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Rag expression identifies B and T cell lymphopoietic tissues during the development of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Huttenhuis, B.T. ; Huising, M.O. ; Meulen, T. van der; Oosterhoud, C.N. van; Alvarez Sánchez, N. ; Taverne-Thiele, J.J. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2005
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29 (2005)12. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 1033 - 1047.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - activating gene-1 rag1 - v(d)j recombination - developing zebrafish - class-i - thymus - thymocytes - involution - ontogeny - system
The generation of lymphoid cells during carp development was studied by analyzing expression of the recombination activating genes (rag) using in situ hybridization and real time quantitative PCR. These data were combined with immunohistochemistry using the mAb's WCL9 (cortical thymocytes) and WCI12 (B cells). Carp rag-1 and rag-2 showed 90 and 89% amino acid identity, respectively, to the corresponding zebrafish sequences. Rag-1 was first expressed in the thymus at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), while both rag-1+/WCL9+ and rag-1¿/WCL9¿ areas were distinguished from 1 week post-fertilization (wpf), suggesting early cortex/medulla differentiation. From 6 dpf, rag-1+ cells were also present cranio-lateral of the head kidney. From 1 wpf, rag-1/rag-2 was expressed in kidney (together with immunoglobulin heavy chain expression) but not in spleen, while WCI12+ cells appeared 1 week later in both organs, suggesting B cell recombination in kidney but not in spleen. Rag-1 expression exceeded rag-2 levels in thymus and in head- and trunk-kidney of juveniles, but this ratio was reversed in head- and trunk-kidney from approximately 16 wpf onwards. Rag-1/rag-2 expression was detected in thymi of animals over 1-year-old, but in kidney only at low levels, indicating life-long new formation of putative T cells but severely reduced formation of B cells in older fish.
Embryonic development and uterine influence in the pig
Pavert, S.A. van de - \ 2001
Universiteit Utrecht. Promotor(en): M.A.M. Taverne, co-promotor(en): H.W.J. Stroband; M.L. Boerjan; R. van den Hurk. - Wageningen : Ponsen & Looijen - ISBN 9789039328774 - 113 p.
|Axial skeleton development in zebrafish
Meulen, T. van der; Samallo, J. ; Schipper, H. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Jousma, E. ; Leeuwen, J.L. van - \ 2001
In: Abstracts 8th Benelux congress of zoology : 8th Benelux congress of zoology, Nijmegen, November 2001
|Goosecoid expression pattern in the porcine embryo compared to the chicken during anteriorposterior development
Pavert, S.A. van de; Schipper, H. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Soede, N.M. ; Hurk, R. van de; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Boerjan, M.L. ; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 2001
Reproduction Nutrition Development 13 (2001). - ISSN 0926-5287 - p. 177 - 185.
A comparison of anterior-posterior development in the porcine versus the chicken embryo, using goosecoid expression as a marker
Pavert, S.A. van de; Schipper, H. ; Wit, A.A.C. de; Soede, N.M. ; Hurk, R. van den; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Boerjan, M.L. ; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 2001
Reproduction Fertility and Development 13 (2001). - ISSN 1031-3613 - p. 177 - 185.
During early embryonic development, pig and chicken embryos share striking morphological similarities. In the present study, the timing and location of expression of mRNA for goosecoid (gsc), a gene classically expressed in the nodal region of developing embryos, was examined and compared in preprimitive streak and gastrulating pig and chicken embryos. The expression of gsc appeared first in the hypoblast and second in the hypoblast of pig and chicken embryos. Because gsc expression in these tissues was not symmetrical, gsc appears to be a useful marker for the onset of embryonic polarity. During gastrulation in both species, gsc expression became confined to cells in and around the node, in the epiblast and mesoderm layers. The only significant species-related difference in the distribution of gsc expression at these stages of development was the presence of gsc expression in the gut endoderm of chicken but not pig embryos. Certainly, our results suggest that the molecular mechanisms that control anterior–posterior development in different classes of vertebrates are remarkably similar. In addition, we were able to demonstrate that the pattern of gsc expression appears to provide a more sensitive and accurate means of determining the developmental stage of early porcine embryos than the more commonly used trophoblast or embryoblast size. Using gsc expression and accompanying embryo morphometric changes, we were able to develop a four-point scale that may offer a more accurate means of quantifying early embryo development in pigs.
Uterine-embryonic interaction in pit : activin, follistatin, and activin receptor II in uterus and embryo during early gestation
Pavert, S.A. van de; Boerjan, M.L. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Taverne, M.A.M. ; Hurk, R. van der - \ 2001
Molecular reproduction and development 59 (2001). - ISSN 1040-452X - p. 390 - 399.
The mRNA expression patterns of activin A and follistatin in the uterus and embryo, the mRNA expression of the activin receptor II in the embryo, and the localization in the uterus of the immunoreactive activin A and the receptor II proteins in the uterus were examined at gestation days 7-12 after ovulation in pig. Activin was located predominantly at the mesometrial side of the uterus during all stages of pregnancy studied. Follistatin mRNA was absent in the uterus during these stages, suggesting that activin of uterine origin is not inhibited by intra-uterine follistatin. The receptor was localized throughout the glandular and luminal epithelium of the uterus. In the embryo, activin was expressed predominantly in the epiblast before unfolding, but after unfolding of the epiblast activin expression shifted to the trophoblast. The expression pattern of follistatin mRNA was contrarily to that of activin, i.e., before unfolding predominantly in the trophoblast (days 8-9), and shifted to the epiblast at day 10. During streak stages, follistatin was detected in the node and primitive streak. Activin receptor II mRNA was first detected at day 8 in the embryoblast. At day 11, it was expressed in trophoblast cells near the epiblast, and in the first ingressing mesoderm cells. During the streak stages, it was expressed predominantly in the trophoblast. The presence of activin and its receptor in uterine epithelium and early embryonic tissues indicate that both embryonic and uterine activin are involved in intra-uterine processes, such as attachment and early embryonic development.
TTP, a C3H zinc finger protein gene, is expressed in mouse ovarian oocytes
Kronnie, G. te; Samallo, J. ; Schipper, H. ; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 2001
Development genes and evolution 211 (2001). - ISSN 0949-944X - p. 261 - 262.
|Teleost yolk cell function on blastoderm differentiation and morphogenesis
Kronnie, G. te; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Schipper, H. ; Samallo, J. - \ 2000
Netherlands Journal of Zoology 50 (2000). - ISSN 0028-2960 - p. 37 - 51.
|Expression of Ikaros and rag-1 genes in combination with a cortical thymocyte marker during ontogeny of carp thymus
Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Huising, M. ; Meulen, T. van der; Taverne-Thiele, A. ; Schipper, H. ; Samallo, J. ; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 2000
In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24 : VIIIth ISDCI Congress, Cairns Australia, 2000 - p. S102 - S102.
Expression of the organizer specific homeobox gene goosecoid (gsc) in porcine embryos
Meijer, H.A. ; Pavert, S.A. van de; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Boerjan, M.L. - \ 2000
Molecular reproduction and development 55 (2000). - ISSN 1040-452X - p. 1 - 7.
The homeobox gene goosecoid is one of the first genes expressed in the organizer region of vertebrates and specifies future dorsal regions along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. Goosecoid (gsc) expression marks the posterior end of the anterior/posterior axis and might be a good marker to visualise early events in embryonic axis formation and differentiation processes in the epiblast at the onset of gastrulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gsc expression in porcine embryos. For this the homeobox containing region of the porcine gsc was isolated using RT-PCR. The sequence of the PCR product appeared to be highly homologous to the sequence in the mouse, human, and chicken. We concluded that the isolated region represents part of the porcine gsc messenger. Relative levels of gsc expression were estimated in porcine embryos from day 9 to day 12 of pregnancy. Gsc was expressed in embryos of all ages and localisation on one side of the embryoblast was demonstrated with in situ hybridisation on whole- mount embryos at day 10 of pregnancy. In embryos collected at day 13 of pregnancy gsc expression was localised anterior to the primitive streak. The correlation between embryo size and level of gsc expression was low. Levels and pattern of expression varied within and between litters collected at similar days of pregnancy. It is concluded that gsc expression can be used as an early marker of differentiation and to describe embryo diversity in the pig.
Zebrafish CTH1, a C3H zinc finger protein, is expressed in ovarian oocytes and embryos
Kronnie, G. te; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Schipper, H. ; Samallo, J. - \ 1999
Development genes and evolution 209 (1999). - ISSN 0949-944X - p. 443 - 446.
Blastoderm structure, cell migration and formation of the embryonic shield during gastrulation in the carp (Cyprinus carpio); a scanning electron microscopic study.
Gestel, W.J.H. van; Kronnie, G. te; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 1998
European journal of morphology 36 (1998)2. - ISSN 0924-3860 - p. 65 - 75.
The carp homeobox gene Ovxl shows early expression during gastrulation and subsequently in the vagal lobe, the facial lobe and the ventral telencephalon.
Stroband, H.W.J. ; Dekens, M.P.S. ; Kronnie, G. te; Schipper, H. ; Samallo, J. - \ 1998
Development genes and evolution 208 (1998). - ISSN 0949-944X - p. 56 - 59.
|Blastomeres and cells with mesendodermal fates of carp embryos express cth1, a member of the TIS11 family of primary response genes.
Stevens, C.J.M. ; Schipper, H. ; Samallo, J. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Kronnie, G. te - \ 1998
International Journal of Developmental Biology 42 (1998). - ISSN 0214-6282 - p. 181 - 188.
Characterization of genes expressed during mesoderm formation and anteroposterior patterning in carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Stevens, C.J.M. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L.P.M. Timmermans; H.W.J. Stroband; G. te Kronnie. - S.l. : Stevens - ISBN 9789054857549 - 130
cyprinidae - karper - moleculaire genetica - genexpressie - pleiotropie - methodologie - technieken - moleculaire biologie - carp - molecular genetics - gene expression - pleiotropy - methodology - techniques - molecular biology
<p>The formation of germ layers during gastrulation and the specification and patterning of the body axes are important events in the development of the embryo. The investigations described in this thesis aimed to isolate and characterize the distribution of transcripts of genes, in particular <em>novel</em> genes, that are expressed during the formation of mesoderm and the patterning of the anteroposterior axis in the carp <em>(Cyprinus carpio),</em> a cyprinid teleost fish. Such studies may contribute to a better insight in the molecular mechanisms underlying the above processes, in two respects. Firstly, the characterization of a gene's expression pattern is one of the first steps towards the elucidation of its function. Especially the characterization of novel genes may provide a key to new insights in development. Furthermore, in studies of development, it is of importance to have markers that identify specific cell types, for example early mesodermal precursor cells. The isolation of genes that are specifically expressed in certain cell types provides such markers.<p>Two molecular approaches were chosen for gene isolation. Firstly, we specifically searched for homeobox genes, which encode transcription factors with important regulatory functions during development. A particular class of homeobox genes, the <em>Hox</em> genes, provides cells along the anteroposterior axis with positional information and the expression patterns of members of this class are excellent markers of position on this axis. Our second approach was a subtractive hybridization strategy. It was applied to isolate genes that are differentially expressed between the oocyte and the early segmentation stage, a period during which mesoderm is induced.<p>For the identification of homeobox-containing sequences in a carp early segmentation stage cDNA library, we used a probe that was composed of a mixture of homeobox fragments, produced by PCR. The PCR primers were designed against the most conserved regions of the homeobox. This approach yielded a number of different genes of which two are described in this thesis. The gene <em>cdx1</em><strong>(Chapter 2)</strong> is a member of the <em>caudal</em> class of homeobox genes and is expressed in ventrolateral cells of the embryo prior to gastrulation. During gastrulation, transcripts of this gene accumulate in the posterior half of the embryo. The functions of <em>caudal</em> class genes of <em>Drosophila,</em> mouse and <em>Xenopus</em> indicate that genes of this class mediate the specification of posterior positional values in the embryo. Because of their characteristic distribution, <em>cdx1</em> transcripts are useful markers of (ventro) posterior position in the embryo and have been used as such in the studies of mesoderm formation and anteroposterior patterning in blastoderm explants, performed in our laboratory.<p>A second gene isolated in the search for homeobox genes was the <em>Hoxb-1</em> gene, described in <strong>Chapter 3.</strong> This gene belongs to the class of <em>Hox</em> genes, whose members are organized into clusters in the genome of many species. With expression reaching into the hindbrain, the <em>Hoxb-1</em> gene is one of the most anteriorly expressed <em>Hox</em> genes. Its most prominent expression, especially during segmentation, is found in rhombomere 4. In the late segmentation stage embryo, <em>Hoxb-1</em> expression is a valuable marker of this rhombomere and the neural crest cells at that level of the hindbrain.<p><strong>Chapter 4</strong> describes the cloning of genes on the basis of their differential gene expression between the oocyte and the early segmentation stage, using a subtractive hybridization strategy. Fifteen genes, identified from the oocyte stage cDNA library, are expressed in early development, when mesoderm induction occurs, and their expression disappears before the beginning of segmentation. From the early segmentation stage cDNA library, 26 genes were selected whose expression was activated during segmentation but not yet in early development, coinciding with the differentiation of the mesoderm and the patterning of the anteroposterior axis. In total 27 genes appeared to code for novel proteins and are therefore candidates for further studies and may provide a better insight into molecular mechanisms underlying developmental processes. Also in light of the large scale mutagenesis screens of zebrafish that have recently been undertaken in a number of laboratories and for which the affected genes yet need to be molecularly identified, it is important that the search for novel genes continues for only few candidate sequences are available so far. The subtractive hybridization strategy described in this thesis appears a worthwhile technique to obtain such candidate sequences.<p>Further investigations of these novel genes were restricted to a detailed characterization of the expression of one gene: <em>cth1.</em><strong>Chapter 5</strong> gives a description of the distribution of the mRNA transcripts of this gene during cleavage, blastula and gastrula stages. Whereas maternal <em>cth1</em> mRNA is ubiquitously distributed in the blastomeres, the embryonically transcribed <strong></strong><em>cth1</em> mRNA is expressed after the late blastula stage, in cells at the blastoderm margin which have mesodermal and endodermal fates. The <em>cth1</em> transcripts disappear around midgastrulation, coinciding with the commitment of cells to the mesodermal (or endodermal) fate. In the cth1 protein, motifs containing three cysteines and one histidine (C3H) are present that are most likely zinc fingers, structures involved in the regulation of expression of target genes. The <em>cth1</em> mRNA expression pattern and the gene's homology to the <em>TIS11</em> family, a family of primary response genes whose expression is activated after treatment with for example growth factors, suggest a function for the <em>cth1</em> gene of maintenance of the cellular potential in cells with mesodermal (and endodermal) fates, and in cells of cleavage stages. By inhibiting the expression of certain target genes, cth1 could prevent or delay the selection of certain differentiation pathways, such as for example the commitment to a mesodermal fate before midgastrulation.<p>Proteins containing C3H motifs are expressed in a number of species.For example in <em>C.</em><em>elegans,</em> the PIE-1 protein is required to keep germlineblastomeres totipotent during early development, most likely by suppressing the transcription in these blastomeres. In <strong>Chapter 6</strong> the literature on the C3H class of proteins is shortly reviewed and the hypothesis is proposed that they may be widely involved in preserving cellular potency in specification events during development.<p>In <strong>Chapter 7</strong> the results presented in previous chapters are discussed, with emphasis on the proposed role for <em>cth1</em> and how its activity could affect the fate of the cells expressing this gene.
|An important developmental role for oligosacharides during early embryogenesis of cyprinid fish.
Bakkers, J. ; Semino, C.E. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Kijne, J.W. ; Robbins, P.W. ; Spaink, H.P. - \ 1997
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (1997). - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 7982 - 7986.
|Expression of Hoxb-3 in carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos.
Rieden, P. in der; Stevens, C.J.M. ; Samallo, J. ; Schipper, H. ; Kronnie, G. te; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 1996
International Journal of Developmental Biology 1 (1996). - ISSN 0214-6282 - p. 97 - 98.
|Embryonic expression of carp-ovx1.
Stroband, H.W.J. ; Stevens, C.J.M. ; Kronnie, G. te; Samallo, J. ; Schipper, H. - \ 1996
International Journal of Developmental Biology 1 (1996). - ISSN 0214-6282 - p. 95 - 96.
|Expression of Hoxb-1 during gastrulation and segmentation stages of carp (Cyprinus carpio).
Stevens, C.J.M. ; Samallo, J. ; Schipper, H. ; Stroband, H.W.J. ; Kronnie, G. te - \ 1996
International Journal of Developmental Biology 40 (1996). - ISSN 0214-6282 - p. 463 - 470.
|Unity in Morphogenesis, Lucy Timmermans nearly 25 years work at the Agricultural University.
Osse, J.W.M. ; Kronnie, G. te; Muiswinkel, W.B. van; Stroband, H.W.J. - \ 1996
Netherlands Journal of Zoology 46 (1996)1-2. - ISSN 0028-2960 - p. 3 - 7.