Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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Corporate social responsibility and operational inefficiency : A dynamic approach
Guillamon-Saorin, Encarna ; Kapelko, Magdalena ; Stefanou, Spiro E. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Corporate social responsibility - Data envelopment analysis - Dynamic technical inefficiency - Operational inefficiency

It is yet to be determined whether the firms' operational inefficiency is reflected on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) engagement approach. This paper aims to examine this association and specifically analyzes to which of the dimensions of CSR operational inefficiency is more closely related. Operational inefficiency is assessed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) via dynamic inefficiency approach that accounts for the confounding role of adjustment costs related with firms' investments. Using a sample of U.S. firms in a variety of sectors from 2004 to 2015, we find that lower dynamic inefficiency occurs in firms with a higher commitment to CSR activities. We also find that dynamic inefficiency is negatively related to firms' engagement in social and corporate governance dimensions of CSR, whereas it is positively associated with the environmental dimension of CSR. In addition, dynamically inefficient companies have higher level of CSR concerns and lower of CSR strengths. The results are robust to endogeneity issues.

QTL mapping in diploid potato by using selfed progenies of the cross S. tuberosum × S. chacoense
Meijer, D. ; Viquez-Zamora, M. ; Eck, H.J. van; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Su, Y. ; Rothengatter, R. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Lindhout, W.H. ; Heusden, A.W. van - \ 2018
Euphytica 214 (2018)7. - ISSN 0014-2336
Diploid potato - Homozygosity - Inbreeding - Self-compatibility

Usually, mapping studies in potato are performed with segregating populations from crosses between highly heterozygous diploid or tetraploid parents. These studies are hampered by a high level of genetic background noise due to the numerous segregating alleles, with a maximum of eight per locus. In the present study, we aimed to increase the mapping efficiency by using progenies from diploid inbred populations in which at most two alleles segregate. Selfed progenies were generated from a cross between S. tuberosum (D2; a highly heterozygous diploid) and S. chacoense (DS; a homozygous diploid clone) containing the self-incompatibility overcoming S locus inhibitor (Sli-gene). The Sli-gene enables self-pollination and the generation of selfed progenies. One F2 population was used to map several quality traits, such as tuber shape, flesh and skin color. Quantitative trait loci were identified for almost all traits under investigation. The identified loci partially coincided with known mapped loci and partially identified new loci. Nine F3 populations were used to validate the QTLs and monitor the overall increase in the homozygosity level.

Addressing climate change in Responsible Research and Innovation : Recommendations for its operationalization
Ligardo-Herrera, Ivan ; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás ; Inigo, Edurne A. ; Blok, Vincent - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Climate change - Corporate social responsibility - Responsible research and innovation - Sustainable innovation

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has only lately included environmental sustainability as a key area for the social desirability of research and innovation. That is one of the reasons why just a few RRI projects and proposals include environmental sustainability, and Climate Change (CC) in particular. CC is one of the grand challenges of our time and, thus, this paper contributes to the operationalization of CC prevention in RRI. To this end, the tools employed against CC were identified. Tools originated in corporate social responsibility and sustainable innovation which help to operationalize strategies against CC in RRI practice. Complementarily, the latest proposals by RRI projects and actors related to CC were reviewed. The findings of the document analysis and the web review were arranged in a framework intended for research and innovation that has an indirect but relevant negative impact due to CC. Thus, four main strategies for CC prevention in RRI were determined: a voluntary integration of the aims, a life cycle perspective, open access databases and key performance indicators, and stakeholder management. The article is finished acknowledging diverse barriers hindering the operationalization of CC prevention in RRI, and we introduce future avenues for research in this area.

Institutional perspectives of climate-smart agriculture : A systematic literature review
Totin, Edmond ; Segnon, Alcade C. ; Schut, Marc ; Affognon, Hippolyte ; Zougmoré, Robert B. ; Rosenstock, Todd ; Thornton, Philip K. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Climate-smart agriculture - Institutions - Mitigation - Systematic review

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is increasingly seen as a promising approach to feed the growing world population under climate change. The review explored how institutional perspectives are reflected in the CSA literature. In total, 137 publications were analyzed using institutional analysis framework, of which 55.5% make specific reference to institutional dimensions. While the CSA concept encompasses three pillars (productivity, adaptation, and mitigation), the literature has hardly addressed them in an integrated way. The development status of study sites also seems to influence which pillars are promoted. Mitigation was predominantly addressed in high-income countries, while productivity and adaptation were priorities for middle and low-income countries. Interest in institutional aspects has been gradual in the CSA literature. It has largely focused on knowledge infrastructure, market structure, and hard institutional aspects. There has been less attention to understand whether investments in physical infrastructure and actors' interaction, or how historical, political, and social context may influence the uptake of CSA options. Rethinking the approach to promoting CSA technologies by integrating technology packages and institutional enabling factors can provide potential opportunities for effective scaling of CSA options.

Transformative leadership and contextual change
Grin, John ; Hassink, Jan ; Karadzic, Vanja ; Moors, Ellen H.M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Innovation systems - Leadership - Relational leadership - Transformative leadership - Transitions - Value co-creation

Transitions to deal with the grand challenges of contemporary societies require novel kinds of leadership, which can both stimulate novel organizational practices and changes in practices and structures in the organization's context. This article seeks to understand how (changes in) the external structural context may influence organizational-internal transformative leadership and vice versa, and what kind of work is implied in leadership to transform current business models. It uses notions from literature on relational leadership and transformative leadership as sensitizing concepts. It then explores the leadership work in two case studies, on fishing in Portugal and care farming in the Netherlands. We find a dialectic interplay of the interactions between leaders and others on the one hand, and contextual changes on the other. Using a system-building perspective from innovation system literature, that interaction is driven by the quest to establish legitimacy and market formation and acceptance, knowledge and other resources for innovations.

Is land fragmentation facilitating or obstructing adoption of climate adaptation measures in Ethiopia?
Cholo, Tesfaye C. ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Sietz, Diana ; Peerlings, Jack - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Gamo Highlands - Land fragmentation - Sustainable land management

Land fragmentation is high and increasing in the Gamo Highlands of southwest Ethiopia. We postulate that this substantial land fragmentation is obstructing the adoption of sustainable land management practices as climate adaptation measures. To explore this, a mixed method study was conducted with emphasis on a multivariate probit model. The results indicate that farmers adapt to climate change and variability they perceive. According to the probit model, there is no clear answer to the question whether land fragmentation facilitates or obstructs adoption of sustainable land management practices. Yet, a qualitative analysis found that farmers perceive land fragmentation as an obstacle to land improvement as adaptation strategy. Moreover, farmers invest more in land improvement on plots close to their homestead than in remote plots. However, the higher land fragmentation also promoted crop diversification, manure application and terracing. Although exogenous to farmers, we therefore suggest that land fragmentation can be deployed in climate change adaptation planning. This can be done through voluntary assembling of small neighboring plots in clusters of different microclimates to encourage investment in remote fields and to collectively optimize the benefits of fragmentation to adaptation.

Socially-Inclusive Development and Value Creation: How a Composting Project in Galicia (Spain) ‘Hit the Rocks’
Swagemakers, Paul ; Dominguez Garcia, Maria Dolores ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
This paper introduces the concept of commoning in circular economies, and explores how commons reproduce over time. The starting point is that commoning can have an important role in fostering circular economies and sustainable and socially-inclusive development. By commoning, we refer to local stakeholders working collectively to preserve or restore their natural resource base to generate benefits that are locally shared. Through the analysis of a specific case of a group of commoners’ associations in Galicia (Spain), the paper describes and discusses the development, and ultimate unravelling, of an innovative and decentralized waste management project to convert waste biomass from the monte (often-neglected upland green spaces, largely consisting of brush and trees) into compost. In order to make this composting project economically viable the possibility of collecting and processing urban green waste was also explored. While the project’s application of the principles of a circular economy had the potential to bring locally-shared economic and ecological benefits, and foster territorial prosperity and resilience, it was ultimately frustrated by questions of scale, administrative and regulatory barriers, competing and conflicting land-use claims and financial cutbacks in the public sector.
Does property rights integrity improve tenure security? Evidence from China's forest reform
Zhou, Yuepeng ; Ma, Xianlei ; Ji, Dengyan ; Heerink, Nico ; Shi, Xiaoping ; Liu, Hongbin - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Forest tenure reform - Land expropriation - Land reallocation - Property rights integrity - Tenure security

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of land property rights integrity, subdivided into use rights, mortgage rights, and transfer rights, on household perceptions of long-term tenure security in China. To this end, we establish a theoretical framework that links China's collective forest tenure reforms undertaken since 2003 to property rights integrity and two sources of tenure (in)security based on property rights theory: forestland reallocation and expropriation. Probit models are applied in the empirical analysis to household data collected in Jiangxi province in 2011 and 2013. The results indicate that household perceptions of tenure insecurity resulting from forestland reallocation expectations are affected by transfer rights, whereas household perceptions of insecurity resulting from forestland expropriation expectations are not affected by forestland rights. We thus suggest that it is crucial for policymakers to identify the sources of local property rights insecurity before they take steps to strengthen land tenure security. This paper contributes to the available literature on the relationship between property rights integrity and tenure security by identifying different sources of tenure insecurity, emphasizing the effect of property rights integrity on long-term tenure security, and taking into account the potential endogeneity problem.

Climate change sensitivity of multi-species afforestation in semi-arid Benin
Noulèkoun, Florent ; Khamzina, Asia ; Naab, Jesse B. ; Khasanah, N. ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Lamers, John P.A. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Climate sensitivity indices - Jatropha curcas - Land degradation - Moringa oleifera - Sapling growth - WaNuLCAS - West Africa

The early growth stage is critical in the response of trees to climate change and variability. It is not clear, however, what climate metrics are best to define the early-growth sensitivity in assessing adaptation strategies of young forests to climate change. Using a combination of field experiments and modelling, we assessed the climate sensitivity of two promising afforestation species, Jatropha curcas L. and Moringa oleifera Lam., by analyzing their predicted climate-growth relationships in the initial two years after planting on degraded cropland in the semi-arid zone of Benin. The process-based WaNuLCAS model (version 4.3, World Agroforestry Centre, Bogor, Indonesia) was used to simulate aboveground biomass growth for each year in the climate record (1981-2016), either as the first or as the second year of tree growth. Linear mixed models related the annual biomass growth to climate indicators, and climate sensitivity indices quantified climate-growth relationships. In the first year, the length of dry spells had the strongest effect on tree growth. In the following year, the annual water deficit and length of dry season became the strongest predictors. Simulated rooting depths greater than those observed in the experiments enhanced biomass growth under extreme dry conditions and reduced sapling sensitivity to drought. Projected increases in aridity implied significant growth reduction, but a multi-species approach to afforestation using species that are able to develop deep-penetrating roots should increase the resilience of young forests to climate change. The results illustrate that process-based modelling, combined with field experiments, can be effective in assessing the climate-growth relationships of tree species.

Integrating irrigation and drainage management to sustain agriculture in northern Iran
Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah ; Ritzema, Henk - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Alternate wetting and drying - Canola - Drain discharge - Midseason drainage - Nitrate and phosphorus losses - Paddy - Salinity - Subsurface drainage

In Iran, as in the rest of the world, land and water for agricultural production is under pressure. Integrating irrigation and drainage management may help sustain intensified agriculture in irrigated paddy fields. This study was aimed to investigate the long-term effects of such management strategies in a newly subsurface drained paddy field in a pilot area in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Three strategies for managing subsurface drainage systems were tested, i.e., free drainage (FD), midseason drainage (MSD), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD). The pilot area consisted of subsurface drainage systems, with different combinations of drain depth (0.65 and 0.90 m) and spacing (15 and 30 m). The traditional surface drainage of the region's consolidated paddy fields was the control. From 2011 to 2017, water table depth, subsurface drainage system outflow and nitrate, total phosphorous, and salinity levels of the drainage effluent were monitored during four rice- and five canola-growing seasons. Yield data was also collected. MSD and AWD resulted in significantly lower drainage rates, salt loads, and N losses compared to FD, with MSD having the lowest rates. Phosphorus losses were low for all three practices. However, AWD resulted in 36% higher rice yields than MSD. Subsurface drainage resulted in a steady increase in canola yield, from 0.89 ton ha-1 in 2011-2012 to 2.94 ton ha-1 in 2016-2017. Overall, it can be concluded that managed subsurface drainage can increase both water productivity and crop yield in poorly drained paddy fields, and at the same time reduce or minimize negative environmental effects, especially the reduction of salt and nutrient loads in the drainage effluent. Based on the results, shallow subsurface drainage combined with appropriate irrigation and drainage management can enable sustained agricultural production in northern Iran's paddy fields.

Contrasting regional habitats for urban sustainability experimentation in Europe
Heiligenberg, Harm van den; Heimeriks, Gaston ; Hekkert, Marko ; Raven, Rob ; Sol, Jifke - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)5. - ISSN 2071-1050
Countercultures - Experimentation - Geography of transitions - Regional innovation - Sustainability

The sustainability challenge requires experimentation with innovations, followed by an upscaling process towards a broader regime change in the long term. In Europe we observe various regional hotspots for sustainability experimentation which suggests that there are favorable spatial contexts. Little is known about why different kinds of experiments flourish or fail in various spatial contexts. In this paper we explore these contexts by using the habitat concept. A habitat is regarded as the configuration of favorable local and regional context factors for experimentation. To capture the diversity of these habitats we have constructed archetypical experimentation patterns. These patterns are built up of five dimensions: knowledge, governance, informal institutions, regional innovation advantages, and social learning. In a comparative case study in four city regions in Europe we find a large contrast in habitats. Countercultures play an important role, as they shape a beneficial context for experimentation through alternative ideas and lifestyles. We also find indications that it is important that a combination of several habitat factors is present, and that these factors have aligned and evolved over several years of experimentation, thus leading to a more mature habitat. The research suggests that regional stakeholders can positively influence most of the habitat factors shaping future upscaling. However, there are also some important factors, such as regional knowledge and skills, which have a path-dependent nature and are more difficult to improve in the short term.

Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Mitigation effect of removing bovine trypanosomiasis in Eastern Africa
MacLeod, Michael ; Eory, Vera ; Wint, William ; Shaw, Alexandra ; Gerber, Pierre J. ; Cecchi, Giuliano ; Mattioli, Raffaele ; Sykes, Alasdair ; Robinson, Timothy - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)5. - ISSN 2071-1050
Cattle health - Climate change - GLEAM - Livestock modelling - Sustainable intensification

Increasing the production of meat and milk within sub-Saharan Africa should provide significant food security benefits. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent a challenge, as cattle production in the region typically has high emissions intensity (EI), i.e., high rates of GHG emissions per unit of output. The high EI is caused by the relatively low production efficiencies in the region, which are in turn partly due to endemic cattle diseases. In theory, improved disease control should increase the efficiency and decrease the emissions intensity of livestock production; however quantitative analysis of the potential GHG mitigation effects of improved disease control in Africa is lacking. This paper seeks to respond to this by using a hybrid modelling approach to quantify the production and emissions effects of removing trypanosomiasis from East African cattle production systems. The emissions are quantified for each cattle production system using an excel version of GLEAM, the Food and Agriculture Organization's Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model. The results indicate that removing trypanosomiasis leads to a reduction in the emissions intensity per unit of protein produced of between 0% and 8%, driven mainly by the increases in milk yields and cow fertility rates. Despite the limitations, it is argued that the approach provides considerable scope for modelling the GHG impacts of disease interventions.

The technological trajectory of Integrated Pest Management for rice in Cambodia
Flor, Rica Joy ; Chhay, Kry ; Sorn, Vichet ; Maat, Harro ; Ratna Hadi, Buyung Asmara - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Cambodia - Extension - Integrated pest management - Policy - Technological systems - Technological trajectory

For the past two decades, while the efficacy of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been successfully demonstrated in Cambodia, its dissemination and sustained adoption among farmers have not met similar success. This study moves away from simplistic analyses about constraints in extension methods for IPM. Instead, we take a broader look into technological systems and the trajectory for pest management, which affected the spread and uptake of IPM in the country. Through a review of the wider context in policies and programs, and a survey of farmers from five provinces in Cambodia (N = 400), we examined the connections between options for pest management at the farmer level and conditions in the technological system. Using the Cambodian case study, we show that the technological system predisposes to pesticide use and as such hinders a trajectory of IPM. Systemic conditions, including interrelated agronomic practices, ecological conditions in farming communities, governance mechanisms, structures around the spread of knowledge and the industry around the technological options, have created mutual socio-technical dependencies. Although programs targeted change through knowledge of IPM, much of the systemic conditions sustain the trajectory of pesticide reliance. Hence, promoting an innovation environment that is supportive of IPM requires extension beyond knowledge dissemination, addressing these varied elements of the technological system.

Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability
Lu, Y. ; Yuan, J. ; Lu, X. ; Su, Chao ; Zhang, Y. ; Wang, C. ; Cao, X. ; Li, Q. ; Su, Jilan ; Ittekkot, Venugopalan ; Garbutt, Richard Angus ; Bush, S.R. ; Fletcher, Stephen ; Wagey, Tonny ; Kachur, Anatolii ; Sweijd, Neville - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 239 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 670 - 680.
coastal ecosystem - marine pollution - climate change - ecological impacts - coastal sustainability
Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on coastal ecosystems was carried out in this study. Coasts of the Eastern Atlantic and Western Pacific were hotspots of concentrations of several pollutants, and mostly affected by warming climate. These hotspots shared the same features of large populations, heavy industry and (semi-) closed sea. Estimation of coastal ocean capital, integrated management of land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone, enhancement of integrated global observation system, and coastal ecosystem-based management can play effective roles in promoting sustainable management of coastal marine ecosystems. Enhanced management from the perspective of mitigating pollution and climate change was proposed.
Selection for growth rate and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in chickens
Jia, Junjing ; Ahmed, Irfan ; Liu, Lixian ; Liu, Yong ; Xu, Zhiqiang ; Duan, Xiaohua ; Li, Qihua ; Dou, Tengfei ; Gu, Dahai ; Rong, Hua ; Wang, Kun ; Li, Zhengtian ; Talpur, Mir Zulqarnain ; Huang, Ying ; Wang, Shanrong ; Yan, Shixiong ; Tong, Huiquan ; Zhao, Sumei ; Zhao, Guiping ; Pas, Marinus F.W. te; Su, Zhengchang ; Ge, Changrong - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
The growth hormone / insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) pathway of the somatotropic axis is the major controller for growth rate and body size in vertebrates, but the effect of selection on the expression of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes and their association with body size and growth performance in farm animals is not fully understood. We analyzed a time series of expression profiles of GH/IGF-1 somatotropic axis genes in two chicken breeds, the Daweishan mini chickens and Wuding chickens, and the commercial Avian broilers hybrid exhibiting markedly different body sizes and growth rates. We found that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency in Daweishan mini chickens were significantly lower than those in Wuding chickens and Avian broilers. The Wuding and Daweishan mini chickens showed higher levels of plasma GH, pituitary GH mRNA but lower levels of hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA than in Avian broilers. Daweishan mini chickens showed significantly lower levels of plasma IGF-1, thigh muscle and hepatic IGF-1 mRNA than did Avian broilers and Wuding chickens. These results suggest that the GH part of the somatotropic axis is the main regulator of growth rate, while IGF-1 may regulate both growth rate and body weight. Selection for growth performance and body size have altered the expression profiles of somatotropic axis genes in a breed-, age-, and tissue-specific manner, and manner, and alteration of regulatory mechanisms of these genes might play an important role in the developmental characteristics of chickens.
Responsible Research and Innovation in industry-challenges, insights and perspectives
Martinuzzi, André ; Blok, Vincent ; Brem, Alexander ; Stahl, Bernd ; Schönherr, Norma - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
Business ethics - Corporate social responsibility - CSR - Industry - R and D management - Responsible innovation - Responsible research and innovation - RRI - Social innovation - Sustainable innovation
The responsibility of industry towards society and the environment is a much discussed topic, both in academia and in business. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has recently emerged as a new concept with the potential to advance this discourse in light of two major challenges industry is facing today. The first relates to the accelerating race to innovate in order to stay competitive in a rapidly changing world. The second concerns the need to maintain public trust in industry through innovations that generate social value in addition to economic returns. This Special Issue provides empirical and conceptual contributions that explore corporate motivations to adopt RRI, the state of implementation of concrete RRI practices, the role of stakeholders in responsible innovation processes, as well as drivers and barriers to the further diffusion of RRI in industry. Overall, these contributions highlight the relevance of RRI for firms of different sizes and sectors. They also provide insights and suggestions for managers, policymakers and researchers wishing to engage with responsibility in innovation. This editorial summarizes the most pertinent conclusions across the individual articles published in this Special Issue and concludes by outlining some fruitful avenues for future research in this space.
Exploring the role of science in sustainable landscape management. An introduction to the special issue
Opdam, Paul - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2071-1050
Collaborative research - Landscape governance - Landscape services - Landscape sustainability - Science-practice interface
In this special issue, landscapes are conceptualized as social-ecological systems resulting from the interaction between societal and natural processes. Landscapes produce services and values to stakeholders that share a particular geographical area. In view of landscape sustainability, these stakeholders have common responsibilities to retain the functioning of landscapes to service future generations. Also, because demands for landscape services overlap and require landscape wide management, users and owners of the landscape have common interests in creating added value and organizing landscape wide coordination of interventions. This interdependency calls for collaborative management, but is also a cause of conflicts. From the point of view of scientific support, there is a need for interdisciplinary and solution-oriented approaches that foster collaboration. This special issue presents innovative interdisciplinary approaches that illustrate the main challenges for science to support community-based landscape governance.
Floristic diversity and cultural importance in agroforestry systems on small-scale farmer's livelihoods in central Veracruz, México
Pietersen, Sjoerd ; López-Acosta, Juan Carlos ; Gomez-Díaz, Jorge Antonio ; Lascurain-Rangel, Maite - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ethnobotany - Importance value index - Native woody plant species - Plant conservation - Tropic
México is a cultural and biological megadiverse country with an increased anthropogenic pressure on its tropical landscapes. The study area was the ejido "Los ídolos", Misantla, Central Veracruz, Mexico. The main objective of this research was to identify how the woody plant diversity of agroforestry systems contributed to the cultural, economic, and subsistence security of local farmers. Five different agroforestry systems were identified: forest gardens (FG), home gardens (HG), plantation crop combination with perennial cultivates (PC), plantation crop combinations with annual cultivates (AC), and trees on pastures (TP). FG systems had the highest floristic diversity, followed by HG and TP. Interviews with farmers showed that FG, HG, and PC systems were important for maintaining cultural identity and secure subsistence needs, while PC and TP systems were important for improving the economic situation of farmers. The FG systems contained only native species, while the proportion of exotic plants differed among the other systems. Useful exotic plants were found in the HG system. This study demonstrated that agroforestry systems such as FG were not used to their full potential, despite their high diversity of useful plants. It is recommended that farmers-assisted by institutions and representatives of local product chains-conduct feasibility studies on the marketing and promotion of products derived from specific agroforestry systems.
The sustainable seafood movement is a Governance concert, with the audience playing a key role
Barclay, Kate ; Miller, Alice - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Corporate social responsibility - Ecolabels - Ethical consumption - Green marketing - Supply chain management - Sustainable seafood
Private standards, including ecolabels, have been posed as a governance solution for the global fisheries crisis. The conventional logic is that ecolabels meet consumer demand for certified "sustainable" seafood, with "good" players rewarded with price premiums or market share and "bad" players punished by reduced sales. Empirically, however, in the markets where ecolabeling has taken hold, retailers and brands-rather than consumers-are demanding sustainable sourcing, to build and protect their reputation. The aim of this paper is to devise a more accurate logic for understanding the sustainable seafood movement, using a qualitative literature review and reflection on our previous research. We find that replacing the consumer-driven logic with a retailer/brand-driven logic does not go far enough in making research into the sustainable seafood movement more useful. Governance is a "concert" and cannot be adequately explained through individual actor groups. We propose a new logic going beyond consumer- or retailer/brand-driven models, and call on researchers to build on the partial pictures given by studies on prices and willingness-to-pay, investigating more fully the motivations of actors in the sustainable seafood movement, and considering audience beyond the direct consumption of the product in question.
Exploring institutional transformations to address high-end climate change in Iberia
Tàbara, Joan David ; Cots, Francesc ; Pedde, Simona ; Hölscher, Katharina ; Kok, Kasper ; Lovanova, Anastasia ; Lourenço, Tiago Capela ; Frantzeskaki, Niki ; Etherington, John - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Cross-border cooperation - High-end climate change - Iberia - Institutional transformation - Integrated Climate Governance (ICG) - Participatory research appraisal - Shared Socio-economic Scenarios (SSPs) - Transboundary rivers
Either meeting the UNFCCC Paris agreement to limit global average warming below the 2-1.5 °C threshold, or going beyond it entails huge challenges in terms of institutional innovation and transformation. This research describes a participatory integrated assessment process aimed at exploring the options, opportunities, necessary capacities and implications for institutional co-operation and innovation in the Iberian Peninsula under High-End Climate Change (HECC). Using in-depth interviews and a novel participatory research approach, different scenario narratives and pathways about the future of Iberia have been identified using Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). Special attention is given to the knowledge and policy options needed to implement cross-border organizational changes and co-operation mechanisms that would support the Integrated Climate Governance of the Tagus and Guadiana river basins. We show that a wealth of institutional innovation pathways and specific options and solutions exist not only to reduce GHG emissions (mitigation) and the negative impacts of climate change (adaptation), but, above all, to generate new forms of social-ecological system interactions aligned with sustainability (transformation). In particular, and depending on which scenario contexts unfold in the future in Iberia, different kinds of institutional and governance capacities and clusters of solutions may be needed in order to achieve transformation.
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