Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis
Rytwinski, Trina ; Soanes, Kylie ; Jaeger, Jochen A.G. ; Fahrig, Lenore ; Findlay, C.S. ; Houlahan, Jeff ; Ree, Rodney van der; Grift, Edgar A. van der - \ 2016
PLoS One 11 (2016)11. - ISSN 1932-6203

Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a metaanalysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce roadkill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce roadkill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a minimum study duration of four years for Before-After, and a minimum of either four years or four sites for Before-After-Control-Impact designs.

Experimental study designs to improve the evaluation of road mitigation measures for wildlife
Rytwinski, T. ; Van der Ree, R. van der; Cunnington, G.M. ; Fahrig, L. ; Findlay, C.S. ; Houlahan, J. ; Jaeger, J.A.G. ; Soanes, K. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2015
Journal of Environmental Management 154 (2015). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 48 - 64.
An experimental approach to road mitigation that maximizes inferential power is essential to ensure that mitigation is both ecologically-effective and cost-effective. Here, we set out the need for and standards of using an experimental approach to road mitigation, in order to improve knowledge of the influence of mitigation measures on wildlife populations. We point out two key areas that need to be considered when conducting mitigation experiments. First, researchers need to get involved at the earliest stage of the road or mitigation project to ensure the necessary planning and funds are available for conducting a high quality experiment. Second, experimentation will generate new knowledge about the parameters that influence mitigation effectiveness, which ultimately allows better prediction for future road mitigation projects. We identify seven key questions about mitigation structures (i.e., wildlife crossing structures and fencing) that remain largely or entirely unanswered at the population-level: (1) Does a given crossing structure work? What type and size of crossing structures should we use? (2) How many crossing structures should we build? (3) Is it more effective to install a small number of large-sized crossing structures or a large number of small-sized crossing structures? (4) How much barrier fencing is needed for a given length of road? (5) Do we need funnel fencing to lead animals to crossing structures, and how long does such fencing have to be? (6) How should we manage/manipulate the environment in the area around the crossing structures and fencing? (7) Where should we place crossing structures and barrier fencing? We provide experimental approaches to answering each of them using example Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) study designs for two stages in the road/mitigation project where researchers may become involved: (1) at the beginning of a road/mitigation project, and (2) after the mitigation has been constructed; highlighting real case studies when available.
Genome analysis of the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea
Amselem, J. ; Cuomo, C.A. ; Kan, J.A.L. van; Viaud, M. ; Benito, E.P. ; Couloux, A. ; Coutinho, P.M. ; Vries, R.P. de; Dyer, P.S. ; Fillinger, S. ; Fournier, E. ; Gout, L. ; Hahn, M. ; Kohn, L. ; Lapalu, N. ; Plummer, K.M. ; Pradier, J.M. ; Quévillon, E. ; Sharon, A. ; Simon, A. ; Have, A. ten; Tudzynski, B. ; Tudzynski, P. ; Wincker, P. ; Andrew, M. ; Anthouard, V. ; Beever, R.E. ; Beffa, R. ; Benoit, I. ; Bouzid, O. ; Brault, B. ; Chen, Z. ; Choquer, M. ; Collemare, J. ; Cotton, P. ; Danchin, E.G. ; Silva, C. Da; Gautier, A. ; Giraud, C. ; Giraud, T. ; Gonzalez, C. ; Grossetete, S. ; Güldener, U. ; Henrissat, B. ; Howlett, B.J. ; Kodira, C. ; Kretschmer, M. ; Lappartient, A. ; Leroch, M. ; Levis, C. ; Mauceli, E. ; Neuvéglise, C. ; Oeser, B. ; Pearson, M. ; Poulain, J. ; Poussereau, N. ; Quesneville, H. ; Rascle, C. ; Schumacher, J. ; Ségurens, B. ; Sexton, A. ; Silva, E. ; Sirven, C. ; Soanes, D.M. ; Talbot, N.J. ; Templeton, M. ; Yandava, C. ; Yarden, O. ; Zeng, Q. ; Rollins, J.A. ; Lebrun, M.H. ; Dickman, M. - \ 2011
Plos Genetics 7 (2011)8. - ISSN 1553-7404 - 27 p.
rice blast fungus - development-specific protein - expressed sequence tags - programmed cell-death - mating-type loci - oxalic-acid - neurospora-crassa - arabidopsis-thaliana - secondary metabolism - molecular phylogeny
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are closely related necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi notable for their wide host ranges and environmental persistence. These attributes have made these species models for understanding the complexity of necrotrophic, broad host-range pathogenicity. Despite their similarities, the two species differ in mating behaviour and the ability to produce asexual spores. We have sequenced the genomes of one strain of S. sclerotiorum and two strains of B. cinerea. The comparative analysis of these genomes relative to one another and to other sequenced fungal genomes is provided here. Their 38–39 Mb genomes include 11,860–14,270 predicted genes, which share 83% amino acid identity on average between the two species. We have mapped the S. sclerotiorum assembly to 16 chromosomes and found large-scale co-linearity with the B. cinerea genomes. Seven percent of the S. sclerotiorum genome comprises transposable elements compared to
Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism
Spanu, P.D. ; Abbott, J.C. ; Amselem, J. ; Burgis, T.A. ; Soanes, D.M. ; Stüber, K. ; Loren van Themaat, E. Ver; Brown, J.K.M. ; Butcher, S.A. ; Gurr, S.J. ; Lebrun, M.H. ; Ridout, C.J. ; Schulze-Lefert, P. ; Talbot, N.J. ; Ahmadinejad, N. ; Ametz, C. ; Barton, G.R. ; Benjdia, M. ; Bidzinski, P. ; Bindschedler, L.V. ; Both, M. ; Brewer, M.T. ; Cadle-Davidson, L. ; Cadle-Davidson, M.M. ; Collemare, J. ; Cramer, R. ; Frenkel, O. ; Godfrey, D. ; Harriman, J. ; Hoede, C. ; King, B.C. ; Klages, S. ; Kleemann, J. ; Knoll, D. ; Koti, P.S. ; Kreplak, J. ; López-Ruiz, F.J. ; Lu, X. ; Maekawa, T. ; Mahanil, S. ; Micali, C. ; Milgroom, M.G. ; Montana, G. ; Noir, S. ; O'Connell, R.J. ; Oberhaensli, S. ; Parlange, F. ; Pedersen, C. ; Quesneville, H. ; Reinhardt, R. ; Rott, M. ; Sacristán, S. ; Schmidt, S.M. ; Schön, M. ; Skamnioti, P. ; Sommer, H. ; Stephens, A. ; Takahara, H. ; Thordal-Christensen, H. ; Vigouroux, M. ; Weßling, R. ; Wicker, T. ; Panstruga, R. - \ 2010
Science 330 (2010)6010. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1543 - 1546.
plant-pathogens - virulence - proteins
Powdery mildews are phytopathogens whose growth and reproduction are entirely dependent on living plant cells. The molecular basis of this life-style, obligate biotrophy, remains unknown. We present the genome analysis of barley powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Blumeria), as well as a comparison with the analysis of two powdery mildews pathogenic on dicotyledonous plants. These genomes display massive retrotransposon proliferation, genome-size expansion, and gene losses. The missing genes encode enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, probably reflecting their redundancy in an exclusively biotrophic life-style. Among the 248 candidate effectors of pathogenesis identified in the Blumeria genome, very few (less than 10) define a core set conserved in all three mildews, suggesting that most effectors represent species-specific adaptations.
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