Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Responsible innovation in industry and the importance of customer orientation : Introduction to the special issue
Blok, Vincent ; Scholten, Victor ; Long, Thomas B. - \ 2018
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 21 (2018)4. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 455 - 462.
Mechanical properties affect detectability of perceived texture contrast in heterogeneous food gels
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Linden, Erik van der; Stieger, Markus ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 80 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 254 - 263.
Agar - Carrageenan - Gelatine - Gels - Texture perception
This study investigated the influence of mechanical and physicochemical properties of semi-solid model foods on the detection and temporal perception of texture contrast. Gel-based model foods consisting of two layers were used to systematically vary mechanical contrast and physicochemical properties within bi-layer gels. Fracture stress (σF) and strain (εF) were modified by changing the concentration of various gelling agents (agar, к-carrageenan, and gelatine). The physicochemical properties of gels varied with respect to syneresis and melting behaviour depending on the type of gelling agent. The detection limit of perceived texture contrast of bi-layer gels was determined using ranking tests. Subjects ranked gels in order of increasing perceived heterogeneity as a measure of texture contrast. The detection limit of texture contrast varied between brittle and elastic gels and between soft (low σF) and hard (high σF) gels. In soft and brittle agar gels, heterogeneity was perceived already when the difference in fracture stress between layers was small (ΔσF ≥5 kPa). In soft and elastic gels (к-carrageenan, gelatine) and hard gels, heterogeneity was perceived only when the difference in fracture stress between the layers was large (ΔσF ≥12 kPa). The perceived heterogeneity intensity over time was investigated by time-intensity profiling. During mastication, gelatine gels were perceived for a longer period of time with a higher heterogeneity intensity than agar and к-carrageenan gels. We conclude that mainly mechanical properties of gels impact detectability of mechanical contrast as perceived texture contrast (heterogeneity), whereas a combination of mechanical and physicochemical properties influence the dynamic perception of heterogeneity over time.
Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors
Hartman, Yvonne A.W. ; Hopman, Maria T.E. ; Schreuder, Tim H. ; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M. ; Scholten, Ralph R. ; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H. ; Poelkens, Fleur ; Maiorana, Andrew J. ; Naylor, Louise H. ; Willems, Peter H. ; Tack, Cees J. ; Thijssen, Dick H.J. ; Green, Daniel J. - \ 2018
Physiological Reports 6 (2018)4. - ISSN 2051-817X
Cardiovascular diseases - exercise training - physical fitness - risk factors
The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of subjects with increased cardiovascular risk (n = 166) who underwent 8–52 weeks endurance training. We determined fitness (i.e., peak oxygen uptake) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), before and after training. We divided subjects into quartiles based on improvement in fitness, and examined whether these groups differed in terms of risk factors. Associations between changes in fitness and in cardiovascular risk factors were further tested using Pearson correlations. Significant heterogeneity was apparent in the improvement of fitness and individual risk factors, with nonresponder rates of 17% for fitness, 44% for body mass index, 33% for mean arterial pressure, 49% for total cholesterol, and 49% for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Neither the number, nor the magnitude, of change in cardiovascular risk factors differed significantly between quartiles of fitness change. Changes in fitness were not correlated with changes in cardiovascular risk factors (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that significant heterogeneity exists in changes in peak oxygen uptake after training, while improvement in fitness did not relate to improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, improvements in fitness are not obligatory for training-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.
Effect of outer water phase composition on oil droplet size and yield of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions
Oppermann, A.K.L. ; Noppers, J.M.E. ; Stieger, M. ; Scholten, E. - \ 2018
Food Research International 107 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 148 - 157.
Complex food systems - Double emulsions - Emulsifiers - Encapsulation efficiency - Hydrocolloids - Polysaccharides - Yield
In this study the effect of various emulsifiers (whey protein isolate (WPI), Na-caseinate, and Tween 20) and thickeners (xanthan and pectin) present in the outer water phase, w2, on oil droplet size and yield of the inner water phase, w1, of (w1/o/w2) double emulsions was investigated. Double emulsions stabilized by Tween 20 had smaller oil droplet sizes and higher yields in comparison to emulsions stabilized by WPI and Na-caseinate. Gelation of the inner water droplets w1 increased yield by 20% for all emulsifiers. Upon the addition of thickeners, the increasing viscosity of the outer water phase, w2, facilitated oil droplet breakup. This resulted in smaller oil droplets and lower yields. When pectin was used as a thickener, in comparison to xanthan, an additional decrease in yield was observed. The yield decreased to values close to zero indicating that all inner water droplets w1 were lost during emulsification. We conclude that type of hydrophilic emulsifier, properties of inner water droplets, viscosity ratio of continuous and dispersed phase, as well as type of thickener influence oil droplet size and yield of w1 phase of double emulsions. This work provides a better understanding of how composition influences the properties of double emulsions and how this can be used to design double emulsions as fat replacers in more complex food systems.
Op naar een revolutie in het gebruik van hulpbronnen?
Boom, Remko ; Timmermans, Toine ; Haveren, Jacco van; Gerrits, Walter ; Boer, Imke de; Zanten, Hannah van; Scholten, Martin ; Schoumans, Oscar ; Ruijter, Frank de; Scholten, Olga ; Stuyt, Lodewijk ; Linden, Gerard van der; Barbosa, Maria ; Meer, Ingrid van der - \ 2018
Tuning the rheological properties of protein-based oleogels by water addition and heat treatment
Vries, A. de; Jansen, Demi ; Linden, E. van der; Scholten, E. - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 79 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 100 - 109.
Although mostly known for their gelling ability in water, proteins can also be used to structure oil into so-called oleogels. To create these oleogels, protein aggregates (d ∼190 nm) were formed by heat treatment in an aqueous environment and then suspended in oil using a solvent exchange procedure. To control the interactions between colloidal protein aggregates in oil, the effect of the addition of a small amount of water and the application of a heat treatment were investigated. Addition of water was shown to induce clustering of the protein aggregates. The effect of increased particle clustering was observed up to water addition in the amount of 0.5 g water/g protein, above which free water droplets were formed. As a result of water addition, G′ increased dramatically by up to three orders of magnitude. Besides an increase in G′, also an increase in critical strain and yield stress was observed. Moreover, the gels became responsive to temperature when water was added. G’ increased even further upon heating, and regained gel strength upon cooling due to enhanced particle-particle interactions. We propose that these interactions are most likely due to the formation of capillary bridges between the protein aggregates. Addition of water and subsequent heat treatment are thus effective ways to increase the interactions between protein aggregates. This simple approach forms an interesting route to tune the rheological properties of protein oleogels.
Tuning hydrophobicity of zein nanoparticles to control rheological behavior of Pickering emulsions
Zou, Yuan ; Baalen, Carlijn van; Yang, Xiaoquan ; Scholten, E. - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 80 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 130 - 140.
Zein/tannic acid complex particle - Hydrophobicity - Gel-like emulsion - rheological behavior
In the present work, the influence of hydrophobicity of zein/tannic acid complex particles (ZTPs) on the rheological behavior of ZTP-stabilized emulsion gels is described. The hydrophobicity of the particles was controlled by the incorporation of different amounts of hydrophilic tannic acid, while retaining a similar particle size. The resulting ZTPs with varying hydrophobicity were successfully used to form emulsion gels with similar oil droplet size. With a decrease in the hydrophobicity of ZTPs, the storage modulus (G′) of emulsion gels increased, while tan δ and the frequency dependence decreased, indicating the formation of a stronger gel network. The crossover strain, γco, increased with a decrease in the hydrophobicity of ZTPs, indicating the gel network becomes more resistance against breakdown. In all cases, G′ increased in a power-law manner with an increase in protein concentration (G' ∼ cpn) and oil content (G' ∼ φm). The exponent n and m decreased with decreasing particle hydrophobicity, indicating that hydrophobic interactions between particles within the particle network in the continuous phase and the oil droplets provide a relatively larger contribution to the gel strength for emulsion gels stabilized by ZTPs with higher hydrophobicity. Increasing the oil polarity provided a lower gel strength for emulsions stabilized by particles with high hydrophobicity, while it increased the gel strength for particles with low hydrophobicity. The results show that the rheological behavior of ZTP-stabilized emulsion gels can be tuned by changing the particle hydrophobicity and oil polarity, which provide interesting features for various applications in the food industry.
Rheological behavior of emulsion gels stabilized by zein/tannic acid complex particles
Zou, Yuan ; Yang, Xiaoquan ; Scholten, Elke - \ 2018
Food Hydrocolloids 77 (2018). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 363 - 371.
Gel-like emulsion - Microstructure - Rheological property - Zein/tannic acid complex particle

In this paper, we report the structure formation and rheological properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized with zein/tannic acid complex particles (ZTPs) over a wide range of particle concentration (1-5%, w/v) and oil content (5-60%, v/v). Microscopy shows that the ZTPs provide stabilization at the droplet interfaces, and that excess ZTPs provide a particle network in the continuous phase to give a solid-like structure to the ZTPs-stabilized emulsions (ZTPEs). The low frequency dependency of G' and low values for tan δ imply that ZTPEs have very elastic networks. The storage modulus (G') of ZTPEs increases in a power-law manner with increasing particle concentration (c p) and oil content (ϕ), which can be scaled as G'[U+202F]∼[U+202F]c p n and G'[U+202F]∼[U+202F]ϕ m, respectively. The exponent n decreases with an increase of oil content, and m decreases with increase of particle concentration. This indicates that the structure of the network depends on both the particle concentration and the oil content. The difference in the network structure is also seen in the critical strain γ co, since three regimes are observed: for ϕ[U+202F]≤[U+202F]20%, γ co decreases with an increase in particle concentration; for 30% ≤ ϕ[U+202F]≤[U+202F]50%, γ co increases with increasing particle concentration; and for ϕ[U+202F]=[U+202F]60%, γ co is almost independent on the particle concentration. The results show that the microstructure and rheological properties of ZTPEs can be tuned by changing both the particle concentration and oil content, which may provide interesting features for various applications in industry.

Mini-symposium Biologische Veredeling
Scholten, Olga - \ 2017
Resistentie tegen trips in prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2017
Veredelingsonderzoek tripsresistentie in prei : Groene Veredeling Prei
Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. ; Bücher, J. ; Henken, G. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Veredelingsonderzoek naar damping-off in spinazie : Groene Veredeling Spinazie
Magnée, Kim ; Scholten, O.E. ; Lammerts Van Bueren, E. ; Groot, S.P.C. ; Postma, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Martin Scholten over kringlooplandbouw
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
Het is een hele opgave om voldoende en gezond voedsel op een duurzame manier te produceren. Zeker omdat de wereldbevolking groeit en meer voedsel nodig heeft, met name eiwitten. Algemeen directeur van de Animal Sciences Group Martin Scholten ziet in kringlooplandbouw de oplossing.
Trips grote lastpost in uien: schade kan oplopen tot de halve oogst
Huiting, Hilfred ; Dicke, Marcel ; Kogel, Willem Jan de; Scholten, Olga ; Vosman, Ben - \ 2017
Light during incubation and noise around hatching aect cognitive bias in laying hens
Rodenburg, T.B. ; Scholten, N.J.T. ; Haas, E.N. de - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 51st Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 7-10 August 2017, Aarhus, Denmark. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863112 - p. 165 - 165.
animal welfare - animal behaviour
Incubation and hatching conditions can inuence development of laying hens. In commercialconditions, chicks are incubated in the dark and hatch in a noisy environment. €is may a�ecttheir behavioural and cognitive development in a negative way and may have lasting e�ectson their assessment of ambiguous stimuli in a cognitive bias test. €e aim of this study was toinvestigate the e�ects of light during incubation and noise around hatching on cognitive biasin adult laying hens. To meet that aim, eggs were incubated and hatched according to fourdi�erent treatments in a 2×2 cross design: during the .rst 16 days of incubation, they wouldeither be incubated in the dark or in a 12L:12D light schedule. From 17 to 21 days of age, half ofthe eggs from each light treatment would either be incubated in a noisy environment (playbackcommercial incubator noise; 90 dB) or a quiet environment (60-70 dB). Birds were kept ingroups of maximum 10 birds in oor pens separated per treatment from 0 to 35 weeks of age(seven groups per treatment). At 35 weeks of age, 32 hens (eight per treatment) were trainedfor a cognitive bias test, where they had to learn that one side of the test arena was rewarded(mixed grains and mealworms) and the other side was not (smell of feed only). €e rewardedside was varied according to a balanced design. €e experimenter was blind to birds’ treatments.When a bird had learned the task, she was tested with ambiguous cues, where the feeder wouldbe placed in the centre (50%), nearer the unrewarded side (25%) or nearer the rewarded side(75%). €is was done by subjecting each hen to 12 trials, where two rewarded (R) trials andone unrewarded (U) trial (order RRU or RUR, balanced design) were followed by one of theambiguous trials. For all hens, the .rst ambiguous trial was the 50% trial, followed by the 25%trial and the 75% trial. Latency to approach the feeder was analysed using a mixed model withtreatment, trial order and type of cue as .xed factors (including all interactions) and pen nestedwithin treatment as random factor. Over all treatments, birds had a shorter latency to reach thefeeder with the rewarded cue compared to all other cues, and with the 50% and 75% comparedto the unrewarded and 25% cue as expected (F4,360=211.4; P<0.001). €ere was a signi.cantinteraction between treatment and type of cue (F12,360=2.11; P<0.05). Birds from the lightand noise treatment were slower than birds from the other groups in the ambiguous 50% trial(F1,360=3.49; P<0.05), which is interpreted as a more pessimistic response to the ambiguouscue. €e light treatment during incubation may have resulted in a faster embryo development.€is may in turn have resulted in chicks that were more sensitive to the noise treatment thatwas applied around hatching. In conclusion, incubation and hatching conditions in layinghens can a�ect cognitive bias in laying hens. Creating more quiet incubators and could havepositive e�ects on laying hen welfare.
Effect of food texture contrast on sensory perception of dispersed systems: a mechanistic approach
Santagiuliana, M. ; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd, Betina ; Linden, E. van der; Scholten, E. ; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2017
texture contrast - dispersed systems
IoF2020 - the Internet of Meat: towards applications of Internet of Things in the meat supply chain
Maselyne, Jarissa ; Mertens, Kristof ; Nuffel, Annelies Van ; Scholten, Huub ; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N. ; Larrañaga, Mikel ; Fernández, Izaskun - \ 2017
Internet of Things, meat, pigs, poultry, traceability, IoF2020 Internet of Things, meat, pigs, poultry, traceability, IoF2020
To enable all actors in the meat supply chain to monitor, manage and optimise their production process, Internet of Things applications create multiple opportunities. In the IoF2020 project (Internet of Food and Farm 2020), starting early 2017, 11 partners from five countries focus on large-scale implementations of IoT via three use cases in the meat supply chain: pig farm management, poultry chain monitoring and meat transparency and traceability. Farmer’s lack of accessibility to information to monitor their production on a continuous basis will be addressed by installing and integrating IoT sensors for environmental and animal monitoring. In addition, early warning systems will be developed, linking different data-streams to provide valuable feedback to the farmer, as well as information transfer to other stakeholders. Doing so, preventive or corrective actions for diseases, boar taint, bird mortality, feed waste, environment, etc. can be taken. Further, also EPCIS-based tracebility from farm to fork will be enabled, so that consumers receive reliable information on meat origin and quality. The current progress of these three use cases, as well as the planned developments will be presented. By addressing several technological and business challenges, as well as EU-wide dissemination, IoF2020 aims to contribute to the digital revolution in Smart Farming.
Food Structuring approaches for reformulation of foods
Scholten, Elke - \ 2017
More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Flowing from rheology to tribology. Resolving the rub in food friction
Rudge, R.E.D. ; Scholten, E. ; Dijksman, J.A. - \ 2017
Rheology - Tribology - Soft solids - Friction
There is an increasing need to understand the behaviour of foods in terms of their mouthfeel, in which both rheological and tribological aspects play a role. Rheology is able to capture the first parts of oral food processing, where there is a large fluid pressure separating the surfaces of the tongue and the palate. This would correspond to the hydrodynamic regime of the friction or Stribeck curve [1, 2, 3]. As the fluid film becomes thinner, sample behaviour moves towards the
mixed regime of the Stribeck curve and can no longer be described by rheology. This regime therefore requires tribological interpretation. The tribology lens gives more insight into sensory attributes such as creaminess, fattiness or smoothness of the food system [2, 3]. However, the different friction meters or tribometers currently being used have their limitations. The frictional behaviour of soft solids depends on both the physicochemical characteristics of the gel and on the conditions used during measurement, making it more complex than the frictional behaviour of solids [4]. We aim to add microscopic insight to the tribology field by a combination of novel rheotribology tools and optical tweezer experiments. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform friction measurements on different soft solids and reveal the role of adhesion, electrostatics and lubrication. These new advances in rheology and tribology both give more insight into gel friction and may lead to the development of new (food) materials with previously unattainable characteristics.
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