Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Using 'omic approaches to compare temporal bacterial colonization of lolium perenne, lotus corniculatus, and trifolium pratensein the Rumen
Elliott, Christopher L. ; Edwards, Joan E. ; Wilkinson, Toby J. ; Allison, Gordon G. ; McCaffrey, Kayleigh ; Scott, Mark B. ; Rees-Stevens, Pauline ; Kingston-Smith, Alison H. ; Huws, Sharon A. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)SEP. - ISSN 1664-302X - 16 p.
16S rRNA gene - Birds foot trefoil - CowPI - FTIR - Microbiome - Perennial ryegrass - Red clover - Rumen

Understanding rumen plant-microbe interactions is central for development of novel methodologies allowing improvements in ruminant nutrient use efficiency. This study investigated rumen bacterial colonization of fresh plant material and changes in plant chemistry over a period of 24 h period using three different fresh forages: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass; PRG), Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil; BFT) and Trifolium pratense (red clover; RC). We show using 16S rRNA gene ion torrent sequencing that plant epiphytic populations present pre-incubation (0 h) were substantially different to those attached post incubations in the presence of rumen fluid on all forages. Thereafter primary and secondary colonization events were evident as defined by changes in relative abundances of attached bacteria and changes in plant chemistry, as assessed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. For PRG colonization, primary colonization occurred for up to 4 h and secondary colonization from 4 h onward. The changes from primary to secondary colonization occurred significantly later with BFT and RC, with primary colonization being up to 6 h and secondary colonization post 6 h of incubation. Across all 3 forages the main colonizing bacteria present at all time points post-incubation were Prevotella, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Ruminococcus, Olsenella, Butyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma (14.2, 5.4, 1.9, 2.7, 1.8, and 2.0% on average respectively), with Pseudobutyrivibrio and Anaeroplasma having a higher relative abundance during secondary colonization. Using CowPI, we predict differences between bacterial metabolic function during primary and secondary colonization. Specifically, our results infer an increase in carbohydrate metabolism in the bacteria attached during secondary colonization, irrespective of forage type. The CowPI data coupled with the FTIR plant chemistry data suggest that attached bacterial function is similar irrespective of forage type, with the main changes occurring between primary and secondary colonization. These data suggest that the sward composition of pasture may have major implications for the temporal availability of nutrients for animal.

Environmental benefits of farm- and district-scale crop-livestock integration: a European perspective
Leterme, Philippe ; Nesme, Thomas ; Regan, John T. ; Korevaar, H. - \ 2018
In: Agroecosystem diversity / Lemaire, Gilles, César De Faccio Carvalho, Paulo, Kronberg, Scott, Recous, Sylvie, Academic Press - ISBN 9780128110508 - p. 335 - 349.
Specialized farms and districts generally perform poorly when assessed in terms of environmental impact or ecosystem services provision. Well-managed synergies between crop and livestock production occurring either at the farm scale or at the district scale have the potential to limit environmental problems via, for example, nutrient cycle closure and diversified crop rotations and land uses. However, there is a lack of research using empirical farm data to quantify the actual benefits or drawbacks of crop-livestock integration strategies. Therefore, a farming system approach was used in the “Crops and Animal Together” project (FP7 Project CANTOGETHER) to assess diverse strategies of crop-livestock integration at both farm (10 farms in FR, NL, IT, IE, UK) and district levels (5 districts in ES, IE, FR, NL, CH). The district-level strategies assessed were (1) local exchange of materials among farms (grain, slurry); (2) provision of high-quality forages (cooperative dehydration facility); (3) land exchange between dairy and arable farms; and (4) animal exchanges between lowland and highland regions (heifer rearing). A selection of noncooperating baseline farms (specialized and, where available, mixed) were compared with specialized cooperating farms in each district.

Results confirmed that it was the physical integration and complementarity between crops and animals (e.g., home-grown feed, recycling of wastes as fertilizers), not just their coexistence, that was decisive for achieving improved environmental performance at the farm level. Unfortunately, integration at the farm level had the drawbacks of increased workload and reduced productivity and economic performance. At the district level, organization between farms through strategies such as those assessed generally improved productivity and economic performances. However, the potential ecologic benefits of cooperation at district level are restricted by a rebound effect: farmers choosing to use the resources made available via cooperation to intensify their operations as opposed to diversifying them or reducing inputs.

In spite of this intensification, cooperation led to environmental benefits by increasing input use efficiency and reducing environmental impacts of farming when expressed per unit of agricultural product produced. An important finding was that territorial cooperation appeared as a key strategy to enable the farms that have implemented a high level of integration between crop and livestock to recover sufficient profitability.
Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Elmendorf, Sarah C. ; Normand, Signe ; Rüger, Nadja ; Beck, Pieter S.A. ; Blach-Overgaard, Anne ; Blok, Daan ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Forbes, Bruce C. ; Georges, Damien ; Goetz, Scott J. ; Guay, Kevin C. ; Henry, Gregory H.R. ; Hillerislambers, Janneke ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Karger, Dirk N. ; Kattge, Jens ; Manning, Peter ; Prevéy, Janet S. ; Rixen, Christian ; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela ; Thomas, Haydn J.D. ; Vellend, Mark ; Wilmking, Martin ; Wipf, Sonja ; Carbognani, Michele ; Hermanutz, Luise ; Lévesque, Esther ; Molau, Ulf ; Petraglia, Alessandro ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Spasojevic, Marko J. ; Tomaselli, Marcello ; Vowles, Tage ; Alatalo, Juha M. ; Alexander, Heather D. ; Anadon-Rosell, Alba ; Angers-Blondin, Sandra ; Beest, Mariska te; Berner, Logan ; Björk, Robert G. ; Buchwal, Agata ; Buras, Allan ; Christie, Katherine ; Heijmans, Monique M.P.D. ; Ozinga, Wim A. - \ 2018
Nature 526 (2018). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 57 - 62.
The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature–trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
Chimeric O1K foot-and-mouth disease virus with SAT2 outer capsid as an FMD vaccine candidate
Kotecha, Abhay ; Perez-Martin, Eva ; Harvey, Yongjie ; Zhang, Fuquan ; Ilca, Serban L. ; Fry, Elizabeth E. ; Jackson, Ben ; Maree, Francois ; Scott, Katherine ; Hecksel, Corey W. ; Harmsen, Michiel M. ; Mioulet, Valérie ; Wood, Britta ; Juleff, Nick ; Stuart, David I. ; Charleston, Bryan ; Seago, Julian - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no changes from SAT2 were present elsewhere in the capsid as a consequence of the VP4 changes. Following exposure to an elevated temperature the thermostable SAT2-O1K chimera induced higher neutralizing-antibody titres in comparison to wild type SAT2 virus.

Modelling strategies for assessing and increasing the effectiveness of new phenotyping techniques in plant breeding
Eeuwijk, Fred A. van; Bustos-Korts, Daniela ; Millet, Emilie J. ; Boer, Martin P. ; Kruijer, Willem ; Thompson, Addie ; Malosetti, Marcos ; Iwata, Hiroyoshi ; Quiroz, Roberto ; Kuppe, Christian ; Muller, Onno ; Blazakis, Konstantinos N. ; Yu, Kang ; Tardieu, Francois ; Chapman, Scott C. - \ 2018
Plant Science (2018). - ISSN 0168-9452
Crop growth model - Genomic prediction - Genotype-by-environment-interaction - Genotype-to-phenotype model - Mixed model - Multi-environment model - Multi-trait model - Phenotyping - Phenotyping platform - Physiology - Plant breeding - Prediction - Reaction norm - Response surface - Statistical genetics

New types of phenotyping tools generate large amounts of data on many aspects of plant physiology and morphology with high spatial and temporal resolution. These new phenotyping data are potentially useful to improve understanding and prediction of complex traits, like yield, that are characterized by strong environmental context dependencies, i.e., genotype by environment interactions. For an evaluation of the utility of new phenotyping information, we will look at how this information can be incorporated in different classes of genotype-to-phenotype (G2P) models. G2P models predict phenotypic traits as functions of genotypic and environmental inputs. In the last decade, access to high-density single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs) and sequence information has boosted the development of a class of G2P models called genomic prediction models that predict phenotypes from genome wide marker profiles. The challenge now is to build G2P models that incorporate simultaneously extensive genomic information alongside with new phenotypic information. Beyond the modification of existing G2P models, new G2P paradigms are required. We present candidate G2P models for the integration of genomic and new phenotyping information and illustrate their use in examples. Special attention will be given to the modelling of genotype by environment interactions. The G2P models provide a framework for model based phenotyping and the evaluation of the utility of phenotyping information in the context of breeding programs.

Reframing informal tourism entrepreneurial practices : Capital and field relations structuring the informal tourism economy of Chiang Mai
Çakmak, Erdinç ; Lie, Rico ; McCabe, Scott - \ 2018
Annals of Tourism Research 72 (2018). - ISSN 0160-7383 - p. 37 - 47.
Bourdieu - Capitals - Entrepreneurship - Fields - Informal tourism economy - Thailand

This article examines the types of capitals possessed by informal tourism entrepreneurs and locates their value within the field relations that orders their contribution to the tourism system. Bourdieu's theory on fields and capitals was applied to ethnographic narrative accounts of stakeholders in tourism in Chiang Mai, Thailand to assess these roles. Informal entrepreneurs have limited access to resources and their perspectives are excluded from academic debates and policy initiatives. The paper identifies the dynamism, positive social capital, flexibility, and symbolic capital of informal entrepreneurs. These are related to the field conditions that determine and structure their contribution to tourism destinations. The analysis reveals the importance of collaboration between informal entrepreneurs and other stakeholders, concluding with recommendations for policy makers.

Ability tracking and social trust in China’s rural secondary school system
Li, Fan ; Loyalka, Prashant ; Yi, Hongmei ; Shi, Yaojiang ; Johnson, Natalie ; Rozelle, Scott - \ 2018
School Effectiveness and School Improvement 29 (2018)4. - ISSN 0924-3453 - p. 545 - 572.
Ability tracking - confidence in public institutions - interpersonal trust - rural secondary schooling - social trust

The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social trust, in the context of low-income students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 low-income students across 132 schools in rural China, we found a significant lack of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also found that slow-tracked students have a significantly lower level of social trust, comprised of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions, relative to their fast-tracked peers. This disparity might further widen the gap between relatively privileged students who stay in school and less privileged students who drop out of school. These results suggest that making high school accessible to more students may improve social trust among rural low-income young adults.

Unlocking the multiple public good services from balanced fertilizers
Bindraban, Prem S. ; Dimkpa, Christian O. ; Angle, Scott ; Rabbinge, Rudy - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 273 - 285.
Food loss - Human health - Innovative fertilizers - Micronutrients - Plant health - Resilience - Sector transformation
Fertilizers produce over half of the world’s food and permit less encroachment into pristine lands. Yet, the low uptake efficiency by crop plants causes nutrient losses that drive global change. Mitigating measures have been insufficient to address the problems, and policy interventions, NGO involvement, and R&D investments have been too insignificant to transform the fertilizer sector. Here, we discuss the contribution of balanced mineral fertilizers to increasing the nutritional value of crop produce to improve human nutrition and health; healthier plants to reduce biocide use; plant robustness to enhance tolerance to abiotic stresses; and increased metabolite production to improve taste and shelf-life. We reflect on raising awareness about these multiple fertilizer-based public good services for realizing several Sustainable Development Goals which can be achieved through a comprehensive nutrient assessment to catalyze transformation in research, policy and industry.
Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of bovine clinical mastitis results in a net economic benefit to the dairy farmer
Soest, Felix J.S. van; Abbeloos, Elke ; McDougall, Scott ; Hogeveen, Henk - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)4. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 3387 - 3397.
Animal health management - Bovine clinical mastitis - Economics - Fertility
Recently, it has been shown that the addition of meloxicam to standard antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis (CM) improves the conception rate of dairy cows contracting CM in the first 120 d in milk. The objective of our study was to assess whether this improved reproduction through additional treatment with meloxicam would result in a positive net economic benefit for the farmer. We developed a stochastic bio-economic simulation model, in which a dairy cow with CM in the first 120 d in milk was simulated. Two scenarios were simulated in which CM cases were treated with meloxicam in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy or with antimicrobial therapy alone. The scenarios differed for conception rates (31% with meloxicam or 21% without meloxicam) and for the cost of CM treatment. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken for the biological and economic components of the model to assess the effects of a wide range of inputs on inferences about the cost effectiveness of meloxicam treatment. Model results showed an average net economic benefit of €42 per CM case per year in favor of the meloxicam scenario. Cows in the no-meloxicam treatment scenario had higher returns on milk production, lower costs upon calving, and reduced costs of treatment. However, these did not outweigh the savings associated with lower feed intake, reduced number of inseminations, and the reduced culling rate. The net economic benefit favoring meloxicam therapy was a consequence of the better reproductive performance in the meloxicam scenario in which cows had a shorter calving to conception interval (132 vs. 143 d), a shorter intercalving interval (405 vs. 416 d), and fewer inseminations per conception (2.9 vs. 3.7) compared with cows in the no-meloxicam treatment scenario. This resulted in a shorter lactation, hence a lower lactational milk production (8,441 vs. 8,517 kg per lactation) with lower feeding costs in the meloxicam group. A lower culling rate (12 vs. 25%) resulted in lower replacement costs in the meloxicam treatment scenario. All of the scenarios evaluated in the sensitivity analyses favored meloxicam treatment over no meloxicam. This study demonstrated that improvements in conception rate achieved by the use of meloxicam, as additional therapy for mild to moderate CM in the first 120 d in milk, have positive economic benefits. This inference remained true over a wide range of technical and economic inputs, demonstrating that use of meloxicam is likely to be cost effective across many production systems.
Erratum to: Modeling the Fate and Transport of Plastic Debris in Freshwaters: Review and Guidance
Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wezel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, Martin, Lambert, Scott, Cham : Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616148 - p. E1 - E1.
The Essential Elements of a Risk Governance Framework for Current and Future Nanotechnologies
Stone, Vicki ; Führ, Martin ; Feindt, Peter H. ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Linkov, Igor ; Sabella, Stefania ; Murphy, Finbarr ; Bizer, Kilian ; Tran, Lang ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Fito, Carlos ; Andersen, Torben ; Anderson, Diana ; Bergamaschi, Enrico ; Cherrie, John W. ; Cowan, Sue ; Dalemcourt, Jean Francois ; Faure, Michael ; Gabbert, Silke ; Gajewicz, Agnieszka ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Hristozov, Danail ; Johnston, Helinor J. ; Lansdown, Terry C. ; Linder, Stefan ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Mullins, Martin ; Purnhagen, Kai ; Puzyn, Tomasz ; Sanchez Jimenez, Araceli ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Streftaris, George ; Tongeren, Martie van; Voelcker, Nicolas H. ; Voyiatzis, George ; Yannopoulos, Spyros N. ; Poortvliet, P.M. - \ 2018
Risk Analysis 38 (2018)7. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 1321 - 1331.
Decision making - Nano-regulation - Risk communication - Risk governance - Risk management
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area. Here, we propose three sets of essential elements required to generate an effective risk governance framework for nanomaterials. (1) Advanced tools to facilitate risk-based decision making, including an assessment of the needs of users regarding risk assessment, mitigation, and transfer. (2) An integrated model of predicted human behavior and decision making concerning nanomaterial risks. (3) Legal and other (nano-specific and general) regulatory requirements to ensure compliance and to stimulate proactive approaches to safety. The implementation of such an approach should facilitate and motivate good practice for the various stakeholders to allow the safe and sustainable future development of nanotechnology.
Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato
Mesarich, Carl H. ; Ӧkmen, Bilal ; Rovenich, Hanna ; Griffiths, Scott A. ; Wang, Changchun ; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor ; Mihajlovski, Aleksandar ; Collemare, Jérôme ; Hunziker, Lukas ; Deng, Cecilia H. ; Burgt, Ate Van Der; Beenen, Henriek G. ; Templeton, Matthew D. ; Bradshaw, Rosie E. ; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. De - \ 2018
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 31 (2018)1. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 145 - 162.
Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes that encode receptor-like proteins (RLPs). These RLPs recognize specific SSP effectors to initiate a hypersensitive response (HR) that renders the pathogen avirulent. C. fulvum strains capable of overcoming one or more of all cloned Cf genes have now emerged. To combat these strains, new Cf genes are required. An effectoromics approach was employed to identify wild tomato accessions carrying new Cf genes. Proteomics and transcriptome sequencing were first used to identify 70 apoplastic in planta–induced C. fulvum SSPs. Based on sequence homology, 61 of these SSPs were novel or lacked known functional domains. Seven, however, had predicted structural homology to antimicrobial proteins, suggesting a possible role in mediating antagonistic microbe-microbe interactions in planta. Wild tomato accessions were then screened for HR-associated recognition of 41 SSPs, using the Potato virus X–based transient expression system. Nine SSPs were recognized by one or more accessions, suggesting that these plants carry new Cf genes available for incorporation into cultivated tomato.
Recreational sea fishing in Europe in a global context-Participation rates, fishing effort, expenditure, and implications for monitoring and assessment
Hyder, Kieran ; Weltersbach, Marc Simon ; Armstrong, Mike ; Ferter, Keno ; Townhill, Bryony ; Ahvonen, Anssi ; Arlinghaus, Robert ; Baikov, Andrei ; Bellanger, Manuel ; Birzaks, Janis ; Borch, Trude ; Cambie, Giulia ; Graaf, Martin De; Diogo, Hugo M.C. ; Dziemian, Łukasz ; Gordoa, Ana ; Grzebielec, Ryszard ; Hartill, Bruce ; Kagervall, Anders ; Kapiris, Kostas ; Karlsson, Martin ; Kleiven, Alf Ring ; Lejk, Adam M. ; Levrel, Harold ; Lovell, Sabrina ; Lyle, Jeremy ; Moilanen, Pentti ; Monkman, Graham ; Morales-Nin, Beatriz ; Mugerza, Estanis ; Martinez, Roi ; O'Reilly, Paul ; Olesen, Hans Jakob ; Papadopoulos, Anastasios ; Pita, Pablo ; Radford, Zachary ; Radtke, Krzysztof ; Roche, William ; Rocklin, Delphine ; Ruiz, Jon ; Scougal, Callum ; Silvestri, Roberto ; Skov, Christian ; Steinback, Scott ; Sundelöf, Andreas ; Svagzdys, Arvydas ; Turnbull, David ; Hammen, Tessa Van Der; Voorhees, David Van; Winsen, Frankwin Van; Verleye, Thomas ; Veiga, Pedro ; Vølstad, Jon-Helge ; Zarauz, Lucia ; Zolubas, Tomas ; Strehlow, Harry V. - \ 2018
Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)2. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 225 - 243.
European marine recreational fisheries - fisheries assessment and management - fishing effort and expenditure - participation - surveys and monitoring of marine recreational fisheries
Marine recreational fishing (MRF) is a high-participation activity with large economic value and social benefits globally, and it impacts on some fish stocks. Although reporting MRF catches is a European Union legislative requirement, estimates are only available for some countries. Here, data on numbers of fishers, participation rates, days fished, expenditures, and catches of two widely targeted species were synthesized to provide European estimates of MRF and placed in the global context. Uncertainty assessment was not possible due to incomplete knowledge of error distributions; instead, a semi-quantitative bias assessment was made. There were an estimated 8.7 million European recreational sea fishers corresponding to a participation rate of 1.6%. An estimated 77.6 million days were fished, and expenditure was €5.9 billion annually. There were higher participation, numbers of fishers, days fished and expenditure in the Atlantic than the Mediterranean, but the Mediterranean estimates were generally less robust. Comparisons with other regions showed that European MRF participation rates and expenditure were in the mid-range, with higher participation in Oceania and the United States, higher expenditure in the United States, and lower participation and expenditure in South America and Africa. For both northern European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, Moronidae) and western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae) stocks, MRF represented 27% of the total removals. This study highlights the importance of MRF and the need for bespoke, regular and statistically sound data collection to underpin European fisheries management. Solutions are proposed for future MRF data collection in Europe and other regions to support sustainable fisheries management.
Use of prospective and retrospective risk assessment methods that simplify chemical mixtures associated with treated domestic wastewater discharges
Diamond, Jerome ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Coors, Anja ; Dyer, Scott ; Focazio, Michael ; Kidd, Karen ; Koelmans, Albert A. ; Leung, Kenneth M.Y. ; Servos, Mark ; Snape, Jason ; Tolls, Johannes ; Zhang, Xiaowei - \ 2018
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)3. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 690 - 702.
A framework is presented that is intended to facilitate the evaluation of potential aquatic ecological risks resulting from discharges of down the drain chemicals. A scenario is presented using representatives of many of the types of chemicals that are treated domestically. Predicted treated effluent chemical concentrations (PECS) are based on reported loading rates and routine removal rates for three types of treatment: trickling filter (TF), activated sludge secondary treatment (AS), and AS plus advanced oxidation process (AOP). In Tier I, PECs were compared with the lowest predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) obtained from the literature using safety factors as needed. A cumulative risk characterization ratio (cumRCR) <1.0 indicates risk is unlikely and no further action is needed. Otherwise, a Tier 2 assessment is used, in which PNECs are based on trophic level. If Tier 2 indicates a possible risk, then a retrospective assessment is recommended. In Tier 1, the cumRCR was > 1.0 for all three treatment types in our scenario, even though no chemical exceeded a hazard quotient of 1.0 in AS or AOP. In Tier 2, AS yielded a lower cumRCR than TF due to higher removal rates and the cumRCR in AOP was <<1.0. Based on the maximum cumulative risk ratio (MCR), more than one third of the predicted risk was accounted for by one chemical and at least 90% was accounted for by three chemicals, indicating that few chemicals influenced the mixture risk in our scenario. We show how a retrospective assessment can test whether certain chemicals hypothesized as potential drivers in the prospective assessment could have, or are having, deleterious effects on aquatic life.
A diagnostic framework for food system governance arrangements : The case of South Africa
Termeer, Catrien J.A.M. ; Drimie, Scott ; Ingram, John ; Pereira, Laura ; Whittingham, Mark J. - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 84 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 85 - 93.
Diagnostics - Food security - Food system governance - Governance arrangements - South Africa

Although policymakers and scientists are increasingly embracing the food system perspective, it has been poorly reflected in institutional terms. We aim to fill this gap by addressing the question as to what forms of governance are most appropriate to govern food systems in a more holistic way. The article presents a diagnostic framework consisting of five principles: 1) system-based problem framing to deal with interlinked issues, drivers and feedback loops; 2) connectivity across boundaries to span siloed governance structures and include non-state actors; 3) adaptability to flexibly respond to inherent uncertainties and volatility; 4) inclusiveness to facilitate support and legitimacy; and 5) transformative capacity to overcome path dependencies and create adequate conditions to foster structural change. This framework is used to analyse the strengths and weaknesses of three food governance arrangements in South Africa, each of which deliberately aimed to embrace a holistic perspective. Although promising on paper, the outcomes are disappointing because of a reversion to a technical onedimensional problem framing during the implementation, the dominance of single departments, the limited attention to monitoring and flexible responses and the exclusion of those most affected by food insecurity. We conclude that the tensions between the ambitious objectives of the arrangements and the institutional constraints of implementing them can persist because of inadequate resources to facilitate transformative change. Finally, we propose an agenda to further elaborate the framework and improve its practical usefulness.

Down-regulation of cladofulvin biosynthesis is required for biotrophic growth of Cladosporium fulvum on tomato : A secondary metabolite prevents fungal biotrophy
Griffiths, Scott ; Mesarich, Carl H. ; Overdijk, Elysa J.R. ; Saccomanno, Benedetta ; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. De; Collemare, Jérôme - \ 2018
Molecular Plant Pathology 19 (2018)2. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 369 - 380.
Fungal biotrophy is associated with a reduced capacity to produce potentially toxic secondary metabolites (SMs). Yet, the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Cladosporium fulvum contains many SM biosynthetic gene clusters, with several related to toxin production. These gene clusters are, however, poorly expressed during colonisation of tomato. The sole detectable SM produced by C. fulvum during in vitro growth is the anthraquinone cladofulvin. Although this pigment is not detected in infected leaves, cladofulvin biosynthetic genes are expressed throughout the pre-penetration phase and during conidiation at the end of the infection cycle, but they are repressed during the biotrophic phase of tomato colonization. It was suggested that tight regulation of SM gene clusters is required for C. fulvum to behave as a biotrophic pathogen, while retaining potential fitness determinants for growth and survival outside its host. To address this hypothesis, we analysed the disease symptoms caused by mutant C. fulvum strains that do not produce or over-produce cladofulvin during the biotrophic growth phase. Non-producers infected tomato similar to wild type, suggesting that cladofulvin is not a virulence factor. In contrast, the cladofulvin over-producers caused strong necrosis and desiccation of tomato leaves, which in turn, arrested conidiation. Consistent with the role of pigments in survival against abiotic stresses, cladofulvin protects conidia against UV light and low temperature stress. Overall this study demonstrates that repression of cladofulvin production is required for C. fulvum to sustain its biotrophic lifestyle in tomato, while its production is important for survival outside its host.
Himalayan thoroughfare : Migratory routes of ducks over the rooftop of the world
Namgail, Tsewang ; Takekawa, John Y. ; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal ; Palm, Eric C. ; Mundkur, Taej ; Vélez, Víctor Martín ; Prosser, Diann J. ; Newman, Scott H. - \ 2017
In: Bird Migration Across the Himalayas / Prins, Herbert H.T., Namgail, Tsewang, Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107114715 - p. 30 - 44.
Biocatalytic formation of nitriles from Biomass
Scott, Elinor - \ 2017
Green conversions and processing
Scott, Elinor - \ 2017
10th Workshop Bioeconomy
Scott, Elinor - \ 2017
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