Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Planten reageren onverwacht op extra kooldioxide
Struik, Paul - \ 2018

Planten groeien beter als de hoeveelheid koolstofdioxide in de atmosfeer stijgt, zo is de gedachte. Maar op lange termijn reageert het merendeel van de planten niet op extra CO2, blijkt nu uit onderzoek aan de universiteit van Minnesota.

Planten groeien beter als de hoeveelheid koolstofdioxide in de atmosfeer stijgt, zo is de gedachte. Maar op lange termijn reageert het merendeel van de planten niet op extra CO2, blijkt nu uit onderzoek aan de universiteit van Minnesota.

Woodland ectomycorrhizal fungi benefit from large-scale reduction in nitrogen deposition in the Netherlands
Strien, Arco J. van; Boomsluiter, Menno ; Noordeloos, Machiel E. ; Verweij, Richard J.T. ; Kuijper, Thomas - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)1. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 290 - 298.
Citizen science - Ectomycorrhiza - Environmental measures - Legacy - Mycoflora - Nitrogen deposition - Saprotrophs - Wood parasites

Woodland ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species declined considerably in the Netherlands in the late 20th century, mainly due to raised levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Environmental measures have been taken to reduce this deposition, but it remains unclear whether and to what extent ECM species have benefitted from these. We hypothesized that ECM species, especially those species that are known to be nitrophobic, that is, sensitive to nitrogen loading, have recovered to some extent from the reduction in nitrogen deposition after 1994. We further hypothesized that, due to legacy effects of deposition, recovery has been stronger in regions where deposition levels have previously been lower. To test these hypotheses, we analysed long-term opportunistic data, that is, observations collected without standardized field method. We applied data filtering and a modified List Length method to adjust for potential biases in these data. The removal of bias left us with two periods to examine ECM species trends: before (1965-1985) and after (1994-2013) deposition reduction started [in 1994]. We compared trends in ECM species in 1965-1985 with those in 1994-2013. Multispecies indicators were used to summarize the findings of ECM species, and to compare these with results of litter saprotrophic species and wood saprotrophic and wood parasitic species. We found that (1) most trends switched in direction from negative to positive after the reduction in nitrogen deposition began; (2) these trends were more pronounced for nitrophobic ECM species than for nitrotolerant ECM species; (3) trends for ECM species differed from those of the other functional groups; and (4) recovery was stronger in the region with a history of lower deposition. Policy implications. Our results suggest that woodland ectomycorrhizal species benefit substantially from environmental measures to reduce nitrogen deposition. Our study is one of few scientific studies to date documenting evidence of success of large-scale (nation-wide) environmental measures. We have demonstrated that opportunistic citizen science data can be used for the detection of species trends, but it is essential to examine and control for potential bias in the data.

Data from: Woodland ectomycorrhizal fungi benefit from large-scale reduction of nitrogen deposition in the Netherlands
Strien, Arco J. van; Boomsluiter, Menno ; Noordeloos, Machiel E. ; Verweij, Richard J.T. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. - \ 2017
nitrogen reduction - mycoflora - citizen science - ectomycorrhiza - environmental measures - saprotrophs - wood parasites - legacy
1.Woodland ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species declined considerably in the Netherlands in the late 20th century, mainly due to raised levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Environmental measures have been taken to reduce this deposition, but it remains unclear whether and to what extent ECM species have benefitted from this. 2.We hypothesised that ECM species, especially those species that are known to be nitrophobic, i.e. sensitive to nitrogen loading, have recovered to some extent from the reduction in nitrogen deposition after 1994. We further hypothesised that, due to legacy effects of deposition, recovery has been stronger in regions where deposition levels have previously been lower. 3.To test these hypotheses, we analysed long-term opportunistic data, i.e., observations collected without standardised field method. We applied data filtering and a modified List Length method to adjust for potential biases in these data. The removal of bias left us with two periods to examine ECM species trends: before (1965-1985) and after (1994-2013) deposition reduction started [in 1994]. 4.We compared trends in ECM species in 1965-1985 with those in 1994-2013. Multispecies indicators were used to summarise the findings of ECM species, and to compare these with results of litter saprotrophic species and wood saprotrophic and wood parasitic species. 5.We found that (i) most trends switched in direction from negative to positive after the reduction of nitrogen deposition began, (ii) these trends were more pronounced for nitrophobic ECM species than for nitrotolerant ECM species; (iii) trends for ECM species differed from those of the other functional groups; and (iv) recovery was stronger in the region with a history of lower deposition. 6.Policy implications. Our results suggest that woodland ectomycorrhizal species benefit substantially from environmental measures to reduce nitrogen deposition. Our study is one of few scientific studies to date documenting evidence of success of large-scale (nation-wide) environmental measures. We have demonstrated that opportunistic citizen-science data can be used for the detection of species trends, but it is essential to examine and control for potential bias in the data.
Strong recovery of dragonflies in recent decades in The Netherlands
Termaat, T. ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Plate, C.L. ; Strien, A. van - \ 2015
Freshwater Science 34 (2015)3. - ISSN 2161-9549 - p. 1094 - 1104.
change odonata corduliidae - boreal forest lakes - climate-change - trends - conservation - assemblages - indicators - integrity - abundance - plants
Many dragonfly species in The Netherlands declined in the 20th century because of acidification, eutrophication, and desiccation of lotic and lentic habitats and canalization of streams and rivers. These pressures peaked in the 1970s, when 26 of 65 native species had an unfavorable conservation status on the 1997 Dutch Red List. Since the 1980s, environmental regulations have led to improved water quality, and any habitat restoration projects have been carried out. We used standardized monitoring data (1999–2013) and unstandardized observations (1991–2013) to investigate how dragonflies have changed in the last 20 y on a national scale. We compared trends of dragonfly species from different habitat types and with southern vs northern distribution in Europe. Dragonflies recovered strongly in The Netherlands in a period of ~20 y, probably because of recent habitat improvements. Lotic species have benefitted more than lentic species, and southern species have more positive trends than northern species, suggesting that climate change has contributed to the recovery. Dragonflies were resilient and able to quickly recover when their habitats were restored. Recovery has led to a better conservation status for many species. Unstandardized data delivered results consistent with those from monitoring data and had greater statistical power to detect trends because many more unstandardized data than standardized data were available. Thus, when the goal is to provide a general overview of changes in dragonflies, unstandardized data can outperform standardized abundance data. However, abundance data may deliver complementary information for individual species. Our results support the suitability of dragonflies as indicators of freshwater habitat condition, but they recover more strongly in The Netherlands than many other insects, possibly because of their higher dispersal abilities or different habitat requirements.
No evidence of the effect of extreme weather events on annual occurrence of four groups of ectothermic species
Malinowska, A.H. ; Strien, A.J. van; Verboom, J. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2014
PLoS One 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 10 p.
climate-change - metapopulation dynamics - habitat fragmentation - population-dynamics - occupancy models - european climate - range expansion - dispersal - trends - impact
Weather extremes may have strong effects on biodiversity, as known from theoretical and modelling studies. Predicted negative effects of increased weather variation are found only for a few species, mostly plants and birds in empirical studies. Therefore, we investigated correlations between weather variability and patterns in occupancy, local colonisations and local extinctions (metapopulation metrics) across four groups of ectotherms: Odonata, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Reptilia. We analysed data of 134 species on a 1×1 km-grid base, collected in the last 20 years from the Netherlands, combining standardised data and opportunistic data. We applied dynamic site-occupancy models and used the results as input for analyses of (i) trends in distribution patterns, (ii) the effect of temperature on colonisation and persistence probability, and (iii) the effect of years with extreme weather on all the three metapopulation metrics. All groups, except butterflies, showed more positive than negative trends in metapopulation metrics. We did not find evidence that the probability of colonisation or persistence increases with temperature nor that extreme weather events are reflected in higher extinction risks. We could not prove that weather extremes have visible and consistent negative effects on ectothermic species in temperate northern hemisphere. These findings do not confirm the general prediction that increased weather variability imperils biodiversity. We conclude that weather extremes might not be ecologically relevant for the majority of species. Populations might be buffered against weather variation (e.g. by habitat heterogeneity), or other factors might be masking the effects (e.g. availability and quality of habitat). Consequently, we postulate that weather extremes have less, or different, impact in real world metapopulations than theory and models suggest.
Optimalisatie bemesting Van Strien : voortgang 2013
Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M. ; Strien, J. van - \ 2014
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Rapport / Louis Bolk Instituut 2014-012 LbP) - 19 p.
bemesting - akkerbouw - veldproeven - vollegrondsgroenten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - stikstof - proefopzet - biologische landbouw - fertilizer application - arable farming - field tests - field vegetables - agricultural research - nitrogen - experimental design - organic farming
Dit rapport bevat de resultaten van het derde jaar van het project “Bedrijfsinterne Optimalisatie”, en wel van het deelproject “Van Strien”. Op diverse percelen zijn metingen uitgevoerd aan de bodem om de stikstof werking van maaimeststoffen in beeld te krijgen.
Emotional, external and restrained eating behaviour and BMI trajectories in adolescence
Snoek, Harriëtte M. ; Engels, Rutger C.M.E. ; Strien, Tatjana Van; Otten, Roy - \ 2013
Appetite 67 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 81 - 87.
Individual differences in eating behaviours might partly explain the variations in development of weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity. In the current study, identified trajectories of BMI in adolescence and their associations with restrained, emotional and external eating were tested. For the assessment of BMI trajectories growth mixture modelling was used; a method used to identify clusters of individuals within a population that follow distinct developmental trajectories. In total 328 Dutch adolescents (13–15 years old at baseline) self-reported their height and weight at five annual waves and their eating behaviour at baseline. Development of BMI was best fitted in five distinct trajectories that showed similar moderate increase of BMI over time; parallel but at a different level. High restrained eaters had a higher chance of being in the higher BMI trajectories. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to the BMI trajectories. In conclusion, adolescents in this study followed very parallel patterns of moderate increases in BMI which suggests that factors acting on individual differences in weight status have had their influence mostly at a – perhaps much – younger age. Restraint eating was related to BMI in early adolescence, but not to an increases or decreases in BMI over the course of adolescence.
Recent changes in distribution of ectotherms cannot be explained by extreme weather events
Malinowska, A.H. ; Strien, A.J. van; Wallisde Vries, M.F. ; Opdam, P. - \ 2013
Optimalisatie bemesting Van Strien : voortgang 2012
Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M. ; Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Strien, J. van - \ 2013
[Driebergen] : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr.: 2013-013 LbP) - 27 p.
bemesting - akkerbouw - veldproeven - proefopzet - vollegrondsgroenten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - stikstof - biologische landbouw - fertilizer application - arable farming - field tests - experimental design - field vegetables - agricultural research - nitrogen - organic farming
Dit rapport bevat de resultaten van het tweede jaar van het project “Bedrijfsinterne Optimalisatie”, en wel van het deelproject “Van Strien”. Op diverse percelen zijn metingen uitgevoerd aan de bodem om de stikstof werking van maaimeststoffen in beeld te krijgen. Soms betreft het een vergelijking met de toediening van dierlijke mest, soms gaat het om verschillende hoeveelheden van toegediende maaimeststoffen. Er zijn geen verrassende resultaten, met uitzondering van een perceel tarwe waarbij een gift maaimeststof zonder (wel geplande) dierlijke mest geen meeropbrengst gaf ten opzichte van helemaal geen bemesting.
Beperkt herstel konijnenstand na virusziekten : duinbeheerders met ziekteverlof
Strien, A.J. van; Meij, T. van der; Dekker, J.J.A. - \ 2012
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 9 (2012)9. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 14 - 17.
konijnen - fauna - ecologisch herstel - virusziekten - duingebieden - zuid-holland - noord-holland - rabbits - ecological restoration - viral diseases - duneland
De laatste jaren zie je het weer: afgegraasd duingrasland met veel konijnenkeutels. De terreinbeheerders zijn blij met de terugkeer van het konijn, want deze dieren zijn belangrijke hulpkrachten bij het duinbeheer. Door ziekten waren er niet veel meer van over. Het herstel is nog wankel en de mogelijkheden van terreinbeheerders om wat aan de lage stand te doen, zijn vrij beperkt.
Correspondence: Uncertainty in thermal tolerances and climatic debt
Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 638 - 639.
Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale
Devictor, V. ; Swaay, C. van; Brereton, T. ; Brotons, L. ; Chamberlain, D. ; Heliölä, J. ; Herrando, S. ; Julliard, R. ; Kuussaari, M. ; Lindström, A. ; Reif, J. ; Roy, D.B. ; Schweiger, O. ; Settele, J. ; Stefanescu, C. ; Strien, A. van; Turnhout, C. van; Vermouzek, Z. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Wynhoff, I. ; Jiguet, F. - \ 2012
Nature Climate Change 2 (2012). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 121 - 124.
evolutionary responses - global change - extinction - adaptation
Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species(1-3). However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and butterfly communities at a European scale over two decades (1990-2008). We quantified the yearly change in community composition in response to climate change for 9,490 bird and 2,130 butterfly communities distributed across Europe(4). We show that changes in community composition are rapid but different between birds and butterflies and equivalent to a 37 and 114 km northward shift in bird and butterfly communities, respectively. We further found that, during the same period, the northward shift in temperature in Europe was even faster, so that the climatic debts of birds and butterflies correspond to a 212 and 135 km lag behind climate. Our results indicate both that birds and butterflies do not keep up with temperature increase and the accumulation of different climatic debts for these groups at national and continental scales.
Toepassing van maaimeststoffen - Van Strien, 2011
Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Rietberg, P. - \ 2012
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publikatie / Louis Bolk Instituut 2012-027) - 36 p.
biologische landbouw - groenbemesters - organische meststoffen - grasmaaisel - akkerbouw - bemesting - organic farming - green manures - organic fertilizers - grass clippings - arable farming - fertilizer application
Dit is het eerste tussentijdse verslag van onderzoek naar de optimalisatie van bedrijfsinterne mineralenstromen. Het onderzoek vond plaats op het bedrijf van Joost van Strien. Gezien het feit dat dit het eerste jaar is van een meerjarig onderzoek gaat het vooral om het vastleggen en beschikbaar hebben van gegevens.
Ecological strategies successfully predict the effects of river floodplain rehabilitation on breeding birds
Turnhout, C.A.M. van; Leuven, R.S.E.W. ; Hendriks, A.J. ; Kurstjens, G. ; Strien, A. van; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Siepel, H. - \ 2012
River Research and Applications 28 (2012)3. - ISSN 1535-1459 - p. 269 - 282.
theoretical habitat templets - life-history tactics - upper rhone river - species richness - lowland rivers - present state - rhine - europe - biodiversity - restoration
To improve the ecological functioning of riverine ecosystems, large-scale floodplain rehabilitation has been carried out in the Rhine–Meuse Delta since the 1990s. This paper evaluates changes in abundance of 93 breeding bird species over a period of 10 years in response to rehabilitation, by comparing population changes in 75 rehabilitated sites with 124 non-rehabilitated reference sites. Such quantitative, multi-species, large-scale and long-term evaluations of floodplain rehabilitation on biodiversity are still scarce, particularly studies that focus on the terrestrial component. We try to understand the effects by relating population trends to ecological and life-history traits and strategies of breeding birds. More specifically, we try to answer the question whether rehabilitation of vegetation succession or hydro-geomorphological river processes is the key driver behind recent population changes in rehabilitated sites. Populations of 35 species have significantly performed better in rehabilitated sites compared to non-rehabilitated floodplains, whereas only 8 have responded negatively to rehabilitation. Differences in effects between species are best explained by the trait selection of nest location. Reproductive investment and migratory behaviour were less strong predictors. Based on these three traits we defined eight life-history strategies that successfully captured a substantial amount of variation in rehabilitation effects. We conclude that spontaneous vegetation succession and initial excavations are currently more important drivers of population changes than rehabilitation of hydrodynamics. The latter are strongly constrained by river regulation. If rehabilitation of hydro-geomorphological processes remains incomplete in future, artificial cyclic floodplain rejuvenation will be necessary for sustainable conservation of characteristic river birds
Occupancy dynamics of wild rabits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the coastal dunes of the Nederlands with imperfect detection
Strien, A.J. van; Dekker, J.J.A. ; Straver, M. ; Meij, T. van der; Soldaat, L.L. ; Ehrenburg, A. ; Loon, E. van - \ 2011
Wildlife Research 38 (2011)8. - ISSN 1035-3712 - p. 717 - 725.
hemorrhagic-disease - spotlight counts - european rabbits - population-size - conservation - abundance - models
Context: Wild rabbits are considered a key species in the coastal dunes of the Netherlands, but populations have collapsed as a result of viral diseases. Aim: We studied to what extent population collapse led to local extinction and whether recolonisation of empty patches in the dunes happened. Methods: We investigated occupancy dynamics using data of 245 transects where rabbits were surveyed in 1984–2009. Dynamic site-occupancy models were used to analyse the data. These models adjust for imperfect detection to avoid bias in occupancy-trend estimation. Key results: The decline of the rabbit population has resulted in many local extinctions, especially in woodland and in the northern part of the coastal dunes. Most transects along grassland and mixed vegetation have recently been reoccupied. The recovery of woodland occupancy is slow, probably not because of limited dispersal capacity of rabbits, but because the quality of woodland habitats is poor. Detection probability of rabbits varied considerably over the years and among habitat types, indicating the necessity of taking detection into account. Rabbits were slightly better detected when it was cloudy, windy and rainy and when lunar phase approached new moon. Conclusion: Extinction and recolonisation of habitat patches varied considerably among habitat types. Implications: The current slow recolonisation hampers the recovery of rabbit populations in woodland habitats in the Dutch coastal dunes. Furthermore, monitoring rabbit occupancy should take imperfect detection into account to avoid biased results.
Herstel konijnenstand blijft uit in duinbossen
Strien, A. van; Dekker, J. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Nature Today
Quality indicators for passport data in ex situ genebanks
Hintum, T.J.L. van; Menting, F.B.J. ; Strien, E.A. van - \ 2011
Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 9 (2011)3. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 478 - 485.
collections
Given the increasing importance of data quality for the ex situ conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources (PGR), an indicator was created that quantifies the level of completeness of passport data. This passport data completeness index (PDCI) uses the presence or absence of data points in the documentation of a genebank accession, taking into account the presence or value of other data points. For example, a wild accession should have a well-defined collection site but no variety name. Any type of accession, wild, landrace, breeding material or modern variety, can attain a maximal score of ten for this index. The applicability of this index was tested on the complete contents of EURISCO, the European catalogue of ex situ maintained PGR containing over one million records. Analysis of the PDCI of the material in EURISCO provided valuable insight in the data quality of European collections. The PDCI can be used to identify datasets that might need additional attention and improvement or datasets that need more careful interpretation than others.
Stikstofvoorziening uit maaimeststoffen : bedrijfsontwerp
Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Berg, C. ter; Strien, J. van; Bokhorst, J.G. - \ 2011
Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut ) - 31 p.
biologische landbouw - bemesting - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - groenbemesters - organische meststoffen - grasmaaisel - mineralenboekhouding - akkerbouw - organic farming - fertilizer application - farm management - green manures - organic fertilizers - grass clippings - nutrient accounting system - arable farming
In dit verslag wordt een bedrijfsontwerp besproken voor een akkerbouwbedrijf dat gebaseerd is op stikstofvoorziening uit luzerne en grasklaver als maaimeststof. Het daardoor ontstane tekort op de P-balans wordt gecompenseerd door lokaal beschikbare natuurcompost. Het bedrijfsmodel is gebaseerd op de vruchtwisseling en de bedrijfsomstandigheden van het akkerbouwbedrijf van Joost van Strien in Ens, Noordoostpolder. De organische stof balans moet ten minste gelijk blijven met de huidige situatie, en de opbrengsten mogen niet lager uitvallen dan nu het geval is.
Minder en anders bemesten : onderzoeksresultaat akkerbouw op klei : maaimeststoffen bij aardappel, Van Strien 2010
Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Timmermans, B.G.H. - \ 2010
[Driebergen] : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 2010-023 LbP) - 35 p.
bemesting - biologische landbouw - aardappelen - akkerbouw - lichte zavel - groenbemesters - stikstof - organische stof - veldproeven - fertilizer application - organic farming - potatoes - arable farming - sandy loam soils - green manures - nitrogen - organic matter - field tests
Op een zavelgrond is een bemestingsexperiment aangelegd in een aardappelgewas in vier herhalingen. Naast de controle is gebruik gemaakt van luzerne vers gesneden, luzerne kuil eerder toegediend, luzerne kuil later toegediend, kippenmest en een mengsel van rundvee dunne mest met vinasse. De stikstofmineralisatie was in het vroege voorjaar (begin april) bij luzerne kuil voldoende snel om binnen drie weken circa 35 kg meer N te leveren dan de controle. De stikstofefficiëntie bij gebruik van luzerne is vergelijkbaar met die van de dunne mest / vinasse. De organische stof balans valt zeker niet ongunstiger en misschien gunstiger uit. Geconcludeerd wordt dat de luzerne een volwaardig alternatief is voor dierlijke mest, en dat luzerne kuil enkele voordelen biedt ten opzichte van verse luzerne maar wel extra handelingen en kosten met zich meebrengt.
Parental control and the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) interaction on emotional eating in adolescence
Strien, T. van; Snoek, H.M. ; Zwaluw, C.S. van der; Engels, R.C. - \ 2010
Appetite 54 (2010)2. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 255 - 261.
psychological control - adjustment - behavior - overweight - depression - stress - reward - food - polymorphism - sensitivity
The present study addresses the emergence of emotional eating in adolescence in relation to maternal or paternal psychological control. A reduction of food intake is considered the biological natural response to distress, therefore we tested whether the a-typical stress response of emotional eating develops in interaction with genetic vulnerability. Carrying the A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1A polymorphism (rs1800497) is associated with reduced dopamine D2 receptor availability in the brain. We hypothesized that carrying this allele would confer risk for the development of emotional eating, particularly so in adolescents with adverse rearing experiences. Participants were 279 Dutch adolescents (average age of 13.4) that participated in a prospective study with a four-year follow-up. We found a moderator effect of DRD2 genotype on the relation between both maternal and paternal psychological control and increases in emotional eating in both sexes. Adolescents showed only an increase in emotional eating in relation to high psychological control if they carried at least one DRD2 A1 allele. This study is the first to show that the relationship between adverse rearing experiences and emotional eating might be dependent on genetic make-up.
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