness and abundance of species, other taxa or functional groups. We will consider if organisms are typical for and native to natural floodplain ecosystems. Specific inclusion criteria have been developed and the wide range of quality of primary literature will be evaluated with a tailor-made system for assessing susceptibility to bias and the reliability of the studies. The review is intended to bridge the science-policy interface and will provide a useful synthesis of knowledge for decision-makers at all governance levels. Keywords: Biodiversity, Multifunctionality, Floodplain management, Green infrastructure, European Commission Biodiversity Strategy 2020, Biodiversity knowledge, Ecosystem services, Flood prevention, River restoration, Systematic review, Science-policy interface, Science-practice interface
Towards Effective Nature Conservation on Farmland: Making Farmers Matter
Snoo, G.R. de; Herzon, I. ; Staats, H. ; Burton, R.J.F. ; Schindler, S. ; Dijk, J. van; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Bullock, J.M. ; Lobley, M. ; Wrbka, T. ; Schwarz, G. ; Musters, C.J.M. - \ 2013
Conservation Letters 6 (2013)1. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 66 - 72.
agri-environment schemes - planned behavior - farming styles - personal norms - biodiversity - management - landscapes - diversity - policy - birds
Until now the main instrument to counteract the loss of biodiversity and landscape quality in the European countryside has been Agri-Environment Schemes (AES), which offer short term payments for performing prescribed environmental management behaviours. In our opinion this approach is, in its current set-up, not a sustainable way of enhancing biodiversity and landscape quality. Here we will argue that conservation in agricultural areas is also a social challenge. To change farmers’ behaviours towards more sustainable conservation of farmland biodiversity, instruments should aim to influence individual farmer's motivation and behaviour. We should aim to place farmland biodiversity ‘in the hands and minds of farmers’.
Network of knowledge
Neßhöver, C. ; Jongman, R.H.G. ; Schindler, S. - \ 2011
International Innovation 2011 (2011). - ISSN 2041-4552 - p. 70 - 70.
Can we measure ecological sustainability? Landscape pattern as an indicator for naturalness and land use intensity at regional, national and European level
Renetzeder, C. ; Schindler, S. ; Peterseil, J. ; Prinz, M.A. ; Mücher, S. ; Wrbka, T. - \ 2010
Ecological Indicators 10 (2010)1. - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 39 - 48.
agricultural landscapes - species richness - diversity - metrics - environment - models - scale - areas
European landscapes have been shaped over the centuries by processes related to human land use, which are reflected in regionally distinct landscape patterns. Since landscape pattern has been linked to biodiversity and other ecological values of the landscapes, this paper explores landscape pattern as a tool for ecological sustainability assessments at the regional (Austrian Cultural Landscapes), national (Austria) and European (European Union + Norway, Switzerland) level with focus on agricultural landscapes. A set of landscape metrics served as a basis to assess naturalness and geometrisation of Austrian and European landscapes as a proxy for their sustainability. To achieve an accurate spatially explicit assessment, we applied a spatial reference framework consisting in units that are homogeneous in biophysical and socio-economic contexts, adapted the regional approach for its application at European level, and developed relative sustainability thresholds for the landscape metrics. The analyses revealed that several landscape metrics, particularly the “Number of Shape Characterising Points” showed a high correlation with the degree of naturalness. The sustainability map of Austria based on an ordinal regression model revealed well-known problem regions of ecological sustainability. At the European level, the relative deviation from the average pattern showed clearly the simplification processes in the landscapes. However, a better spatial resolution of land cover data would add to the refinement of pattern analysis in regions and therefore the assessment of sustainability. We recommend the combination of information of different scales for the formulation and implementation of sustainability policies
Characterization of the pyruvate kinase encoding gene (pki) of Trichoderma reesei.
Schindler, M. ; Mach, R.L. ; Vollenhofer, S.K. ; Hodits, R. ; Gruber, F. ; Visser, J. ; Graaff, L.H. de; Kubicek, C.P. - \ 1993
Gene 130 (1993). - ISSN 0378-1119 - p. 271 - 275.
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