- Marta Herrera (1)
- R.L.A.P. Hoogenboom (1)
- M.P. Howard (2)
- J.H. Koeman (1)
- Patricia Lopez Sanchez (4)
- M.R.H. Lowik (1)
- Hans Mol (3)
- G.J. Mulder (1)
- P.P.J. Mulder (1)
- Monique Nijs de (5)
- Patrick P.J. Mulder (1)
- Diana P.K.H. Pereboom-de Fauw (1)
- D.P.K.H. Pereboom-de Fauw (1)
- Erika Pfeiffer (1)
- A. Pietersma (2)
- L.T.J. Pijls (1)
- R.D. Reynolds (2)
- P.J.J. Sauer (1)
- Martien Spanjer (3)
- Joyce Stoppelaar de (5)
- J. Stoppelaar de (2)
- J.M. Stoppelaar de (1)
- R.M.C. Theelen (1)
- Hester Top van den (1)
- Dini Venema (1)
- M.A. Waard de (1)
Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products
Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H. ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Spanjer, Martien ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2018
Food Chemistry 242 (2018). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 443 - 450.
Codeine - LC-MS/MS - Morphine - Narceine - Noscapine - Papaverine - Thebaine
A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240 mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348 mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106 mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4 mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation.
Survey of moniliformin in wheat- and corn-based products using a straightforward analytical method
Herrera, Marta ; Dam, Ruud van; Spanjer, Martien ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Mol, Hans ; Nijs, Monique de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia - \ 2017
Mycotoxin Research 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0178-7888 - p. 333 - 341.
LC-MS/MS - LC-Orbitrap-HRMS - Maize - Moniliformin - Wheat
A straightforward analytical method was developed and validated to determine the mycotoxin moniliformin in cereal-based foods. Moniliformin is extracted with water and quantified with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and its presence confirmed with liquid chromatography-Orbitrap-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was validated for flour, bread, pasta and maize samples in terms of linearity, matrix effect, recovery, repeatability and limit of quantification. Quantification was conducted by matrix-matched calibration. Positive samples were confirmed by standard addition. Recovery ranged from 77 to 114% and repeatability from 1 to 14%. The limit of quantification, defined as the lowest concentration tested at which the validation criteria of recovery and repeatability were fulfilled, was 10 μg/kg. The method was applied to 102 cereal-based food samples collected in the Netherlands and Germany. Moniliformin was not detected in bread samples. One of 22 flour samples contained moniliformin at 10.6 μg/kg. Moniliformin occurred in seven out of 25 pasta samples at levels around 10 μg/kg. Moniliformin (MON) was present in eight out of 23 maize products at levels ranging from 12 to 207 μg/kg.
Fate of enniatins and deoxynivalenol during pasta cooking
Nijs, Monique de; Top, Hester van den; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Mol, Hans - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 213 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 763 - 767.
Deoxynivalenol - Enniatins - Fate of mycotoxins - LC–MS/MS - Mycotoxins - Pasta - Processing
The fate of deoxynivalenol and enniatins was studied during cooking of commercially available dry pasta in the Netherlands in 2014. Five samples containing relatively high levels of deoxynivalenol and/or enniatins were selected for the cooking experiment. Cooking was performed in duplicate on different days, under standardised conditions, simulating house-hold preparation. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water followed by salt-induced partitioning. The extracts were analysed by LC–MS/MS. The method limits of detection were 8 μg/kg for deoxynivalenol, 10 μg/kg for enniatin A1 and 5 μg/kg for enniatins A, B and B1. During the cooking of the five dry pasta samples, 60% of the deoxynivalenol and 83–100% of the enniatins were retained in the cooked pasta. It is recommended to study food processing fate of mycotoxins through naturally contaminated materials (incurred materials).
Alternaria toxins and conjugates in selected foods in the Netherlands
Lopez Sanchez, Patricia ; Venema, Dini ; Mol, Hans ; Spanjer, Martien ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Pfeiffer, Erika ; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2016
Food Control 69 (2016). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 153 - 159.
Alternaria toxins - Conjugates - Dried figs - Sunflower - Tomato processed products
A survey on Alternaria toxins in the food categories dried figs (n = 14), sunflower products (n = 24) and tomato products (n = 43) was carried out in the Netherlands on samples collected in retail stores in autumn 2014. The occurrence data from this survey confirmed the previously reported data of a pilot survey in 2013, with tenuazonic acid being an ubiquitous Alternaria toxin in dried figs (100% of the samples), sunflower seeds (80% of the samples) and tomato products (60% of samples) at relatively high concentrations, up to 1728 μg/kg in dried figs and 1350 μg/kg in sunflower seeds. Despite the occurring of high concentrations of tenuazonic acid in sunflower seeds and figs, it is unlikely that the population in the Netherlands is exposed to levels of concern. Alternariol was detected in 27% of the tomato products ranging from LOQ (2 μg/kg) up to 26 μg/kg, while alternariol monomethyl ether was present in 7% of the tomato products. In the worst case situation, consumption of these products may result in exposure at levels above the threshold of toxicological concern of 2.5 ng/kg body weight/day for alternariol. None of seven conjugates of Alternaria toxins was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.5 μg/kg.
Tropane and ergot alkaloids in grain-based products for infants and young children in the Netherlands in 2011–2014
Mulder, P.P.J. ; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Hoogenboom, R.L.A.P. ; Stoppelaar, Joyce de; Nijs, Monique de - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance (2015). - ISSN 1939-3210 - p. 284 - 290.
cereal-based food - ergot alkaloids - LC-MS/MS - multi-method - tropane alkaloids - young children
An LC-MS/MS multi-method was developed to simultaneously quantify ergot alkaloids (EAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs) in 113 cereal-based food for infants and young children. To assess yearly variation, samples were collected in 2011, 2012 and 2014. EAs were detected in 54% and TAs in 22% of the samples. Mean EA levels in the three sampling years were 10.6, 6.2 and 8.6 µg kg−1, respectively (maximum: 115.4 µg kg−1), indicating that exposure to EAs would not have exceeded the health-based guidance values set by EFSA in 2012. Mean TA levels were 3.9, 2.4 and 0.4 µg kg−1, respectively (maximum: 80.8 µg kg−1). The acute reference dose for TAs, derived by EFSA in 2013, would have been exceeded by young children when consuming some of the products sampled in 2011–2012. TA levels had decreased drastically in 2014, possibly due to measures taken by producers as response to the EFSA Opinion.
Health Council of the Netherlands. Deoxynivalenol (DON).
Koeman, J.H. ; Feron, V.J. ; Fink-Gremmels, J. ; Lowik, M.R.H. ; Mulder, G.J. ; Sauer, P.J.J. ; Waard, M.A. de; Stoppelaar, J.M. de; Theelen, R.M.C. ; Pijls, L.T.J. - \ 2001
The Hague, the Netherlands : Health Council of the Netherlands - ISBN 9789055493944 - 70
fusarium - toxinogene schimmels - risicoschatting - tarwe - vomitoxine - toxinogenic fungi - risk assessment - wheat - vomitoxin
|Changes in muscle size and physical performance during exposure to extreme altitude.
Reynolds, R.D. ; Howard, M.P. ; Stoppelaar, J. de; Pietersma, A. ; Deurenberg, P. - \ 1991
FASEB Journal 5 (1991)2. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 1128 - 4391a.
|Changes in body composition during exposure to extreme altitude.
Deurenberg, P. ; Reynolds, R.D. ; Howard, M.P. ; Pietersma, A. ; Stoppelaar, J. de - \ 1991
FASEB Journal 5 (1991)2. - ISSN 0892-6638 - p. 1128 - 4930a.