Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Maatschappelijke opgaven voor de agrosector : perspectief op de ontwikkeling van de agrosector tot 2030
Berkhout, Petra ; Beldman, Alfons ; Bergevoet, Ron ; Dagevos, H. ; Hoste, Robert ; Poppe, Krijn ; Silvis, Huib ; Smit, Bert ; Terluin, Ida - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-022) - ISBN 9789463432481 - 33
Dit rapport schetst de verwachte ontwikkeling van de Nederlandse agrosector en de onderliggendesubsectoren, uitgaande van bestaand beleid en bestaande beleidsvoornemens. Op basis van ditreferentiebeeld, maakt het rapport inzichtelijk of doelen op gebied van milieu en dierenwelzijn wordengehaald, of dat aanvullende maatregelen nodig zijn.---This report gives an overview of the expected developments of the Dutch agricultural sector and itsconstituent subsectors, based on existing policy and policy proposals. This overview clarifies whetherthe environmental and animal welfare policy goals will be achieved or whether extra measures arerequired.
Lost in diversity: the interactions between soil-borne fungi, biodiversity and plant productivity
Mommer, L. ; Cotton, Anne ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Ruijven, J. van; Hendriks, Marloes ; Rijssel, Sophie van; Mortel, J.E. van de; Paauw, J.W.M. van der; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Berendse, F. ; Kroon, Hans de; Dumbrell, A.J. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 218 (2018)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 542 - 553.
There is consensus that plant species richness enhances plant productivity within natural grasslands, but the underlying drivers remain debated. Recently, differential accumulation of soil-borne fungal pathogens across the plant diversity gradient has been proposed as a cause of this pattern. However, the below-ground environment has generally been treated as a 'black box' in biodiversity experiments, leaving these fungi unidentified. Using next generation sequencing and pathogenicity assays, we analysed the community composition of root-associated fungi from a biodiversity experiment to examine if evidence exists for host specificity and negative density dependence in the interplay between soil-borne fungi, plant diversity and productivity. Plant species were colonised by distinct (pathogenic) fungal communities and isolated fungal species showed negative, species-specific effects on plant growth. Moreover, 57% of the pathogenic fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recorded in plant monocultures were not detected in eight plant species plots, suggesting a loss of pathogenic OTUs with plant diversity. Our work provides strong evidence for host specificity and negative density-dependent effects of root-associated fungi on plant species in grasslands. Our work substantiates the hypothesis that fungal root pathogens are an important driver of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships.
Subsidence of organic dredged sediments in an upland deposit in Wormer- en Jisperveld : North Holland, the Netherlands
Oliveira, Bruna R.F. ; Smit, Martijn P.J. ; Veld, Harry ; Paassen, Leon A. van; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Grotenhuis, Tim - \ 2018
Environmental Earth Sciences 77 (2018)4. - ISSN 1866-6280
Dredged sediments - Lowlands - Organic matter oxidation - Peatlands - Shrinkage - Subsidence - Upland deposit
Land subsidence in low-lying peatlands can be caused by shrinkage and organic matter oxidation. When these areas have networks of ditches and canals for drainage purposes, the sediments that accumulate in the waterways can be used to reverse the process of land subsidence. The objective of this study is to understand how dredged sediments can be used to reverse the process of land subsidence by analysing the contribution of shrinkage and organic matter mineralization to the subsidence observed in an upland deposit. A deposit of dredged sediments in the Wormer- en Jisperveld—North Holland, the Netherlands—was characterized during 17 months in terms of subsidence of the sediments, subsidence of the soil underlying the deposit, geotechnical water content, organic matter content, type of organic matter and nutrients. The deposit was filled to a height of 195 cm, and after 17 months, the subsidence of the sediments was 88 cm. In addition, a subsidence of 19.5 cm of the underlying soil was observed. Subsidence could be attributed to shrinkage since no significant changes in the organic matter content and total organic carbon were observed. The type of organic matter changed in the direction of humification until winter 2014, stabilized from winter 2014 to spring 2015 and changed in the direction of mineralization after the spring of 2015. Subsidence of dredged sediments in upland deposits is caused by shrinkage during the first 17 months. The solution of spreading thinner layers of sediments over the land to decrease the subsidence rates should be explored since the pressure of the deposit on the underlying soil caused an extra subsidence of 19.5 cm.
Exportgroei boomkwekerijproducten zet in 2017 door
Smit, P.X. - \ 2018
In: De Nederlandse landbouwexport 2017 / Raemakers, Pascal, Dolman, Mark, Jukema, Gerben, Den Haag : Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek - ISBN 9789035724174 - p. 56 - 59.
Aardbevingen: de rek is eruit bij Groninger boeren
Smit, Bert - \ 2018

smit, bert

Below-ground complementarity effects in a grassland biodiversity experiment are related to deep-rooting species
Oram, Natalie J. ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Barry, Kathryn E. ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Chen, Hongmei ; Gessler, Arthur ; Gockele, Annette ; Kroon, Hans de; Paauw, Jan Willem van der; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2018
Journal of Ecology 106 (2018)1. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 265 - 277.
Additive partitioning - Diversity-productivity relationship - Jena Trait-Based Experiment - Molecular markers - Resource partitioning - Root distribution

Below-ground resource partitioning is often proposed as the underlying mechanism for the positive relationship between plant species richness and productivity. For example, if species have different root distributions, a mixture of plant species may be able to use the available resources more completely than the individual species in a monoculture. However, there is little experimental evidence for differentiation in vertical root distributions among species and its contribution to biodiversity effects. We determined species-specific root standing biomass over depth using molecular techniques (real-time qPCR) in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (one to eight plant species mixtures), in 2 years. Species-specific root biomass data were used to disentangle the effects of positive interactions between species (complementarity effects) and effects due to dominance of productive species (selection effects) on root biomass in mixtures. In a next step, these biodiversity effects were linked to the diversity of rooting depths and the averaged rooting depth of the community. Root biomass increased with species richness. This was mainly due to positive interactions (the complementarity effect), which increased with species richness below-ground. In contrast, the selection effect decreased with species richness. Although there was considerable variation in vertical root distribution between species in monocultures, the diversity of rooting strategies did not explain the complementarity effect. Rather, the abundance of deep-rooting species in mixtures (i.e. high community-weighted mean) was significantly related to the complementarity effect. Comparing the "predicted" root distribution (based on monocultures) to the actual distribution in mixtures, we found that mixtures rooted deeper than expected, but this did not better explain the complementarity effect. Synthesis. This study demonstrates that vertical root distributions of species provide only subtle evidence for resource partitioning. We found no evidence that functional diversity in vertical rooting patterns was important for the complementarity effect, in contrast to our expectation that the enhancement of productivity was due to resource partitioning. Alternatively, we found significant but weak relationships between the complementarity effect and deep-rooting communities, based on the community-weighted mean root distribution. This suggests that factors other than below-ground resource partitioning alone may drive the biodiversity-productivity relationship.

The role and impact of Care Sport Connectors in connecting the care and physical activity sector
Wagemakers, A. ; Molleman, G. ; Leenaars, K.E.F. ; Smit, E. - \ 2017
Activities organised by Dutch Care Sport Connectors (CSC) and reach of the target population
Molleman, G. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Leenaars, K.E.F. ; Smit, E. - \ 2017
Alternative strategies for nutrient cycling in acidic and calcareous forests in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape
Kooijman, A.M. ; Kalbitz, K. ; Smit, A. - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 131 - 151.
In the forests of the Luxembourg cuesta landscape, nutrient cycling is affected by parent material, but in a different way than usually assumed. We challenge the 'conventional wisdom' that net N-mineralization is higher in calcareous than in acidic soils, due to higher biological activity and gross N-mineralization. In four separate laboratory incubation experiments, net N-mineralization was higher in acidic than in calcareous soil. Experiments with different tree species showed that soil type was even more important than litter quality. In acidic forests, high net N-mineralization may be due to dense organic layers, but also to differences in soil communities, which are dominated by fungi at low pH versus bacteria at high pH. Fungi have lower N-demand than bacteria, and may thus mitigate low activity and gross N-release. Model studies suggested that microbial immobilization was below 20% in acidic soil, and above 80% in calcareous soil, in both organic layer and mineral topsoil. Differences between fungi and bacteria were supported by selective inhibition. Microbial immobilization significantly decreased with the bactericide streptomycin, while respiration increased with the fungicide cycloheximide. This further supports that bacteria and fungi, and with them calcareous and acidic soils, show different strategies for N-nutrition. For P-nutrition, differences between calcareous and acidic soils are also important, as net P-mineralization mainly occurred in the organic layer, due to chemical sorption in the mineral soil. As a result, in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape, availability of both N and P may be higher in acidic than calcareous forests.
Relationships between forest vegetation, parent material and soil development in the Luxembourg cuesta landscape
Kooijman, A.M. ; Smit, A. - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 153 - 176.

In the cuesta landscape, the natural forest vegetation is affected by the clear gradients in parent material. Most forests belong to the alliances Fagion sylvaticae, Luzulo-Fagion and Carpinion betuli. Forest associations show a clear shift in species composition from calcareous to acidic soils. The species-rich Carici-Fagetum and Hordelymo-Fagetum occur on steep slopes on Muschelkalk, with shallow Leptosols and Leptic Regosols, and pH values around 7. Galio-Carpinetum, with many wet-tolerant species, occurs on gentle slopes in Keuper marl, with Luvic Stagnosols and Planosols, pH around 5-6, and perched water tables during part of the year. The relatively species-poor Galio odorati-Fagetum is found on acidic loamy soils, such as the marls of the upper cuesta, Pleistocene river terraces and Loess deposits. Soil types range from Colluvic Regosols to Luvic Stagnosols, with pH values around 4. The species-poor Luzulo-Fagetum is found on plateau and upper cuesta of the Luxembourg sandstone, but also on the oldest river terraces. Soil types range from (Leptic) Arenosols and Podzols to Alic Stagnosols, and pH values are around or below 4. In forests plots on Keuper and Muschelkalk with base-rich, loamy topsoils, parent material was more important to species composition than litter quality. Calcicole species predominated on Muschelkalk, and wet-tolerant species on Keuper, although diversity was lower under beech than under hornbeam. The clear decrease in plant species richness from calcareous to acidic soil is discussed in terms of toxicity, nutrient availability and tolerance to wet conditions, but also in relation to landscape history and regional species pool.

Twenty-five years of life lessons
Smit, Annemieke ; Dorren, Luuk ; Noord, Hans Van; Veraart, Josja ; Cusell, Casper ; Sterk, Henk Pieter - \ 2017
In: The Luxembourg Gutland Landscape Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319655413 - p. 269 - 276.
For 25 years, Physical Geography students of the University of Amsterdam have experienced a 6-week field training in the cuesta landscape in Luxembourg around Diekirch. They studied the geology of the Gutland and surrounding areas, such as Ardennes and Eiffel. They mapped geomorphological patterns, studied soil development and looked at relationships between forest vegetation and the landscape in their particular area of approximately five square km, with many steep slopes. They also learned to overcome the physical and social challenges of such a fieldwork. A number of former students of different generations will give their opinion on what they learned and how this period in life helped them shape their current and future careers.
Korte ketens
Smit, Bert - \ 2017
Wintervoedselveldjes voor akkervogels en andere soorten: verdienmodellen
Smit, Bert - \ 2017
Interactive Strategic Management combined with Canvas Business Modelling in a ‘knowledge coalition’
Tomson, N.C. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2017
Research for AGRI Committee - Policy support for productivity vs. sustainability in EU agriculture: Towards viable farming and green growth : study
Zezza, Annalisa ; Henke, Roberto ; Lai, Mara ; Petriccione, Gaetana ; Solazzo, Roberto ; Sturla, Alberto ; Vagnozzi, Anna ; Vanino, Silvia ; Viganò, Laura ; Smit, A.B. ; Meer, R.W. van der; Poppe, K.J. ; Lana, Marcos ; Weltin, Meike ; Piorr, Annette - \ 2017
European Parliament - 145 p.
Agricultural practices and innovative policy instruments: the case of arable crops in the Netherlands
Smit, A.B. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Meer, R.W. van der - \ 2017
Parallel loss of symbiosis genes in relatives of nitrogen-fixing non-legume Parasponia
Velzen, R. van; Holmer, R. ; Bu, F. ; Rutten, L.J.J. ; Zeijl, A.L. van; Liu, W. ; Santuari, L. ; Cao, Q. ; Sharma, Trupti ; Shen, D. ; Purwana Roswanjaya, Yuda ; Wardhani, T. ; Seifi Kalhor, M. ; Jansen, Joelle ; Hoogen, D.J. van den; Gungor, Berivan ; Hartog, M.V. ; Hontelez, J. ; Verver, J.W.G. ; Yang, W.C. ; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Repin, Rimi ; Schilthuizen, M. ; Schranz, M.E. ; Heidstra, R. ; Miyata, Kana ; Fedorova, E. ; Kohlen, W. ; Bisseling, A.H.J. ; Smit, S. ; Geurts, R. - \ 2017
bioRxiv (2017). - 88 p.
Rhizobium nitrogen-fixing nodules are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages either with rhizobium or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. The widely accepted hypothesis is that nodulation evolved independently multiple times, with only a few losses. However, insight in the evolutionary trajectory of nodulation is lacking. We conducted comparative studies using Parasponia (Cannabaceae), the only non-legume able to establish nitrogen fixing nodules with rhizobium. This revealed that Parasponia and legumes utilize a large set of orthologous symbiosis genes. Comparing genomes of Parasponia and its non-nodulating relative Trema did not reveal specific gene duplications that could explain a recent gain of nodulation in Parasponia. Rather, Trema and other non-nodulating species in the order Rosales show evidence of pseudogenization or loss of key symbiosis genes. This demonstrates that these species have lost the potential to nodulate. This finding challenges a long-standing hypothesis on evolution of nitrogen-fixing symbioses, and has profound implications for translational approaches aimed at engineering nitrogen-fixing nodules in crop plants.
Wanneer weten we wat we eten?
Candel, Jeroen - \ 2017
Impact of coupled EU support for sugar beet growing: more production, lower prices
Smit, A.B. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Prins, H. ; Jager, J.H. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2017-114) - ISBN 9789463432436 - 61
In the 2013 negotiations on the ‘new CAP’ (Common Agricultural Policy), the option of voluntary coupled support (VCS) for sugar beet growing was introduced, which has been implemented from 2015 onwards by ten and from 2017 by eleven Member States. In 2017, a great change took place in the EU sugar sector through the abolishment of the sugar quota system, leading to an increase of competition between sugar companies and more fluctuating sugar prices than before. In such a dynamic context, questions were raised about potentially destabilising production and market effects of a VCS-regulation and about its legitimacy.
Do porpoises have a biological clock?
Mul, Evert ; Smit, Ronald ; Aarts, G.M. ; Biuw, Martin ; Acquarone, Mario ; Scheidat, M. - \ 2017
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