Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Food choice motives, attitude towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition
Rankin, Audrey ; Bunting, Brendan P. ; Poínhos, Rui ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Almeida, M.D.V. ; Markovina, Jerko ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. - \ 2018
Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018)14. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2606 - 2616.
Attitudes - Food choice motives - Food Choices Questionnaire - Food4Me - Intention - Nutrigenomics - Personalised nutrition - Survey

Objective: The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns. Design/Setting: A survey was administered online which included the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and items assessing attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Subjects: Nationally representative samples were recruited in nine EU countries (n 9381). Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that the food choice motives ‘weight control’, ‘mood’, ‘health’ and ‘ethical concern’ had a positive association and ‘price’ had a negative association with attitude towards, and intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. ‘Health’ was positively associated and ‘familiarity’ negatively associated with attitude towards personalised nutrition. The effects of ‘weight control’, ‘ethical concern’, ‘mood’ and ‘price’ on intention to adopt personalised nutrition were partially mediated by attitude. The effects of ‘health’ and ‘familiarity’ were fully mediated by attitude. ‘Sensory appeal’ was negatively and directly associated with intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Conclusions: Personalised nutrition providers may benefit from taking into consideration the importance of underlying determinants of food choice in potential users, particularly weight control, mood and price, when promoting services and in tailoring communications that are motivationally relevant.

Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial
Macready, Anna L. ; Fallaize, Rosalind ; Butler, Laurie T. ; Ellis, Judi A. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Celis-Morales, Carlos ; Livingstone, Katherine M. ; Araújo-Soares, Vera ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. ; Mathers, John C. ; Lovegrove, Julie A. - \ 2018
JMIR Research Protocols 7 (2018)4. - ISSN 1929-0748 - p. e87 - e87.
Background: To determine the efficacy of behavior change techniques applied in dietary and physical activity intervention studies, it is first necessary to record and describe techniques that have been used during such interventions. Published frameworks used in dietary and smoking cessation interventions undergo continuous development, and most are not adapted for Web-based delivery. The Food4Me study (N=1607) provided the opportunity to use existing frameworks to describe standardized Web-based techniques employed in a large-scale, internet-based intervention to change dietary behavior and physical activity.
Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to describe techniques embedded in the Food4Me study design and explain the selection rationale and (2) to demonstrate the use of behavior change technique taxonomies, develop standard operating procedures for training, and identify strengths and limitations of the Food4Me framework that will inform its use in future studies.
Methods: The 6-month randomized controlled trial took place simultaneously in seven European countries, with participants receiving one of four levels of personalized advice (generalized, intake-based, intake+phenotype–based, and intake+phenotype+gene–based). A three-phase approach was taken: (1) existing taxonomies were reviewed and techniques were identified a priori for possible inclusion in the Food4Me study, (2) a standard operating procedure was developed to maintain consistency in the use of methods and techniques across research centers, and (3) the Food4Me behavior change technique framework was reviewed and updated post intervention. An analysis of excluded techniques was also conducted.
Results: Of 46 techniques identified a priori as being applicable to Food4Me, 17 were embedded in the intervention design; 11 were from a dietary taxonomy, and 6 from a smoking cessation taxonomy. In addition, the four-category smoking cessation framework structure was adopted for clarity of communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery.
Conclusions: The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely.

Drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks : Expert opinion regarding multiple impacts
Kendall, Helen ; Kaptan, Gulbanu ; Stewart, Gavin ; Grainger, Matthew ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Naughton, Paul ; Clark, Beth ; Hubbard, Carmen ; Raley, Marian ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2018
Food Control 90 (2018). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 440 - 458.
Delphi technique - Emerging risk - Existing risk - Expert opinion - Food safety
Considerable research effort is invested in the development of evidence to help policy makers and industry deal with the challenges associated with existing and emerging food safety threats. This research aimed to elicit expert views regarding the relationship between the drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks, in order to facilitate their control and mitigation, and to provide the basis for further international policy integration. A Delphi approach involving repeated polling of n = 106 global food safety experts was adopted. The primary drivers of existing and emerging food safety risks were identified to be demographic change, economic driving forces, resource shortages, environmental driving forces, increased complexity of the food supply chain, water security and malevolent activities. The identification of socio-economic and biophysical drivers emphasises the need for a transdisciplinary and systems approach to food safety management and mitigation. The mitigation of hazards on a case-by-case basis is unlikely to have a major impact on food safety hazards but may have unintended effects (where positive or negative) across a broad spectrum of food safety issues. Rather a holistic or systems approach is required which can address both the intended and unintended effects of different drivers and their interactions.
The use of systems models to identify food waste drivers
Grainger, Matthew James ; Aramyan, Lusine ; Logatcheva, Katja ; Piras, Simone ; Righi, Simone ; Setti, Marco ; Vittuari, Matteo ; Stewart, Gavin Bruce - \ 2018
Global Food Security 16 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9124 - p. 1 - 8.
Consumers - Decision modelling - European Union - Household food waste
In developed countries, the largest share of food waste is produced at household level. Most studies on consumers’ food waste use models that identify covariates as significant when in fact they may not be, particularly where these models use many variables. Here, using EU-level Eurobarometer data from 2013, we use alternative analytical methods that avoid these problems (Bayesian Networks) to identify the impact of household characteristics and other variables on self-assessed food waste. Our analysis confirmed that the country, the age of the respondent, the status (student/non-student), and a belief that the family wastes too much are related to the level of self-assessed food waste. But we found no evidence that waste behaviours differ between people living in urban and rural areas, and little support of a difference between genders. Households from lower-income EU countries (e.g. Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Latvia), as well as students and young adults tend to report higher levels of food waste. Hence, the adoption of an EU strategy based on the concept of subsidiarity, and of country-level policy measures targeting different age groups is suggested. Furthermore, our analysis shows that policy makers need to be wary of relying on analysis based on large datasets that do not control for false-positives, particularly when sample sizes are small.
Global environmental costs of China's thirst for milk
Bai, Zhaohai ; Lee, Michael R.F. ; Ma, Lin ; Ledgard, Stewart ; Velthof, Gerard L. ; Ma, Wenqi ; Guo, Mengchu ; Zhao, Zhanqing ; Wei, Sha ; Li, Shengli ; Liu, Xia ; Havlík, Petr ; Luo, Jiafa ; Hu, Chunsheng ; Zhang, Fusuo - \ 2018
Global Change Biology 24 (2018)5. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2198 - 2211.
Cattle feed - Greenhouse gas - Land use, nitrogen losses - Milk trade - Shared socio-economic pathways scenarios
China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk consumption in China by 2050 and its global impacts, under different scenarios of domestic milk production and importation. Meeting China's milk demand in a business as usual scenario will increase global dairy-related (China and the leading milk exporting regions) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 35% (from 565 to 764 Tg CO 2eq ) and land use for dairy feed production by 32% (from 84 to 111 million ha) compared to 2010, while reactive nitrogen losses from the dairy sector will increase by 48% (from 3.6 to 5.4 Tg nitrogen). Producing all additional milk in China with current technology will greatly increase animal feed import; from 1.9 to 8.5 Tg for concentrates and from 1.0 to 6.2 Tg for forage (alfalfa). In addition, it will increase domestic dairy related GHG emissions by 2.2 times compared to 2010 levels. Importing the extra milk will transfer the environmental burden from China to milk exporting countries; current dairy exporting countries may be unable to produce all additional milk due to physical limitations or environmental preferences/legislation. For example, the farmland area for cattle-feed production in New Zealand would have to increase by more than 57% (1.3 million ha) and that in Europe by more than 39% (15 million ha), while GHG emissions and nitrogen losses would increase roughly proportionally with the increase of farmland in both regions. We propose that a more sustainable dairy future will rely on high milk demanding regions (such as China) improving their domestic milk and feed production efficiencies up to the level of leading milk producing countries. This will decrease the global dairy related GHG emissions and land use by 12% (90 Tg CO 2eq reduction) and 30% (34 million ha land reduction) compared to the business as usual scenario, respectively. However, this still represents an increase in total GHG emissions of 19% whereas land use will decrease by 8% when compared with 2010 levels, respectively.
Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives
Grainger, Matthew James ; Aramyan, Lusine ; Piras, Simone ; Quested, Thomas Edward ; Righi, Simone ; Setti, Marco ; Vittuari, Matteo ; Stewart, Gavin Bruce - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socioeconomic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches that until now have been conditioned by the large number of factors involved in waste generation, by the lack of a recognised definition, and by limited available data. This work contributes to food waste generation literature by using one of the largest available datasets that includes data on the objective amount of avoidable household food waste, along with information on a series of socio-economic factors. In order to address one aspect of the complexity of the problem, machine learning algorithms (random forests and boruta) for variable selection integrated with linear modelling, model selection and averaging are implemented. Model selection addresses model structural uncertainty, which is not routinely considered in assessments of food waste in literature. The main drivers of food waste in the home selected in the most parsimonious models include household size, the presence of fussy eaters, employment status, home ownership status, and the local authority. Results, regardless of which variable set the models are run on, point toward large households as being a key target element for food waste reduction interventions.
D4.3 - Model integration : integrated socio-economic model on food waste
Grainger, Matthew ; Stewart, Gavin ; Piras, Simone ; Righi, Simone ; Setti, Marco ; Vittuari, Matteo ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : REFRESH - ISBN 9789463433358 - 46
Multivariate statistics and metabolomics : In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry Stewart Talks
Wehrens, H.R.M.J. - \ 2017
HS Talks
Blood–brain barrier transport and neuroprotective potential of blackberry-digested polyphenols : an in vitro study
Figueira, Inês ; Tavares, Lucélia ; Jardim, Carolina ; Costa, Inês ; Terrasso, Ana P. ; Almeida, Andreia F. ; Govers, Coen ; Mes, Jurriaan J. ; Gardner, Rui ; Becker, Jörg D. ; McDougall, Gordon J. ; Stewart, Derek ; Filipe, Augusto ; Kim, Kwang S. ; Brites, Dora ; Brito, Catarina ; Brito, M.A. ; Santos, Cláudia N. - \ 2017
European Journal of Nutrition (2017). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 18.
Blackberry - Brain endothelial cells - In vitro digestion - Microarrays - Neuronal cells
Purpose: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects. Methods: BDP was obtained by in vitro digestion of blackberry extract and BDP major aglycones (hBDP) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Chemical characterization and BBB transport of extracts were evaluated by LC–MSn. BBB transport and cytoprotection of both extracts was assessed in HBMEC monolayers. Neuroprotective potential of BDP was assessed in NT2-derived 3D co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes and in primary mouse cerebellar granule cells. BDP-modulated genes were evaluated by microarray analysis. Results: Components from BDP and hBDP were shown to be transported across the BBB. Physiologically relevant concentrations of both extracts were cytoprotective at endothelial level and BDP was neuroprotective in primary neurons and in an advanced 3D cell model. The major canonical pathways involved in the neuroprotective effect of BDP were unveiled, including mTOR signaling and the unfolded protein response pathway. Genes such as ASNS and ATF5 emerged as novel BDP-modulated targets. Conclusions: BBB transport of BDP and hBDP components reinforces the health benefits of a diet rich in polyphenols in neurodegenerative disorders. Our results suggest some novel pathways and genes that may be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of the BDP polyphenol components.
Climate change and schools : Environmental hazards and resiliency
Sheffield, Perry E. ; Uijttewaal, Simone A.M. ; Stewart, James ; Galvez, Maida P. - \ 2017
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (2017)11. - ISSN 1661-7827
Adaptation - Built environment - Children - Disaster preparedness - Effects of climate change - Environmental health - Health - Mitigation - School environment - Students - Vulnerability
The changing climate is creating additional challenges in maintaining a healthy school environment in the United States (US) where over 50 million people, mostly children, spend approximately a third of their waking hours. Chronic low prioritization of funds and resources to support environmental health in schools and lack of clear regulatory oversight in the US undergird the new risks from climate change. We illustrate the extent of risk and the variation in vulnerability by geographic region, in the context of sparse systematically collected and comparable data particularly about school infrastructure. Additionally, we frame different resilience building initiatives, focusing on interventions that target root causes, or social determinants of health. Disaster response and recovery are also framed as resilience building efforts. Examples from US Federal Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands) and nationally are used to illustrate these concepts. We conclude that better surveillance, more research, and increased federal and state oversight of environmental factors in schools (specific to climate risks) is necessary, as exposures result in short- and long term negative health effects and climate change risks will increase over time.
Providing Personalised Nutrition : Consumers' Trust and Preferences Regarding Sources of Information, Service Providers and Regulators, and Communication Channels
Poínhos, Rui ; Oliveira, Bruno M.P.M. ; Lans, Ivo A. Van Der; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Berezowska, Aleksandra ; Rankin, Audrey ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Almeida, Maria D.V. De - \ 2017
Public Health Genomics 20 (2017)4. - ISSN 1662-4246 - p. 218 - 228.
Communication - Consumers - Food4me - Genomics - Personalised nutrition - Preferences - Regulators - Service providers - Trust
Background/Aims: Personalised nutrition has potential to revolutionise dietary health promotion if accepted by the general public. We studied trust and preferences regarding personalised nutrition services, how they influence intention to adopt these services, and cultural and social differences therein. Methods: A total of 9,381 participants were quota-sampled to be representative of each of 9 EU countries (Germany, Greece, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, The UK, and Norway) and surveyed by a questionnaire assessing their intention to adopt personalised nutrition, trust in service regulators and information sources, and preferences for service providers and information channels. Results: Trust and preferences significantly predicted intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Higher trust in the local department of health care was associated with lower intention to adopt personalised nutrition. General practitioners were the most trusted of service regulators, except in Portugal, where consumer organisations and universities were most trusted. In all countries, family doctors were the most trusted information providers. Trust in the National Health Service as service regulator and information source showed high variability across countries. Despite its highest variability across countries, personal meeting was the preferred communication channel, except in Spain, where an automated internet service was preferred. General practitioners were the preferred service providers, except in Poland, where dietitians and nutritionists were preferred. The preference for dietitians and nutritionists as service providers highly varied across countries. Conclusion: These results may assist in informing local initiatives to encourage acceptance and adoption of country-specific tailored personalised nutrition services, therefore benefiting individual and public health.
Univariate statistics and metabolomics : In The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry Stewart Talks
Wehrens, H.R.M.J. - \ 2017
HS Talks
Navigating weather, water, ice and climate information for safe polar mobilities
Dawson, J. ; Hoke, Winfried ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Liggett, D. ; Ljubicic, Gita ; Mills, B. ; Stewart, Emma ; Thoman, Rick - \ 2017
World Meteorological Organization - 84 p.
Keeping humans in the ecosystem
Link, Jason S. ; Thébaud, Olivier ; Smith, David C. ; Smith, Anthony D.M. ; Schmidt, Jorn ; Rice, Jake ; Poos, J.J. ; Pita, Cristina ; Lipton, Doug ; Kraan, M.L. ; Frusher, Stewart ; Doyen, Luc ; Cudennec, Annie ; Criddle, Keith ; Bailly, Denis - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)7. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1947 - 1956.
ecosystem-based management - governance - indicators - integrated ecosystem assessment - marine socio-ecological systems - modeling - scenario analysis - stakeholder engagement
The World Ocean presents many opportunities, with the blue economy projected to at least double in the next two decades. However, capitalizing on these opportunities presents significant challenges and a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to managing marine socio-ecological systems will be required to achieve the full benefits projected for the blue economy. Integrated ecosystem assessments have been identified as the best means of delivering the information upon which marine resource management decisions can be made. By their nature, these assessments are inter-disciplinary, but to date have mostly focused on the natural sciences. Inclusion of human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments has been lagging, but is fundamental. Here we report on a Symposium, and the articles emmanating from it that are included in this Theme Set, that address how to more effectively include human dimensions into integrated ecosystem assessments. We provide an introduction to each of the main symposium topics (governance, scenarios, indicators, participatory processes, and case studies), highlight the works that emerged from the symposium, and identify key areas in which more work is required. There is still a long way to go before we see end-to-end integrated ecosystem assessments inclusive of all the major current and potential ocean use sectors that also encompass multiple aspects of human dimensions. Nonetheless, it is also clear that progress is being made and we are developing tools and approaches, including the human dimension, that can inform management and position us to take advantage of the multi-sectoral opportunities of sustainable blue growth.
Letter to the editor: Elevating the conversation about GE crops
Gould, Fred ; Amasino, Richard M. ; Brossard, Dominique ; Buell, C.R. ; DIxon, Richard A. ; Falck-Zepeda, Jose B. ; Gallo, Michael A. ; Giller, Ken E. ; Glenna, Leland L. ; Griffin, Timothy ; Hamaker, Bruce R. ; Kareiva, Peter M. ; Magraw, Daniel ; Mallory-Smith, Carol ; Pixley, Kevin V. ; Ransom, Elizabeth P. ; Rodemeyer, Michael ; Stelly, David M. ; Stewart, C.N. ; Whitaker, Robert J. - \ 2017
Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)4. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 302 - 304.
Replication-Deficient Particles: New Insights into the Next Generation of Bleutongue Virus Vaccines
Celma, Cristina C. ; Stewart, Meredith ; Wernike, Kerstine ; Eschbaumer, Michael ; Gonzalez-Molleda, Lorenzo ; Breard, Emmanuel ; Schulz, Claudia ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Haegeman, Andy ; Clercq, Kris De; Rijn, P.A. van - \ 2017
Journal of Virology 91 (2017)2. - ISSN 0022-538X
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in many parts of the world, often causing severe haemorrhagic disease in livestock. To date, at least 27 different serotypes have been recognized. Vaccination against all serotypes is necessary to protect susceptible animals and to prevent onward spread of the virus by insect vectors. In our previous studies, we generated replication-deficient (DISC) virus strains for a number of serotypes and reported preliminary data on their protective efficacy in animals. In this report, to advance the DISC vaccines to the marketplace, we investigated different parameters of these DISC vaccines. First, we demonstrated the genetic stabilities of these vaccine strains and also the complementing cell line. Subsequently, the optimal storage conditions of vaccines, including additives, temperature and desiccation were determined and their protective efficacies in animals confirmed. Further, to test if mixtures of different vaccine strains could be tolerated, we tested cocktails of DISC vaccines in combinations of three or six different serotypes in sheep and cattle, the two natural hosts of BTV. Groups of sheep vaccinated with a cocktail of six different vaccines were completely protected from challenge with individual virulent serotypes, both in early challenge or after five months' challenge without any clinical disease. There was no interference in protection between the different vaccines. Protection was also achieved in cattle with a mixture of three vaccine strains, albeit at a lesser level than sheep. Our data support and validate the suitability of these virus strains as the next generation vaccines for BTV.
Alien Pathogens on the Horizon : Opportunities for Predicting their Threat to Wildlife
Roy, Helen E. ; Hesketh, Helen ; Purse, Bethan V. ; Eilenberg, Jørgen ; Santini, Alberto ; Scalera, Riccardo ; Stentiford, Grant D. ; Adriaens, Tim ; Bacela-Spychalska, Karolina ; Bass, David ; Beckmann, Katie M. ; Bessell, Paul ; Bojko, Jamie ; Booy, Olaf ; Cardoso, Ana Cristina ; Essl, Franz ; Groom, Quentin ; Harrower, Colin ; Kleespies, Regina ; Martinou, Angeliki F. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Peeler, Edmund J. ; Pergl, Jan ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Roques, Alain ; Schaffner, Francis ; Schindler, Stefan ; Schmidt, Benedikt R. ; Schönrogge, Karsten ; Smith, Jonathan ; Solarz, Wojciech ; Stewart, Alan ; Stroo, Arjan ; Tricarico, Elena ; Turvey, Katharine M.A. ; Vannini, Andrea ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Woodward, Stephen ; Wynns, Anja Amtoft ; Dunn, Alison M. - \ 2017
Conservation Letters 10 (2017)4. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 477 - 484.
Environmental hazard - Horizon scanning - Invasive alien species - Legislation - Wildlife diseases
According to the Convention on Biological Diversity, by 2020 invasive alien species (IAS) should be identified and their impacts assessed, so that species can be prioritized for implementation of appropriate control strategies and measures put in place to manage invasion pathways. For one quarter of the IAS listed as the "100 of the world's worst" environmental impacts are linked to diseases of wildlife (undomesticated plants and animals). Moreover, IAS are a significant source of "pathogen pollution" defined as the human-mediated introduction of a pathogen to a new host or region. Despite this, little is known about the biology of alien pathogens and their biodiversity impacts after introduction into new regions. We argue that the threats posed by alien pathogens to endangered species, ecosystems, and ecosystem services should receive greater attention through legislation, policy, and management. We identify 10 key areas for research and action, including those relevant to the processes of introduction and establishment of an alien pathogen and to prediction of the spread and associated impact of an alien pathogen on native biota and ecosystems. The development of interdisciplinary capacity, expertise, and coordination to identify and manage threats was seen as critical to address knowledge gaps.
Understanding the Creation and Use of Polar Weather and Climate Information
Thoman, Richard L. ; Dawson, J. ; Liggett, D. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Stewart, Emma ; Ljubicic, Gita ; Knol, M. ; Hoke, Winfried - \ 2017
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 98 (2017)1. - ISSN 0003-0007 - p. ES3 - ES5.
D4.2 - Model development and data protocol
Grainger, Matthew ; Stewart, Gavin ; Piras, Simone ; Righi, Simone ; Setti, Marco ; Vittuari, Matteo ; Aramyan, L.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : REFRESH - ISBN 9789463430340 - 41
Willingness to pay for personalised nutrition across Europe
Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Berezowska, Aleksandra ; Lans, Ivo A. Van Der; Ronteltap, Amber ; Rankin, Audrey ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Poínhos, Rui ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara ; Frewer, Lynn J. - \ 2016
European Journal of Public Health 26 (2016)4. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 640 - 644.

Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may promote public health. PN involves dietary advice based on individual characteristics of end users and can for example be based on lifestyle, blood and/or DNA profiling. Currently, PN is not refunded by most health insurance or health care plans. Improved public health is contingent on individual consumers being willing to pay for the service. Methods: A survey with a representative sample from the general population was conducted in eight European countries (N = 8233). Participants reported their willingness to pay (WTP) for PN based on lifestyle information, lifestyle and blood information, and lifestyle and DNA information. WTP was elicited by contingent valuation with the price of a standard, non-PN advice used as reference. Results: About 30% of participants reported being willing to pay more for PN than for non-PN advice. They were on average prepared to pay about 150% of the reference price of a standard, non-personalised advice, with some differences related to socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: There is a potential market for PN compared to non-PN advice, particularly among men on higher incomes. These findings raise questions to what extent personalized nutrition can be left to the market or should be incorporated into public health programs.

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