Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Global-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands-implications from a global survey using standardized litter
Mueller, Peter ; Schile-Beers, Lisa M. ; Mozdzer, Thomas J. ; Chmura, Gail L. ; Dinter, Thomas ; Kuzyakov, Yakov ; Groot, Alma V. de; Esselink, Peter ; Smit, Christian ; Alpaos, Andrea D'; Ibáñez, Carles ; Lazarus, Magdalena ; Neumeier, Urs ; Johnson, Beverly J. ; Baldwin, Andrew H. ; Yarwood, Stephanie A. ; Montemayor, Diana I. ; Yang, Zaichao ; Wu, Jihua ; Jensen, Kai ; Nolte, Stefanie - \ 2018
Biogeosciences 15 (2018)10. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 3189 - 3202.

Tidal wetlands, such as tidal marshes and mangroves, are hotspots for carbon sequestration. The preservation of organic matter (OM) is a critical process by which tidal wetlands exert influence over the global carbon cycle and at the same time gain elevation to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). The present study assessed the effects of temperature and relative sea level on the decomposition rate and stabilization of OM in tidal wetlands worldwide, utilizing commercially available standardized litter. While effects on decomposition rate per se were minor, we show strong negative effects of temperature and relative sea level on stabilization, as based on the fraction of labile, rapidly hydrolyzable OM that becomes stabilized during deployment. Across study sites, OM stabilization was 29% lower in low, more frequently flooded vs. high, less frequently flooded zones. Stabilization declined by ∼ 75% over the studied temperature gradient from 10.9 to 28.5°C. Additionally, data from the Plum Island long-term ecological research site in Massachusetts, USA, show a pronounced reduction in OM stabilization by > 70% in response to simulated coastal eutrophication, confirming the potentially high sensitivity of OM stabilization to global change. We therefore provide evidence that rising temperature, accelerated SLR, and coastal eutrophication may decrease the future capacity of tidal wetlands to sequester carbon by affecting the initial transformations of recent OM inputs to soil OM.

Boeren in Beweging : Hoe boeren afwegingen maken over natuurinclusieve landbouw en hoe anderen hen kunnen helpen
Westerink, Judith ; Smit, Bert ; Dijkshoorn, Marijke ; Polman, Nico ; Vogelzang, Theo - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 48
In de ‘Rijksnatuurvisie 2014 Natuurlijk verder’ is een nieuwe term
ontstaan: natuurinclusieve landbouw. Het Rijk zwengelde hiermee een
discussie aan over de mate waarin en de manier waarop natuur een
plek zou moeten hebben in alle facetten van het boerenbedrijf. Het zou
een transitie moeten worden: de hele Nederlandse landbouw zou zich
richting natuurinclusiviteit moeten bewegen.
Deze term is vervolgens opgepakt door onderzoekers, burgers, natuurorganisaties
en belangengroepen. Allerlei projecten werden de afgelopen
jaren opgezet of onder de noemer ‘natuurinclusief’ gebracht. In
bijeenkomsten werd het gesprek aangegaan met ketenpartijen en
landbouworganisaties.
Een transitie richting een natuurinclusieve landbouw gaat echter alleen
plaatsvinden als boeren zelf in beweging komen. Als overheid, burgers,
bedrijven en organisaties boeren willen helpen om die beweging te
maken, is het belangrijk om inzicht te krijgen in wat hen beweegt. Wat
speelt mee in de keuzes die zij maken om wel of niet de natuurinclusieve
kant op te gaan en welke rol heeft hun omgeving daarin?
Deze brochure is het resultaat van een onderzoek naar die vragen. Het
was een verkennend, kwalitatief onderzoek, beperkt tot de melkveehouderij
en de akkerbouw en uitgevoerd in 2016/2017. We spraken met
vijf melkveehouders in Eemland en vijf akkerbouwers in Flevoland;
eerst individueel en vervolgens als groep per gebied. Want: hoe voeren
boeren met elkaar het gesprek over natuurinclusieve landbouw? Ook
spraken we voor elke sector nog met drie erfbetreders, om te verkennen
hoe zij denken over de transitie naar natuurinclusieve landbouw.
Het onderzoek was niet opgezet voor een representatief beeld, maar
om inzicht te krijgen in wat meespeelt bij overwegingen van boeren om
te kiezen voor natuurinclusieve landbouw.
In het volgende hoofdstuk introduceren we het raamwerk
dat we gebruikt hebben om zicht te krijgen op de
totstandkoming van de keuzes van boeren op het gebied
van natuurinclusieve landbouw. We hebben dit gebruikt
om de interviews en focusgroepen voor te bereiden en
te analyseren. Vervolgens vatten we samen wat natuurinclusieve
landbouw betekent voor de melkveehouderij
in Eemland en voor de akkerbouw in Flevoland. Dit
moet niet gelezen worden als objectieve waarheid, maar
als de werkelijkheid zoals boeren die zien en zoals zij die
in hun keuzes meewegen. Ook is het belangrijk om te
beseffen dat de inhoud van elk hoofdstuk is samengesteld
op basis van de uitspraken van vijf verschillende
boeren, die niet per se door alle vijf zijn gezegd1. In
hoofdstuk 3 besteden we extra aandacht aan de rol van
de erfbetreders. In hoofdstuk 4 vertalen we de bevindingen
uit Eemland en Flevoland naar aanknopingspunten
om als politiek en maatschappij de keuze voor natuurinclusieve
landbouw voor boeren gemakkelijker te maken.
Ten slotte doen we gerichte aanbevelingen voor diverse
partijen.
Deze brochure is dan ook bedoeld voor iedereen die bij
zou kunnen dragen aan een transitie richting natuurinclusieve
landbouw: overheden, ketenpartijen, natuurorganisaties,
agrarische collectieven, erfbetreders, burgers
etc. Voor boeren staat er waarschijnlijk weinig nieuws in
deze brochure, maar hopelijk wel veel herkenning! Als
onderzoekers hopen we dat meer mensen zich naar
aanleiding van deze brochure willen verdiepen in en
verbinden aan boeren die streven naar natuurinclusiviteit,
en daarmee medeverantwoordelijkheid gaan nemen
voor ons landschap, ons voedsel en onze natuur.
Prognoses CO2-emissie glastuinbouw 2030
Velden, N.J.A. van der; Smit, P.X. ; Buurma, J.S. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-056) - ISBN 9789463432832 - 76
The greenhouse horticulture sector needs a policy-driven interim goal for CO2 emissions in 2030. The prognosis for CO2 emissions in 2030 ranges from 2.7 to 3.3 megatonnes , based on three future scenarios for economic development. These CO2 emissions are substantially lower than they were in 2015 (5.8 megatonnes). In the optimistic scenario, the economy grows most strongly, and the greenhouse horticulture sector – with an equal acreage, many new greenhouses and more lighting has the strongest development. The opposite is the case in the pessimistic scenario. Energy demand and CO2 emissions are greater in the optimistic scenario than in the pessimistic scenario. However, we see greater difference in energy demand. In the optimistic scenario, the horticultural sector utilises more energy supply options without CO2 emissions. Realisation of each of the three scenarios requires strong policy input from both the government and the greenhouse horticultural sector concerning energy saving and energy supplies without CO2 emissions. The latter point makes cooperation with parties outside the greenhouse horticulture sector necessary
Verdienmodellen natuurinclusieve landbouw
Polman, Nico ; Dijkshoorn, Marijke ; Doorneweert, Bart ; Rijk, Piet ; Vogelzang, Theo ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Smit, Bert ; Splinter, Gerben ; Heideveld, Antoine ; Geerts, Rob ; Grin, John ; Korevaar, Hein ; Setten, Bert van; Vrolijk, Maarten - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research - 57
Comparative genomics of the nonlegume Parasponia reveals insights into evolution of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbioses
Velzen, R. van; Holmer, R. ; Bu, F. ; Rutten, L.J.J. ; Zeijl, A.L. van; Liu, W. ; Santuari, L. ; Cao, Q. ; Sharma, Trupti ; Shen, Defeng ; Purwana Roswanjaya, Yuda ; Wardhani, T. ; Seifi Kalhor, M. ; Jansen, Joelle ; Hoogen, D.J. van den; Güngör, Berivan ; Hartog, M.V. ; Hontelez, J. ; Verver, Jan ; Yang, Wei-Cai ; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Repin, Rimi ; Schilthuizen, M. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Heidstra, R. ; Miyata, Kana ; Fedorova, E. ; Kohlen, W. ; Bisseling, A.H.J. ; Smit, S. ; Geurts, R. - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)20. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E4700 - E4709.
Nodules harboring nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages, with rhizobia or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. It is generally assumed that nodulation evolved independently multiple times. However, molecular-genetic support for this hypothesis is lacking, as the genetic changes underlying nodule evolution remain elusive. We conducted genetic and comparative genomics studies by using Parasponia species (Cannabaceae), the only nonlegumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium. Intergeneric crosses between Parasponia andersonii and its nonnodulating relative Trema tomentosa demonstrated that nodule organogenesis, but not intracellular infection, is a dominant genetic trait. Comparative transcriptomics of P. andersonii and the legume Medicago truncatula revealed utilization of at least 290 orthologous symbiosis genes in nodules. Among these are key genes that, in legumes, are essential for nodulation, including NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) and RHIZOBIUM-DIRECTED POLAR GROWTH (RPG). Comparative analysis of genomes from three Parasponia species and related nonnodulating plant species show evidence of parallel loss in nonnodulating species of putative orthologs of NIN, RPG, and NOD FACTOR PERCEPTION. Parallel loss of these symbiosis genes indicates that these nonnodulating lineages lost the potential to nodulate. Taken together, our results challenge the view that nodulation evolved in parallel and raises the possibility that nodulation originated ∼100 Mya in a common ancestor of all nodulating plant species, but was subsequently lost in many descendant lineages. This will have profound implications for translational approaches aimed at engineering nitrogen-fixing nodules in crop plants.
Maatschappelijke opgaven voor de agrosector : perspectief op de ontwikkeling van de agrosector tot 2030
Berkhout, Petra ; Beldman, Alfons ; Bergevoet, Ron ; Dagevos, H. ; Hoste, Robert ; Poppe, Krijn ; Silvis, Huib ; Smit, Bert ; Terluin, Ida - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-022) - ISBN 9789463432481 - 33
Dit rapport schetst de verwachte ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse agrosector en de onderliggendesubsectoren, uitgaande van bestaand beleid en bestaande beleidsvoornemens. Op basis van ditreferentiebeeld, maakt het rapport inzichtelijk of doelen op gebied van milieu en dierenwelzijn wordengehaald, of dat aanvullende maatregelen nodig zijn.---This report gives an overview of the expected developments of the Dutch agricultural sector and itsconstituent subsectors, based on existing policy and policy proposals. This overview clarifies whetherthe environmental and animal welfare policy goals will be achieved or whether extra measures arerequired.
Lost in diversity: the interactions between soil-borne fungi, biodiversity and plant productivity
Mommer, L. ; Cotton, Anne ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Ruijven, J. van; Hendriks, Marloes ; Rijssel, Sophie van; Mortel, J.E. van de; Paauw, J.W.M. van der; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Berendse, F. ; Kroon, Hans de; Dumbrell, A.J. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 218 (2018)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 542 - 553.
There is consensus that plant species richness enhances plant productivity within natural grasslands, but the underlying drivers remain debated. Recently, differential accumulation of soil-borne fungal pathogens across the plant diversity gradient has been proposed as a cause of this pattern. However, the below-ground environment has generally been treated as a 'black box' in biodiversity experiments, leaving these fungi unidentified. Using next generation sequencing and pathogenicity assays, we analysed the community composition of root-associated fungi from a biodiversity experiment to examine if evidence exists for host specificity and negative density dependence in the interplay between soil-borne fungi, plant diversity and productivity. Plant species were colonised by distinct (pathogenic) fungal communities and isolated fungal species showed negative, species-specific effects on plant growth. Moreover, 57% of the pathogenic fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recorded in plant monocultures were not detected in eight plant species plots, suggesting a loss of pathogenic OTUs with plant diversity. Our work provides strong evidence for host specificity and negative density-dependent effects of root-associated fungi on plant species in grasslands. Our work substantiates the hypothesis that fungal root pathogens are an important driver of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships.
Subsidence of organic dredged sediments in an upland deposit in Wormer- en Jisperveld : North Holland, the Netherlands
Oliveira, Bruna R.F. ; Smit, Martijn P.J. ; Veld, Harry ; Paassen, Leon A. van; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Grotenhuis, Tim - \ 2018
Environmental Earth Sciences 77 (2018)4. - ISSN 1866-6280
Dredged sediments - Lowlands - Organic matter oxidation - Peatlands - Shrinkage - Subsidence - Upland deposit
Land subsidence in low-lying peatlands can be caused by shrinkage and organic matter oxidation. When these areas have networks of ditches and canals for drainage purposes, the sediments that accumulate in the waterways can be used to reverse the process of land subsidence. The objective of this study is to understand how dredged sediments can be used to reverse the process of land subsidence by analysing the contribution of shrinkage and organic matter mineralization to the subsidence observed in an upland deposit. A deposit of dredged sediments in the Wormer- en Jisperveld—North Holland, the Netherlands—was characterized during 17 months in terms of subsidence of the sediments, subsidence of the soil underlying the deposit, geotechnical water content, organic matter content, type of organic matter and nutrients. The deposit was filled to a height of 195 cm, and after 17 months, the subsidence of the sediments was 88 cm. In addition, a subsidence of 19.5 cm of the underlying soil was observed. Subsidence could be attributed to shrinkage since no significant changes in the organic matter content and total organic carbon were observed. The type of organic matter changed in the direction of humification until winter 2014, stabilized from winter 2014 to spring 2015 and changed in the direction of mineralization after the spring of 2015. Subsidence of dredged sediments in upland deposits is caused by shrinkage during the first 17 months. The solution of spreading thinner layers of sediments over the land to decrease the subsidence rates should be explored since the pressure of the deposit on the underlying soil caused an extra subsidence of 19.5 cm.
Exportgroei boomkwekerijproducten zet in 2017 door
Smit, P.X. - \ 2018
In: De Nederlandse landbouwexport 2017 / Raemakers, Pascal, Dolman, Mark, Jukema, Gerben, Den Haag : Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek - ISBN 9789035724174 - p. 56 - 59.
Aardbevingen: de rek is eruit bij Groninger boeren
Smit, Bert - \ 2018

smit, bert

Below-ground complementarity effects in a grassland biodiversity experiment are related to deep-rooting species
Oram, Natalie J. ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Barry, Kathryn E. ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Chen, Hongmei ; Gessler, Arthur ; Gockele, Annette ; Kroon, Hans de; Paauw, Jan Willem van der; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2018
Journal of Ecology 106 (2018)1. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 265 - 277.
Additive partitioning - Diversity-productivity relationship - Jena Trait-Based Experiment - Molecular markers - Resource partitioning - Root distribution

Below-ground resource partitioning is often proposed as the underlying mechanism for the positive relationship between plant species richness and productivity. For example, if species have different root distributions, a mixture of plant species may be able to use the available resources more completely than the individual species in a monoculture. However, there is little experimental evidence for differentiation in vertical root distributions among species and its contribution to biodiversity effects. We determined species-specific root standing biomass over depth using molecular techniques (real-time qPCR) in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (one to eight plant species mixtures), in 2 years. Species-specific root biomass data were used to disentangle the effects of positive interactions between species (complementarity effects) and effects due to dominance of productive species (selection effects) on root biomass in mixtures. In a next step, these biodiversity effects were linked to the diversity of rooting depths and the averaged rooting depth of the community. Root biomass increased with species richness. This was mainly due to positive interactions (the complementarity effect), which increased with species richness below-ground. In contrast, the selection effect decreased with species richness. Although there was considerable variation in vertical root distribution between species in monocultures, the diversity of rooting strategies did not explain the complementarity effect. Rather, the abundance of deep-rooting species in mixtures (i.e. high community-weighted mean) was significantly related to the complementarity effect. Comparing the "predicted" root distribution (based on monocultures) to the actual distribution in mixtures, we found that mixtures rooted deeper than expected, but this did not better explain the complementarity effect. Synthesis. This study demonstrates that vertical root distributions of species provide only subtle evidence for resource partitioning. We found no evidence that functional diversity in vertical rooting patterns was important for the complementarity effect, in contrast to our expectation that the enhancement of productivity was due to resource partitioning. Alternatively, we found significant but weak relationships between the complementarity effect and deep-rooting communities, based on the community-weighted mean root distribution. This suggests that factors other than below-ground resource partitioning alone may drive the biodiversity-productivity relationship.

The role and impact of Care Sport Connectors in connecting the care and physical activity sector
Wagemakers, A. ; Molleman, G. ; Leenaars, K.E.F. ; Smit, E. - \ 2017
Activities organised by Dutch Care Sport Connectors (CSC) and reach of the target population
Molleman, G. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Leenaars, K.E.F. ; Smit, E. - \ 2017
Alternative strategies for nutrient cycling in acidic and calcareous forests in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape
Kooijman, A.M. ; Kalbitz, K. ; Smit, A. - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 131 - 151.
In the forests of the Luxembourg cuesta landscape, nutrient cycling is affected by parent material, but in a different way than usually assumed. We challenge the 'conventional wisdom' that net N-mineralization is higher in calcareous than in acidic soils, due to higher biological activity and gross N-mineralization. In four separate laboratory incubation experiments, net N-mineralization was higher in acidic than in calcareous soil. Experiments with different tree species showed that soil type was even more important than litter quality. In acidic forests, high net N-mineralization may be due to dense organic layers, but also to differences in soil communities, which are dominated by fungi at low pH versus bacteria at high pH. Fungi have lower N-demand than bacteria, and may thus mitigate low activity and gross N-release. Model studies suggested that microbial immobilization was below 20% in acidic soil, and above 80% in calcareous soil, in both organic layer and mineral topsoil. Differences between fungi and bacteria were supported by selective inhibition. Microbial immobilization significantly decreased with the bactericide streptomycin, while respiration increased with the fungicide cycloheximide. This further supports that bacteria and fungi, and with them calcareous and acidic soils, show different strategies for N-nutrition. For P-nutrition, differences between calcareous and acidic soils are also important, as net P-mineralization mainly occurred in the organic layer, due to chemical sorption in the mineral soil. As a result, in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape, availability of both N and P may be higher in acidic than calcareous forests.
Relationships between forest vegetation, parent material and soil development in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape
Kooijman, A.M. ; Smit, A. - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 153 - 176.

In the cuesta landscape, the natural forest vegetation is affected by the clear gradients in parent material. Most forests belong to the alliances Fagion sylvaticae, Luzulo-Fagion and Carpinion betuli. Forest associations show a clear shift in species composition from calcareous to acidic soils. The species-rich Carici-Fagetum and Hordelymo-Fagetum occur on steep slopes on Muschelkalk, with shallow Leptosols and Leptic Regosols, and pH values around 7. Galio-Carpinetum, with many wet-tolerant species, occurs on gentle slopes in Keuper marl, with Luvic Stagnosols and Planosols, pH around 5-6, and perched water tables during part of the year. The relatively species-poor Galio odorati-Fagetum is found on acidic loamy soils, such as the marls of the upper cuesta, Pleistocene river terraces and Loess deposits. Soil types range from Colluvic Regosols to Luvic Stagnosols, with pH values around 4. The species-poor Luzulo-Fagetum is found on plateau and upper cuesta of the Luxembourg sandstone, but also on the oldest river terraces. Soil types range from (Leptic) Arenosols and Podzols to Alic Stagnosols, and pH values are around or below 4. In forests plots on Keuper and Muschelkalk with base-rich, loamy topsoils, parent material was more important to species composition than litter quality. Calcicole species predominated on Muschelkalk, and wet-tolerant species on Keuper, although diversity was lower under beech than under hornbeam. The clear decrease in plant species richness from calcareous to acidic soil is discussed in terms of toxicity, nutrient availability and tolerance to wet conditions, but also in relation to landscape history and regional species pool.

Twenty-five years of life lessons
Smit, Annemieke ; Dorren, Luuk ; Noord, Hans Van; Veraart, Josja ; Cusell, Casper ; Sterk, Henk Pieter - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 269 - 276.
For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns, studied soil development and looked at relationships between forest vegetation and the landscape in their particular area of approximately five square km, with many steep slopes. They also learned to overcome the physical and social challenges of such a fieldwork. A number of former students of different generations will give their opinion on what they learned and how this period in life helped them shape their current and future careers.
Korte ketens
Smit, Bert - \ 2017
Wintervoedselveldjes voor akkervogels en andere soorten: verdienmodellen
Smit, Bert - \ 2017
Interactive Strategic Management combined with Canvas Business Modelling in a ‘knowledge coalition’
Tomson, N.C. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2017
Research for AGRI Committee - Policy support for productivity vs. sustainability in EU agriculture: Towards viable farming and green growth : study
Zezza, Annalisa ; Henke, Roberto ; Lai, Mara ; Petriccione, Gaetana ; Solazzo, Roberto ; Sturla, Alberto ; Vagnozzi, Anna ; Vanino, Silvia ; Viganò, Laura ; Smit, A.B. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Poppe, K.J. ; Lana, Marcos ; Weltin, Meike ; Piorr, Annette - \ 2017
European Parliament - 145 p.
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