Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Temporal dominance of sensations, emotions, and temporal liking measured in a bar for two similar wines using a multi-sip approach
Silva, Ana P. ; Voss, Hans Peter ; Zyl, Hannelize van; Hogg, Tim ; Graaf, Cees de; Pintado, Manuela ; Jager, Gerry - \ 2018
Journal of Sensory Studies 33 (2018)5. - ISSN 0887-8250

Eating and drinking are dynamic processes where both sensations and emotions might evolve or change over time during multiple bites/sips. However, most previous studies have measured food-evoked emotions statically, that is, at a fixed time point after consumption and using a single bite/sip approach. This study aimed to explore the sensitivity of temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), of emotions (TDE), and temporal liking (TL), using a multi-sip approach, to differentiate between two comparable tasting wines. A glass of wine, in an appropriate consumption context, a bar, was served to 69 consumers, in two different sessions. It was shown that TDS and TDE captured small differences between equally liked wines. Wines were distinguishable during consumption, based on the dominance of basic sensations such as acid, bitter, and dry, rather than aromatic sensations and based on three emotions pleased, comforted, and relaxed. These emotions were dominant in both wines and in all stages of consumption but differed in the dominance rates. So, the impact of wine consumption on emotions was more uniform during consumption while new sensations became dominant during drinking. Practical implications: The method tested in this study showed a sensitivity level sufficient to capture subtle but significant differences between similar, equally liked wines. Wines tested have a major difference in wine-making process, that is, one of the wines had a particular wood aging processing in new oak barrels conferring specific flavors and associated costs. For the wine industry, the method can be particularly useful to understand to which extent consumers perceive differences in sensations and emotions, in a blind tasting, to investigate if increased costs of production are acceptable and justified. For other food products, the method can be useful to use during product development stage, when the aim is to differentiate prototypes with subtle differences in ingredients composition and associated costs. Knowing when certain sensations and emotions occur during consumption might help to create successful products in the market. Further research using different food or beverages is however necessary to assure its validity.

Risk analysis and technology assessment in support of technology development : Putting responsible innovation in practice in a case study for nanotechnology
Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Lente, Harro van; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Vandeberg, Rens L.J. ; Sips, Adrienne J.A.M. - \ 2018
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 9 - 16.
Responsible research and innovation - Risk analysis - Technology assessment
Governments invest in “key enabling technologies,” such as nanotechnology, to solve societal challenges and boost the economy. At the same time, governmental agencies demand risk reduction to prohibit any often unknown adverse effects, and industrial parties demand smart approaches to reduce uncertainties. Responsible research and innovation (RRI) is therefore a central theme in policy making. Risk analysis and technology assessment, together referred to as “RATA,” can provide a basis to assess human, environmental, and societal risks of new technological developments during the various stages of technological development. This assessment can help both governmental authorities and innovative industry to move forward in a sustainable manner. Here we describe the developed procedures and products and our experiences to bring RATA in practice within a large Dutch nanotechnology consortium. This is an example of how to put responsible innovation in practice as an integrated part of a research program, how to increase awareness of RATA, and how to help technology developers perform and use RATA. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:9–16.
Endogenous phosphorus losses in growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows
Bikker, P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. Van der; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Sips, V. ; Walvoort, C. ; Laar, H. van - \ 2017
Journal of Animal Science 95 (2017)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1637 - 1643.
Dietary fiber - Endogenous losses - Feces - Phosphorus - Pigs - Sows

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2.0 or 3.0 kg/d). Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fat, and carbohydrates (COH), and fecal P excretion (in g/d, mg/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) were determined using TiO2 as indigestible marker. Digestibility of OM and COH differed among diets (P < 0.001) and was greatest in both types of pigs fed the STA diet and lowest in those fed the CEL diet. While digestibility of OM and COH was similar in sows and GF pigs that were fed the STA diet and the CEL diet, on the INU diet, sows had, compared with GF pigs, a greater digest- ibility of OM (92.2 vs. 87.2%) and COH (92.5 vs. 88.4%), respectively. Both BW and FL increased fecal P excretion (g/d). When expressed in mg/kg DMI, P excretion was higher in sows than in GF pigs on the STA diet (498 versus 236 mg/kg DMI), the INU diet (526 vs. 316 mg/kg DMI), and the CEL diet (928 vs. 342 mg/kg DMI). When expressed in mg/(kg BW·d), however, P excretion was similar in GF pigs and sows that were fed the STA diet and in those that were fed the INU diet, whereas it was greater in sows than in GF pigs that were fed the CEL diet (11.6 vs. 7.3 mg/ (kg BW·d)). The results of this study indicate that EPL (mg/kg DMI) in pigs substantially increase with increasing BW. Application of EPL (mg/kg DMI) determined in GF pigs may underestimate EPL and therefore P requirements in gestating sows. Moreover, EPL is diet dependent and increases with an increasing content of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). The degree of this increase may differ between sows and GF pigs and seems to depend on properties of dietary fiber.

Health interest modulates brain reward responses to a perceived low-caloric beverage in females
Rijn, Inge van; Wegman, Joost ; Aarts, Esther ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2017
Health Psychology 36 (2017)1. - ISSN 0278-6133 - p. 65 - 72.
Calories - Health interest - Health labels - Reward anticipation - Reward receipt

Objective: Health labels are omnipresent in the supermarket. Such labels give rise to expectations about the product experience and may change flavor perception and perceived reward value. Consumers vary in their degree of health interest and may be differentially affected by such labels. However, how health interest influences neural reward responses to anticipation and receipt of heath-labeled foods is not known. This study assessed to what extent brain responses induced by anticipation and receipt of a beverage with different levels of perceived caloric content are associated with health interest. Method: Twenty-five females completed an fMRI motivational taste-task in which they were presented with a low-caloric cue or a high-caloric cue and subsequently worked for sips of lemonade by moving a joystick. If they responded correctly and in time, they received the lemonade as a reward. Because of the 2 cue types, participants believed they were receiving 2 different lemonades, a high-caloric (HC-receipt) and a low-caloric (LC-receipt) one. Health interest was assessed with the General health interest subscale of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales. Results: Health interest scores correlated significantly (r = .65) with LC-versus HC-receipt activation in the dorsal striatum (putamen), a region involved in encoding food reward. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the reward value of a healthy product compared to its unhealthy counterpart increases with health interest. This provides more insight into the working mechanism of government campaigns that focus on increasing health interest to encourage the formation of healthy eating habits.

The interplay between mouth and mind : explaining variation in taste-related brain activation
Rijn, Inge van - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Paul Smeets. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579040 - 156
taste research - magnetic resonance imaging - brain - patterns - satiety - hunger - calories - smaakonderzoek - kernspintomografie - hersenen - patronen - verzadigdheid - honger - calorieën

Food does not always ‘taste’ the same. During hunger, for example, food may be tastier compared to during satiety. Many other internal and external factors affect the way we experience our food and make it a dynamic process. Our brain is responsible for weighing and integrating these factors and forms the final consumption experience. Mapping the impact of all factors that influence the consumption experience is of fundamental importance for understanding why we eat the way we eat. Important drivers for food consumption are its rewarding capacity, healthiness and caloric content. Furthermore, in the current supermarket environment, advertisements and food claims are omnipresent, and may exert influence on our consumption experience by triggering all kinds of cognitive processes. Therefore, in this thesis we aimed to assess the effect of food content (caloric content and sugar type), character (personality trait reward sensitivity and attitude health-interest) and cognitive effects (labeling/claim effects and selective attention to food properties) on brain activation during tasting. Such taste-related brain responses were obtained with the use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging while administering small sips of liquid to young, normal weight female participants in a MRI scanner.

To begin with, we focussed on the effect of caloric content on taste responses (Chapter 2). An important function of eating is ingesting energy, and the ability to sense energy in the oral cavity would therefore be biologically relevant. However, in this thesis we showed that oral exposure to caloric (maltodextrin and maltodextrin + sucralose) and non-caloric (sucralose) stimuli does not elicit discriminable responses in the brain when averaged over hunger and satiety. Nevertheless, energy content did interact with hunger state in several brain regions involved in inhibition (approach-avoidance behaviors) and gustation: the middle cingulate cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. Thus, brain activation in response to oral calories, irrespective of sweetness, seems to be dependent on hunger state.

In addition to the detection of oral calories in general, we examined whether different sugar types, glucose and fructose, can be sensed in the oral cavity (Chapter 3). Tasting glucose compared to fructose evoked greater food reward (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC) activation during hunger and greater food motivation (precentral gyrus) activation during hunger and satiety. Responses to oral fructose relative to glucose were greater only during satiety in an area associated with inhibitory control (superior frontal gyrus). It appears that oral glucose and fructose evoke differential brain responses, independent of sweetness.

Secondly, we investigated in how far reward sensitivity, a personality trait, affected brain responses to calories in the oral cavity (Chapter 4). This because a food’s reward value is highly dependent on its caloric content. Sensitivity to rewards was measured with the Behavioral Activation System Drive scale and was correlated with oral calorie activation from a simple maltodextrin solution and a sucrose sweetened soft drink. Oral calorie activation was obtained by subtracting activation by a non-caloric solution (sucralose solution/non-caloric soft drink) from that by a caloric solution (maltodextrin + sucralose/sucrose sweetened soft drink). We found that neural responses to oral calories from a maltodextrin solution are modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related areas such as the caudate, amygdala, and ACC. For soft drinks, we found no correlations with reward sensitivity in any reward related area. This discrepancy may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. However, the absence of this effect in a familiar soft drink warrants further research into its relevance for real life ingestive behavior.

In the last part of this thesis we explored how cognitions modulate the consumption experience. Perceived, rather than actual caloric content, inflicted by calorie food labels, induces cognitive processes that may influence the consumption experience on their own. We tested this in an experiment and found that receipt of a beverage perceived as low- compared to high-caloric induced more activation in the dorsal striatum, a region involved in coding food reward (Chapter 5). As low-calorie labels may appeal especially to the health-minded consumers, we correlated brain responses to the receipt of a beverage perceived as low- compared to high-caloric with health interest (measured with the General health interest subscale of the Health and Taste Attitude Scales). Indeed, health interest scores correlated positively with activation in the dorsal striatum.

Rather than focussing participants’ attention on differences within one food aspect, in Chapter 6 we focussed on selective attention to different food aspects, i.e. pleasantness versus taste intensity versus calories. In the supermarket, food labels and claims often do the same. In the first place, paying attention to hedonics, caloric content or taste intensity predominantly resulted in common brain activation in regions involved in the neural processing of food stimuli, e.g. the insula and thalamus. This likely resulted from ‘bottom-up’ sensory effects, which are more prominent than ‘top-down’ attentional effects. However, small differences were also observed; taste activation was higher during selective attention to intensity compared to calories in the right middle orbitofrontal cortex and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Overall, these results indicate that statements regarding food properties can alter the consumption experience through attention-driven effects on the activation of gustatory and reward regions.

Finally, the general discussion (Chapter 7) describes main finding and conclusions of this thesis. In sum, we showed that food energy content, sugar type, trait reward sensitivity, health interest, food labels and selective attention all modulate taste-related brain activation. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the formation of the final consumption experience is a very multifaceted process that dependents on numerous factors integrated by the brain, of which we are just beginning to grasp its complexity.

Basal endogenous phosphorus losses in pigs are affected by both body weight and feeding level
Bikker, P. ; Laar, H. van; Sips, V. ; Walvoort, C. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2016
Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)7 supplement 3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 294 - 297.
Endogenous losses - Feces - Phosphorus - Pigs - Sows - Urine

Two similar experiments were conducted to determine the separate effects of feeding level (FL) and BW on basal endogenous phospho-rous losses (EPL) from the digestive tract and minimal urinary P content in growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 16 GF pigs (initial BW 85 kg) and 16 gestating sows (initial BW 201 kg), both individually housed and divided in 2 groups of 8, received the same semipurified low-P diet at a feeding level (FL) of 2 or 3 kg/d during a 22-d period. Grab samples of feces and spot samples of urine were collected 2 times per day on d 6-8, 13-15, and 20-22 of feeding the low-P diet in GF pigs and on d 20-22 in sows. Phosphorus content was determined and excretion in the feces (in g/d, g/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) was calculated using titanium dioxide as indigestible marker. In GF pigs, the fecal P excretion (g/d) decreased over time from the first to the third collection period (P <0.001). Fecal P excretion (g/d) increased with increasing FL in both GF pigs (P <0.001) and sows (P = 0.003). In sows, the fecal P excretion was approximately 2 times higher compared to GF pigs in the third collection period, 499 versus 237 mg/kg DMI. The differences between sows and GF pigs were much smaller when P excretion was expressed per kilogram BW, 5.6 and 4.6 mg/(kg BW·d), respectively. The urinary P concentration was below the detection limit in nearly all samples of GF pigs and sows. The results of this study indicate that EPL in pigs increase with increasing FL, and BW and EPL in gestating sows exceed these in GF pigs. Inevitable urinary P losses seem extremely low, both in sows and GF pigs.

Beyond liking : emotional and physiological responses to food stimuli
He, W. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Sanne Boesveldt; Rene de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576506 - 149 p.
stimuli - food - emotions - autonomic nervous system - odours - taste - beverages - physiological functions - man - human behaviour - expressivity - prikkels - voedsel - emoties - autonome zenuwstelsel - geurstoffen - smaak - dranken - fysiologische functies - mens - menselijk gedrag - expressiviteit

Background and aim

Traditional liking ratings are typically seen as an important determinant in eating behavior. However, in order to better understand eating behavior, we need to first better understand (the dynamic and implicit features underlying) liking appraisal. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of food stimuli varying in sensory modality (smell and taste), pleasantness and intensity, on emotional and physiological responses leading up to liking appraisal.


Four studies, using healthy participants, were conducted as part of this thesis. In the first study, responses to pleasant versus unpleasant food odors varying in intensity were measured discretely using pleasantness ratings, intensity ratings and non-verbally reported emotions (PrEmo), as well as continuously using facial expressions and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. To further explore how explicit and implicit factors contribute to pleasantness appraisal, the same measures were assessed in response to food odors with a wider range of valence. Next, we focused on facial expressions and ANS responses elicited by single sips of breakfast drinks that were equally liked. In the last study, we investigated changes in pleasantness after consuming semi-liquid meals to (sensory-specific) satiety, combined with measures of facial expressions and ANS responses.


Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and between food odors differing in intensity. In addition to discrete emotional responses, odor valence associated best with facial expressions after 1 second of odor exposure. Furthermore, facial expressions and ANS responses measured continuously were found odor-specific in different rates over time. Results of food odors with a wider range of valence showed that non-verbally reported emotions, facial expressions and ANS responses correlated with each other best in different time windows after odor presentation: facial expressions and ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the arousal dimension in the 2nd second of odor presentation, whereas later ANS responses correlated best with the explicit emotions of the valence dimension in the 4th second. For food stimuli varying in flavor (breakfast drinks), facial expressions and ANS responses showed strongest associations with liking after 1 second of tasting, as well as with intensity after 2 seconds of tasting. Lastly, we were able to demonstrate that ANS responses, as well as facial expressions of anger and disgust were associated with satiety. Further effects of sensory-specific satiety were also reflected by skin conductance, skin temperature, as well as facial expressions of sadness and anger.


Both non-verbal reported emotions and emotional facial expressions were demonstrated to be able to discriminate between food odors differing in pleasantness and/or intensity. Explicit and implicit emotional responses, as well as physiological patterns are related to liking appraisals involved in smelling foods. Implicit measures such as facial expressions and ANS responses can provide more multidimensional information for both food odors and tastes than explicit measures and prove to be highly dynamic over time with specific time courses. Early implicit facial and ANS responses primarily reflect emotion arousal, whereas later ANS responses reflect emotion valence, suggesting dynamic unfolding of different appraisals of food stimuli. Furthermore, ANS responses and facial expressions can reflect pleasantness, satiety, and a combination of both: sensory-specific satiety. This suggests that implicit processes play an important role in dynamic liking appraisals with respect to eating behavior.

Innovative, multi-disciplinary sensing of rainfall and flood response in urban environments
Veldhuis, J.A.E. Ten; Koole, W. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Sips, R. ; Overeem, A. ; Riemsdijk, M. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings UrbanRain15 10th International workshop on Precipitation in Urban Areas. -
On 28 July, a cloudburst hit Amsterdam, pouring 90 mm of rainfall over the city with intense rainfall peaks of up to 150 mm/h (Amsterdam Rainproof, 2014). Sewer and drainage systems were unable to cope with this amount of water and flooding occurred at many locations. This example illustrates the disruptive effects that intense storms can have on urban societies, the economy and infrastructure.
Extreme rainfall is expected to occur more often in the future as a result of climate change. To be able to react to this, urban water managers need to accurately know vulnerable spots in the city, as well as the potential impact to society. Currently, detailed information about rainfall intensities in cities, and effects of intense storm events on urban societies is lacking. Collection of these detailed data would require the installation of a highly granular network of weather stations, making preparation of cities around the globe for extreme weather costly. Moreover, as demonstrated by Sips et al. (2013), the costs associated with sensing infrastructure may cause abandoning the implementation thereof.
In this study, we will present first results of an “Urban Weather Sensing Lab” that is created in the city of Amsterdam to provide high resolution, real-time, directly accessible information on rainfall and urban water/drainage system conditions. In this Lab, innovative sensing techniques will be utilised, based on routinely collected data and existing infrastructure, including rainfall estimation from microwave links (Overeem et al., 2011), low-cost acoustic rainfall sensors and low-cost sensors in the drainage system. These will be combined with Social Sensing; information provided by citizens in an active way through smartphone apps and in a passive way by information retrieval from social media posts (Twitter, Flickr etc.) (Gaitan et al., 2014). Sensor information will be integrated, visualised and made accessible to citizens to help raise citizen awareness of urban water management challenges and promote resilience by providing information on how citizens can contribute in addressing these. Moreover, citizens and businesses can benefit from reliable weather information in planning their social and commercial activities.
In an initial deployment in the city of Amsterdam, we aim to derive 2 main results: (1) results from social sensing experiments using a prototype smartphone app; (2) results from high resolution hydrodynamic modelling fuelled by the input from Innovative sensing.
Citizens will be actively involved in collecting rainfall and other weather information using a smartphone app (figure 1). The smartphone app can be used to collect weather information through opportunistic as well through participatory or request-driven social sensing. Experiments will be conducted in Amsterdam, where citizens will first autonomously use the app to collect data. In a next step, users will be requested by the app to measure the weather at a certain moment. This will eventually allow water managers and emergency services to collect information from critical locations where information is lacking, in real-time. Results of the first app experiments, to be conducted in summer 2015, will be presented.
Factors determining endogenous phosphorus losses in growing pigs and sows
Bikker, P. ; Laar, H. van; Sips, V. ; Walvoort, C. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2015
In: Book of Abstracts 13th Digestive Physiology in Pigs Symposium. - - p. 212 - 212.
The appetizing and satiating effects of odours
Ramaekers, M.G. - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning; Catriona Lakemond. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739995 - 164
geurstoffen - eetlust - verzadigdheid - sensorische evaluatie - voedingsgewoonten - odours - appetite - satiety - sensory evaluation - feeding habits
Background and aim

Unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy food choices or overeating increase the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and other diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how separate factors, such as sensory processes, influence our eating behaviour. As one of the sensory modalities, olfaction has a relationship with food intake regulation. Previous research reveals that food odours can induce both appetite and satiation. In this thesis, we split appetite and satiation into a ‘general’ part and a ‘food specific’ part. General appetite and general satiation refer to the desire to eat in general. General satiation measured by subjective ratings (e.g. by using line scales) is also named ‘subjective satiation’. The specific part refers to the desire to eat a specific food: e.g. the appetite for a banana or the appetite for tomato soup.

The main objective of this thesis was to investigate under which circumstances odours are appetizing or satiating in order to identify factors that influence our eating behaviour.Odours arrive at the odour receptors via two routes: the orthonasal route via the nose to perceive the outside world or retronasally via the mouth to ‘taste’ the food. The appetizing and satiating effects of ortho- and retronasally smelled odours were investigated by varying the odour exposure time, the odour concentration(retronasal only), the odour type, passive versus active sniffing (orthonasal only) and by switching between odour types.


We conducted six within-subject experiments. All participants were healthy normal-weight women (age 18-45 y and BMI 18.5-26 kg/m2). In four experiments (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B), we investigated the appetizing and satiating effects of orthonasal odours, with two experiments addressing odours that were smelled passively in rooms with ambient odours (chapter 2) and two addressing actively smelled odours by sniffing the contents of a cup (chapter 3). In studies 2A (passive, n=21), 2B (passive, n=13) and 3A (active, n=61), we investigated the effects of exposure timeand odour typeon appetite, the appetite for specific foods, food preference and food intake. Differences between passiveand active exposure were investigated by comparing the data from 2A and 3A. In the fourth experiment (n=30) using a similar set-up, sweet and savoury odours were presented directly after each other, to explore the effects of daily encounters with a variety of food odours (i.e. switching). In all orthonasal studies, general appetite and the appetite for specific foods were monitored over time, using visual analogue scales. General appetite comprised hunger and desire-to-eat ratings. The appetite for specific products addressed the appetite for smelled products and the appetites for a set of other products that were congruent and incongruent with the odour (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). Food preference was assessed using a computerised program offering pairs of food pictures (studies 2A, 2B and 3B).

Furthermore, two experiments addressed the satiating effects of retronasal odours while consuming tomato soup ad libitum (studies 4A and 4B). The retronasal odour exposure was disconnected from the soup base consumptionby use of a retronasal tube that was connected to an olfactometer. The odours were delivered directly into the nasal cavity at the moment a sip of soup base was swallowed. In study 4A (n=38), the satiating effects of odour exposure time(3 and 18 s) and odour concentration(5x difference) were investigated. In study 4B(n=42),we investigated whether addition of cream odourto tomato soup, in combination with a low or high viscosity, affected satiation. Hunger and appetite ratings were monitored over time during odour exposure, by using 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS).


The results showed that orthonasalexposure to food odours influenced the appetite for specific foods via a typical pattern: the appetite ratings for the smelled foods increased by +6-20 mm(SSA; all P<0.001), the appetite for congruent sweet and savoury foods increased by +5 mmand the appetite for incongruent sweet and savoury foods decreased by -5 mm (all P<0.01), measured by using 100 mm VAS (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). This typical pattern was found in all studies, independently of passive or active smelling, exposure time or switching between odours (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B). Results in study 3B showed that the appetite for specific products adjusted to the new odour within one minute after a switch between sweet and savoury odours. Similar results were found with a computerised food preference program, in which participants chose repeatedly between pairs of foods (studies 2A, 2B and 3B). Food preference shifted in circa 20% of the choices. Furthermore, passively smelled food odours had a large effect on the appetite for the smelled foods (+15 mm; P<0.001) and a small effect on general appetite (+4 mm; P=0.01; study 2A). Actively smelled food odours had nosignificant effect on general appetite or food intake (studies 3A and 3B). Non-food odours appeared to suppress general appetite slightly (-2 mm, P=0.01). The appetizing effects did not change over timeduring a twenty-minute odour exposure (studies 2A, 2B, 3A and 3B) and the typical pattern of odour effects on the appetite for specific foods was not affected by switching between sweet and savoury odours (study 3B). The pleasantness of the odour decreased by -4 mmduring active smelling (P=0.005), whereas the appetite for the smelled food remained high (P<0.001; study 3B).

Furthermore, the results from the retronasalstudies showed that an increase in both retronasal odour exposure time and concentration reduced ad libitum intake by 9 % (i.e. 3 sips and 22 kJ; P=0.04) and had no effect on subjective satiation (study 4A). Adding cream odour decreased subjective satiation with circa 5 %between 7 and 13 minutes after the start of consumption (P=0.009), but did not affect ad libitumintake (study 4B). Retronasally smelled odour significantly contributed to the development of sensory-specific satiety (study 4A).


Orthonasally smelled odours affect to a larger extend what you eat, than how much you eat. They influence the appetite for specific foods via a typical pattern: the appetite for the smelled foods and for congruent sweet or savoury foods increases, whereas the appetite for incongruent sweet or savoury foods decreases. This typical pattern is independent of exposure time, passive or active smelling and switchingbetween odours. The reason for this pattern is unknown, however, it may be caused by the preparation of the body for the intake of the smelled food, as food odours may provide information about the nutrient composition of their associated foods. Furthermore, passiveodour exposure may enhance general appetite (how much), whereas activesmelling appears to have no effect. Interestingly,the appetite for the smelled foods remained elevated during the 20-minute smelling, althoughthe pleasantness of the smelled odour decreased a little over time. This shows an earlier assumption from literature incorrect: a decrease in pleasantness of the odour does not lead to less appetite for the smelled food. This seeming contradiction may result from different mechanisms, such as a decrease in hedonic value during prolonged sensory stimulation on the one hand and anticipation of food intake on the other hand. Furthermore, food odours were found to change preference in circa 20% of the cases. Probably, food odours shift food preference, but do not overrule strong initial preferences in circa 80% of the cases.

Moreover, retronasally smelled odours probably have a small influence on satiation, though the evidence is not very strong. An increase in both retronasal odour concentrationand odour exposure timemay enhance satiation. Adding cream odourmay temporarily affect subjective satiation but does not affect food intake. However, the satiating effects that were found in these studies with retronasal odour exposure were borderline significant and data on food intake and subjective appetite ratings were not consistent, which probably reflects thesmall effect size.

Orthonasal odours influence food preference and could potentially be used to encourage healthy eating behaviour. The studies in this thesis were conducted under controlled circumstances and the results possibly deviate from behaviour in daily life. Therefore, it is unclear how strong the influence of odours is on our eating behaviour in daily situations. Finally, we advise product developers not to focus on changing retronasal odour characteristics in order to enhance satiation of products, seen the small effects that were found in this thesis.

Both a higher number of sips and a longer oral transit time reduce ad libitum intake
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 234 - 240.
food-intake - energy-intake - young-adults - eating rate - bite size - body-weight - appetite - consumption - satiety - meal
Background - A higher eating rate leads to a higher food intake, possibly through shorter orosensory exposure to food. The transit time in the oral cavity and the number of bites or sips per gram (inversely related to bite or sip size) are main contributors that affect eating rate. The separate role of these two aspects on satiation and on orosensory exposure needs further clarification. Objective - The objective of the first study was to investigate contributions of the number of sips per gram (sips/g) and oral transit time per gram (s/g) on ad libitum intake. The objective of the second study was to investigate both aspects on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram food. Methods - In study 1, 56 healthy male subjects consumed soup where the number of sips and oral transit time differed by a factor three respectively: 6.7 vs. 20 sips/100 g, and 20 vs. 60 s/100 g (2 × 2 cross-over design). Eating rate of 60 g/min was kept constant. In study 2, the effects of number of sips and oral transit time (equal as in study 1) on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram soup were measured by time intensity functions by 22 different healthy subjects. Results - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced ad libitum intake by respectively ~22% (F(1, 157) = 55.9, P <0.001) and ~8% (F(1, 157) = 7.4, P = 0.007). Higher number of sips led to faster increase in fullness per gram food (F(1, 157) = 24.1, P <0.001) (study 1). Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time both increased the orosensory exposure per gram food (F(1, 63) = 23.8, P <0.001) and (F(1, 63) = 19.0, P <0.001), respectively (study 2). Conclusion - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced food intake, possibly through the increased the orosensory exposure per gram food. Designing foods that will be consumed with small sips or bites and long oral transit time may be effective in reducing energy intake.
Local participation in complex technological projects as bridging between different communities in Belgium
Sips, K. ; Craps, M. ; Dewulf, A. - \ 2013
Knowledge Management for Development Journal 9 (2013)3. - ISSN 1871-6342 - p. 95 - 115.
Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent opportunities for creating knowledge, business or societal benefits from the perspective of the community of driving actors, they often represent a potential threat to health, safety or prosperity from the perspective of the community of people who happen to live near the facilities. What are the challenges in dealing with this difference and which practices are helpful in bridging this gap? In this paper we analyse the functioning of an organised group of local inhabitants in the development of an Enhanced Landfill Mining project in Belgium where previously landfilled waste is going to be used for recycling and energy production. We find that setting up a multi-actor platform, organising a group of involved locals, combining formal and informal communication channels, maintaining a mutually credible dialogue and involving knowledgeable local people as bridging figures are important ingredients to bridge the gap in this case. We also discuss the emerging challenges of local community participation for all actors involved and especially for the organised group of ‘Locals’ who risk to become a victim of its own success by being incorporated too much in the project consortium and leaving a new gap to be bridged with the rest of the local community. Keywords: local community; community participation; stakeholders; waste disposal; Belgium
Local community participation in enhanced landfill mining: the challenge to bridge between communities
Sips, K. ; Ballard, M. ; Craps, M. ; Dewulf, A. - \ 2013
Local community participation in complex technological projects, where technological innovations and risks need to be managed, is notoriously challenging. Relations with local inhabitants easily take the form of exclusion, protest, controversy or litigation. While such projects represent opportunities for creating knowledge, business or societal benefits from the perspective of the community of driving actors, they often represent a potential threat to health, safety or prosperity from the perspective of the community of people who happen to live near the facilities. What are the challenges in dealing with this difference and which practices are helpful in bridging this gap? In this paper we analyse the functioning of an organised group of local inhabitants in the development of an Enhanced Landfill Mining project, where previously landfilled waste is going to be used for recycling and energy production. We find that setting up a multi-actor platform, organising a group of involved locals, combining formal and informal communication channels, maintaining a mutually credible dialogue and involving knowledgeable local people as bridging figures are important ingredients to bridge the gap in this case. We also discuss the emerging challenges of local community participation for all actors involved and especially for the organised group of locals who risk to become a victim of its own success by being incorporated too much in the project consortium and leaving a new gap to be bridged with the rest of the local community.
Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS One 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
Nanomaterials in waste
Passchier, W. ; Berg, M. van den; Erisman, J.W. ; Hazel, P.J. van den; Lebret, E. ; Leemans, R. ; Sluijs, J.P. van der; Sips, A.J.A.M. ; Timmermans, D.R.M. ; Vliet, P.W. van - \ 2011
Den Haag : Health Council of the Netherlands (Horizon Scanning Report 2011/14 )
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 1367 - 1374.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dorsal striatum - energy-balance - human amygdala - sweet taste - liquid food - bite size - reward
Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2 × 2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2 h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established
Perspective study: governance for C2C
Hovelynck, J. ; Dewulf, A. ; Sips, K. - \ 2010
Cologno Monzese, Italy : Gruppo Stampa GB (Cradle to Cradle Network ) - 52
governance - cradle to cradle - europa - innovaties - duurzame ontwikkeling - projecten - samenwerking - multi-stakeholder processen - europe - innovations - sustainable development - projects - cooperation - multi-stakeholder processes
This perspective study will serve as frame of reference for follow-up activities and exchanges both within and outside the Cradle to Cradle Network (C2CN) and it aims to reflect the current challenges and opportunities associated with implementing a Cradle to Cradle approach. In total, four perspective studies have been written, in the areas on industry, area spatial development, governance and on the build theme.
Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation
Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2009
British Journal of Nutrition 102 (2009)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1091 - 1097.
libitum food-intake - repeated consumption - subsequent intake - physical state - energy-intake - sweet taste - body-weight - satiety - humans - beverages
Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 x 2 cross-over design (it 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P
Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production
Bouwmeester, H. ; Dekkers, S. ; Noordam, M.Y. ; Hagens, W. ; Bulder, A.S. ; Heer, P.M. de; Voorde, S.E.C.G. ten; Wijnhoven, S. ; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Sips, A. - \ 2009
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 53 (2009)1. - ISSN 0273-2300 - p. 52 - 62.
oral delivery-systems - ultrafine particles - research strategies - drug-delivery - nanoscale particles - gold nanoparticles - small-intestine - acute toxicity - quantum dots - adult mice
Due to new, previously unknown, properties attributed to engineered nanoparticles many new products are introduced in the agro-food area. Nanotechnologies cover many aspects, such as disease treatment, food security, new materials for pathogen detection, packaging materials and delivery systems. As with most new and evolving technologies, potential benefits are emphasized, while little is known on safety of the application of nanotechnologies in the agro-food sector. This review gives an overview of scientific issues that need to be addressed with priority in order to improve the risk assessment for nanoparticles in food. The following research topics are considered to contribute pivotally to risk assessment of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in food products
Dynamics of food choice and sensory specific satiety
Weijzen, P.L.G. - \ 2008
University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Garmt Dijksterhuis. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048558 - 184
verzadigdheid - voedselopname - eetlust - voedselvoorkeuren - voedingsgedrag - satiety - food intake - appetite - food preferences - feeding behaviour
Since the problem of overweight increases, the development of tools to manage energy intake is important. The author studied two issues that affect total energy intake: food choice and food intake. She investigated differences between people in their ability to transform healthy food choice intentions into action. Moreover, she investigated food properties that promote sensory specific satiety. This is an important factor in the termination of consumption. Especially susceptible for not translating their healthy food choice intentions into action were males, lower educated people, people with a low self-control, and people who are not used to consuming healthy foods. Health promotion policy should therefore focus on those groups. Consumption of high intensity foods appeared to promote sensory specific satiety. Also consumption with small bites or sips promotes sensory specific satiety. This knowledge could be used for the development of highly satiating foods.
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