Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Trust at a distance-trust in online communication in environmental and global health research projects
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Peters, Karin - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ability - Collaboration - Integrity - Online - Trust - Virtual teams

Online collaboration to deal with (global) environmental and public health problems continues to grow as the quality of technology for communication improves. In these collaborations, trust is seen as important for sustainable collaborations and organizations. However, face-to-face communication, which is often lacking in these contexts, is seen as a pre-requisite for trust development. Therefore, this paper aims to explore empirically which factors influence the emergence of trust in the early stages of online collaboration. Using the relevant literature, we conducted a series of interviews around projects in the field of public health and the environment on the interface between science and practice. The results show that trust does develop between participants. This trust is strongly influenced by perceived ability and integrity, fostered by reputation, third-party perceptions, and project structure. In these contexts, these types of trust facilitate collaboration but are also influenced by a wider set of aspects such as power, expectations, and uncertainty. However, from the results we also conclude that online collaboration does not create benevolence and a shared identity, thereby limiting further trust development and leading to less strong relations. Strong relations, however, are deemed important to reach creative and innovative solutions and long-term sustainable collaboration and organizations.

Toward Sustainable Biofuels in the European Union? Lessons from a Decade of Hybrid Biofuel Governance
Stattman, S.L. ; Gupta, A. ; Partzsch, Lena ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 17 p.
biofuels - European Union - Renewable Energy Directive (RED) - hybrid governance - sustainability - certification - multi-stakeholder initiatives
The European Union (EU) stands at a crossroads regarding its biofuel policies. For more than a decade, the EU sought to create a market for and govern sustainable biofuels for the transport sector, even as debates over sustainability escalated. It did so by devising novel hybrid (public and private) governance arrangements. We took stock of the nature and outcomes of this experiment in hybrid biofuel governance. We relied on qualitative methods of analysis, whereby we reviewed and synthesized the evolution of EU biofuel governance arrangements over time, through detailed document analysis of secondary and primary literature, including EU and related policy documents and private certification scheme websites. Our analysis reveals that, instead of yielding an increasingly stringent sustainability framework, the hybrid EU governance arrangements resulted
in a proliferation of relatively lax, industry-driven, sustainability standards, even as the notion of “sustainable biofuels” remained contested in public and political debate. These findings contribute to an ongoing debate about the merits of hybrid (public–private) governance arrangements, and whether a hybrid approach helps strengthen or weaken sustainability objectives. We conclude that a more stringent EU meta-standard on sustainability needs to be developed, to underpin future governance arrangements.
Offshore Wind Farms as Potential Locations for Flat Oyster (Ostrea edulis) Restoration in the Dutch North Sea
Kamermans, Pauline ; Walles, Brenda ; Kraan, Marloes ; Duren, Luca van; Kleissen, Frank ; Have, Tom van der; Smaal, Aad ; Poelman, Marnix - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ostrea edulis - native oyster restoration - North Sea - site selection - pilot study - offshore wind farms
The “Dutch Energy Agreement” motivates governments and industries to invest in renewable energy sources, of which offshore wind energy is one of the solutions to meet the agreed target of 16% of the total energy budget from renewable resources by 2023. An option for the multi-use of wind farms is nature-inclusive building, in which the design and construction of wind farms make use of the potential for co-design with oyster bed restoration. This can support the government’s ambitions, for the Dutch North Sea, to achieve biodiversity goals, restore ecosystem functions, and enhance ecosystem services, including future seafood production. For the recovery of flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) beds, knowledge is required about the conditions under which active restoration of this species in the North Sea can be successfully implemented. This paper gives a framework and presents results to determine suitability of wind farms for flat oyster restoration, and provides recommendations for pilot studies. Our analysis showed that a number of wind farms in the Dutch section of the North Sea are suitable locations for development of flat oyster beds. Combining oyster restoration and oyster culture, as a protein source, is a viable option worth investigating.
Nodal farmers' motivations for exchanging sorghum seeds in northwestern Ethiopia
Rodier, Christophe ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
Human capital - Motivations - Nodal farmers - Seed social network analysis - Social capital - Sorghum seeds

One of the main challenges of Ethiopian agriculture is the shortage of certified seeds of improved varieties, which results in uneven dispersal of quality seed amongst farmers. In a context where 80% to 90% of the seed requirement is covered by the informal seed sector, understanding how and why seeds are exchanged through informal channels is crucial. This study aims to describe why nodal farmers disseminate seeds at a higher rate than other farmers in their network. Following a social network analysis, in-depth surveys were conducted with identified nodal and connector sorghum farmers in order to determine the main social characteristics that differentiate them from other farmers in a western lowlands community of the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. We examined empirically the main factors that motivate them, the main drawbacks they experience, and the behavioral decisions that could potentially speed up or slow down the adoption of newly released improved varieties of sorghum. The study showed that, in this district, few significant socio-demographic differences exist between nodal and non-nodal farmers. The seed exchange network was hyper localized, as the majority of exchanges took place within village boundaries. Focus group discussions showed that a nodal position should not be taken for granted, as the network is dynamic and in constant evolution. In-depth interviews revealed that it was unlikely for accessing farmers to be consistently denied seeds due to a deeply rooted social norm insisting that one should not, under any circumstances, be turned down when asking for seeds. However, in practice, chronic seed insecure farmers suffering from poor performances may find themselves unable to access quality seeds, as automatic support should not be assumed. In terms of motivation, nodal farmers ranked maintaining friendships and relationships as the two most important. Thus, beyond the risk-sharing mechanism underlying much of the seed exchange, it is a mix of personal and community interests that motivates nodal farmers to have more exchange partners and thus disseminate more seeds on average than other farmers in the seed networks. This indicates that their social capital is the major driver to exchange seeds.

Online and Offline Representations of Biocultural Diversity : A Political Ecology Perspective on Nature-Based Tourism and Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Pantanal
Arts, K.A.J. ; Rabelo, M.T.O. ; Figueiredo, Daniela Maimoni de; Maffey, G. ; Ioris, A.A.R. ; Girard, Pierre - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
published in Sustainability as part of the Special Issue ‘Biocultural Diversity and Sustainability
The concept of biocultural diversity is confronted with contemporary changes that impact on local communities, such as globalization and digital transformations. Engaging the conceptual flexibility of ‘biocultural diversity’, we studied nature-based tourism at the intersection of indigenous communities and the digital realm. We employed a political ecology perspective to examine online and offline representations of biocultural diversity in the Brazilian Pantanal, one of the biggest wetlands in the world, and home to groups of peoples known as the Pantaneiros. Data from interviews with 48 stakeholders in the tourist sector were structured along three ‘myths’—the Uncivilised, Unrestrained, and Unchanged—for which we have also constructed counter narratives. Each myth denoted the primacy of biodiversity, and ignored broader dimensions of the Pantanal as a bioculturally diverse landscape. The relationships of the Pantaneiros with their environment were found to be intricate and had clear repercussions for tourism, but ironically, reference to the Pantaneiro culture in nature-based tourism was superficial. Moreover, thriving on the myths, this form of tourism perpetuates skewed power structures and social inequalities. Lower-class Pantaneiros likely suffer most from this. We recommend stakeholder engagement with a biocultural design that facilitates the integration of other-than-biodiversity values, and that thereby promotes sustainability of the entire social-ecological system.
Effects of landscape changes on species viability : A case study from northern Slovakia
Pazúrová, Zuzana ; Pouwels, Rogier ; Ružičková, Jana ; Bolliger, Janine ; Krokusová, Juliana ; Ot'ahel', Ján ; Pazúr, Robert - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
Biocorridor - Landscape change - Landscape planning - Scenario - Species viability analysis

Urbanization, increasing road networks, agricultural intensification, and land abandonment are widespread land change processes found in most European landscapes. As land changes affect animal species and their populations, there is a need to evaluate the effects of future developments on the viability of protected species. In this paper, we model population size and viability of selected indicator species for a selected area in Slovakia. Our results indicate that selected species are viable in the current landscape composition. However, the expected spread of settlement and the increase of road density in this area would likely lead to decline and loss of viability of species. Similarly, continuous land abandonment followed with spontaneous reforestation would likely trigger a decline of grassland species. In contrast, developing a biocorridor and restoration of existing green elements as modeled in our conservation scenario would strongly improve the viability of all species and avoid the impact of the expected developments. Our results underline the actions that prevent further loss of biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes and, thus, have particular importance for landscape planning and decision-making processes.

The impact of foot lesions in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production
Mostert, P.F. ; Middelaar, C.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de; Bokkers, E.A.M. - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 167 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 206 - 212.
Cow health - Disease - Global warming - Lameness

The dairy sector is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Foot lesions in dairy cows result in production losses and, therefore, might increase GHG emissions per kg milk. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of foot lesions in dairy cows on GHG emissions. A dynamic stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate dynamics of digital dermatitis (DD), white line disease (WLD), and sole ulcer (SU), and associated production losses within one lactation. Production losses included were reduced milk production, prolonged calving interval (CI), and culling. Subsequently, a life cycle assessment was performed to estimate the impact of foot lesions on GHG emissions per ton of fat-and-protein-corrected milk (kg CO2e/t FPCM). GHG emissions increased on average by 14 (1.5%) kg CO2e/t FPCM per case of foot lesions (i.e. DD, WLD, and SU combined), ranging from 17 kg CO2e/t FPCM in parity 1, to 7 kg CO2e/t FPCM in parity 5. Emissions of GHGs increased on average by 4 (0.4%) kg CO2e/t FPCM per case of DD, by 39 (4.3%) kg CO2e/t FPCM per case of WLD, and by 33 (3.6%) kg CO2e/t FPCM per case of SU. A prolonged CI explained the majority of the increase in GHG emissions for cows with DD, whereas culling was most important for cows with WLD or SU. DD had the lowest impact on GHG emissions, but the highest prevalence, and, therefore, contributed most to the average impact of foot lesions. This study showed that preventing different types of foot lesions can reduce GHG emissions from the dairy sector. The increasing attention for global warming and possible policies to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture might give dairy farmers another incentive to prevent foot lesions. The impact of foot lesions on GHG emissions, however, can vary among dairy farms, because of differences in prevalence of foot lesions and associated production losses, and in farm management.

Bioassays to Quantify Hygienic Behavior in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Colonies : A Review
Leclercq, Gil ; Francis, Frédéric ; Gengler, Nicolas ; Blacquière, Tjeerd - \ 2018
Journal of Apicultural Research 57 (2018). - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 663 - 673.
Apis mellifera - Ascosphaera apis - bioassays - hygienic behavior - Paenibacillus larvae - Varroa destructor

Individual immunity in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) is complemented by highly evolved social behaviors. Among them, hygienic behavior has a key role involving the detection and removal of unhealthy or dead brood. Since the 1960s, several bioassays have been developed to quantify the hygienic behavior of honey bee colonies against chalkbrood, American foulbrood, and varroa infested brood. Here, we review the five main bioassays used since the late 1960s. We describe their advantages and disadvantages, including a special focus on their inherent biases. For each assay, we also discuss whether or not their use should be restricted to quantify the hygienic behavior against chalkbrood, or American foulbrood, or varroa infested brood. Overall, the bioassays involving the removal of freeze-killed brood are recommended over the bioassays relying on the removal of pin-killed brood but only for the quantification of hygienic behavior toward chalkbrood and American foulbrood. These bioassays are not recommended to quantify the hygienic behavior toward varroa infested brood, for which an accurate assessment should rely on assays based on the removal of brood artificially infested with varroa mites. Choosing an appropriate bioassay is crucial for an accurate assessment of the hygienic behavior against a defined pathogen, depending on the research question, or the goal of the breeding program. Bioensayos para cuantificar el comportamiento higiénico en las colonias de abejas melíferas (Apis mellifera L.): una revisión La inmunidad individual de las abejas melíferas (Apis mellifera L.) se complementa con comportamientos sociales altamente evolucionados. Entre ellos, el comportamiento higiénico tiene un papel clave en la detección y eliminación de crías enfermas o muertas. Desde la década de 1960, se han desarrollado varios bioensayos para cuantificar el comportamiento higiénico de las colonias de abejas melíferas frente a la cría infestada de Ascosfera, loque americana y varroa. Aquí revisamos los cinco principales bioensayos utilizados desde finales de la década de 1960. Describimos sus ventajas y desventajas, incluyendo un enfoque especial en sus sesgos inherentes. Para cada ensayo, también discutimos si su uso debe ser restringido o no para cuantificar el comportamiento higiénico contra la cría de loque americana o la cría infestada de varroa. En general, los bioensayos que involucran la eliminación de la cría muerta por congelación son más recomendables que los bioensayos que dependen de la eliminación de la cría muerta por pin, pero sólo para la cuantificación del comportamiento higiénico hacia la cría infestada de Ascosfera y la loque americana. Estos bioensayos no se recomiendan para cuantificar el comportamiento higiénico de la cría infestada de varroa, para lo cual una evaluación precisa debe basarse en ensayos basados en la extracción de la cría infestada artificialmente con ácaros de la varroa. La elección de un bioensayo apropiado es crucial para una evaluación precisa del comportamiento higiénico frente a un patógeno definido, dependiendo de la pregunta de investigación o del objetivo del programa de cría.

Between Soviet Legacy and Corporate Social Responsibility: Emerging Benefit Sharing Frameworks in the Irkutsk Oil Region, Russia
Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Petrov, Andrey N. ; Kuklina, Vera ; Krasnoshtanova, Natalia - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 23 p.
benefit sharing - extractive industries - natural resources - Russia - Arctic - corporate social responsibility
Benefit sharing arrangements are a central element of the interactions between oil companies and local communities in resource regions of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. This paper focused on developing a systematic understanding and typology of benefit sharing arrangements within the oil sector in the Russian Arctic and sub-Arctic, using the Irkutsk Oil Region as a case study. It provided a critical analysis of prevalent arrangements and practices (modes and mechanisms of benefit sharing), as well as examined institutional and social underpinnings of these benefit sharing frameworks. Qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews were used. The paper demonstrated that sub-Arctic communities are not equally benefiting from oil and gas extraction. Despite a considerable variety of existing arrangements revealed by this study, no benefit sharing mode or mechanism prevalent today ensures sustainable development of local communities. This may stem from the incompatibility between post-Soviet legacies, corporate social responsibility principles, and local institutional frameworks. Although focused on a particular region, this research was indicative of general benefit sharing patterns in modern Russia and beyond.
Applying soil health indicators to encourage sustainable soil use : The transition from scientific study to practical application
Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Faber, Jack ; Bloem, Jaap - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2071-1050
Earthworms - Ecosystem services - Monitoring - Soil food web - Water infiltration

The sustainable management of land for agricultural production has at its core a healthy soil, because this reduces the quantity of external inputs, reduces losses of nutrients to the environment, maximises the number of days when the soil can be worked, and has a pore structure that maximises both the retention of water in dry weather and drainage of water in wet weather. Soil health encompasses the physical, chemical, and biological features, but the use of biological indicators is the least well advanced. Sustainability also implies the balanced provision of ecosystem services, which can be more difficult to measure than single indicators. We describe how the key components of the soil food web contribute to a healthy soil and give an overview of the increasing number of scientific studies that have examined the use of biological indicators. A case study is made of the ecosystem service of water infiltration, which is quite an undertaking to measure directly, but which can be inferred from earthworm abundance and biodiversity which is relatively easy to measure. This highlights the difficulty of putting any monitoring scheme into practice and we finish by providing the considerations in starting a new soil health monitoring service in the UK and in maintaining biological monitoring in The Netherlands.

Development and analysis of the Soil Water Infiltration Global database
Rahmati, Mehdi ; Weihermüller, Lutz ; Vanderborght, Jan ; Pachepsky, Yakov A. ; Mao, Lili ; Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza ; Moosavi, Niloofar ; Kheirfam, Hossein ; Montzka, Carsten ; Looy, Kris Van; Toth, Brigitta ; Hazbavi, Zeinab ; Yamani, Wafa Al; Albalasmeh, Ammar A. ; Alghzawi, M.Z. ; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael ; Antonino, Antônio Celso Dantas ; Arampatzis, George ; Armindo, Robson André ; Asadi, Hossein ; Bamutaze, Yazidhi ; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi ; Béchet, Béatrice ; Becker, Fabian ; Blöschl, Günter ; Bohne, Klaus ; Braud, Isabelle ; Castellano, Clara ; Cerdà, Artemi ; Chalhoub, Maha ; Cichota, Rogerio ; Císlerová, Milena ; Clothier, Brent ; Coquet, Yves ; Cornelis, Wim ; Corradini, Corrado ; Coutinho, Artur Paiva ; Oliveira, Muriel Bastista De; Macedo, José Ronaldo De; Durães, Matheus Fonseca ; Emami, Hojat ; Eskandari, Iraj ; Farajnia, Asghar ; Flammini, Alessia ; Fodor, Nándor ; Gharaibeh, Mamoun ; Ghavimipanah, Mohamad Hossein ; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A. ; Giertz, Simone ; Hatzigiannakis, Evangelos G. ; Horn, Rainer ; Jiménez, Juan José ; Jacques, Diederik ; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah ; Kelishadi, Hamid ; Kiani-Harchegani, Mahboobeh ; Kouselou, Mehdi ; Jha, Madan Kumar ; Lassabatere, Laurent ; Li, Xiaoyan ; Liebig, Mark A. ; Lichner, Lubomír ; López, María Victoria ; Machiwal, Deepesh ; Mallants, Dirk ; Mallmann, Micael Stolben ; Oliveira Marques, Jean Dalmo De; Marshall, Miles R. ; Mertens, Jan ; Meunier, Félicien ; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein ; Mohanty, Binayak P. ; Pulido-Moncada, Mansonia ; Montenegro, Suzana ; Morbidelli, Renato ; Moret-Fernández, David ; Moosavi, Ali Akbar ; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza ; Mousavi, Seyed Bahman ; Mozaffari, Hasan ; Nabiollahi, Kamal ; Neyshabouri, Mohammad Reza ; Ottoni, Marta Vasconcelos ; Ottoni Filho, Theophilo Benedicto ; Pahlavan-Rad, Mohammad Reza ; Panagopoulos, Andreas ; Peth, Stephan ; Peyneau, Pierre Emmanuel ; Picciafuoco, Tommaso ; Poesen, Jean ; Pulido, Manuel ; Reinert, Dalvan José ; Reinsch, Sabine ; Rezaei, Meisam ; Roberts, Francis Parry ; Robinson, David ; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesüs ; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa ; Saito, Tadaomi ; Suganuma, Hideki ; Saltalippi, Carla ; Sándor, Renáta ; Schütt, Brigitta ; Seeger, Manuel ; Sepehrnia, Nasrollah ; Sharifi Moghaddam, Ehsan ; Shukla, Manoj ; Shutaro, Shiraki ; Sorando, Ricardo ; Stanley, Ajayi Asishana ; Strauss, Peter ; Su, Zhongbo ; Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi, Ruhollah ; Taguas, Encarnación ; Teixeira, Wenceslau Geraldes ; Vaezi, Ali Reza ; Vafakhah, Mehdi ; Vogel, Tomas ; Vogeler, Iris ; Votrubova, Jana ; Werner, Steffen ; Winarski, Thierry ; Yilmaz, Deniz ; Young, Michael H. ; Zacharias, Steffen ; Zeng, Yijian ; Zhao, Ying ; Zhao, Hong ; Vereecken, Harry - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 1237 - 1263.

In this paper, we present and analyze a novel global database of soil infiltration measurements, the Soil Water Infiltration Global (SWIG) database. In total, 5023 infiltration curves were collected across all continents in the SWIG database. These data were either provided and quality checked by the scientists who performed the experiments or they were digitized from published articles. Data from 54 different countries were included in the database with major contributions from Iran, China, and the USA. In addition to its extensive geographical coverage, the collected infiltration curves cover research from 1976 to late 2017. Basic information on measurement location and method, soil properties, and land use was gathered along with the infiltration data, making the database valuable for the development of pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating soil hydraulic properties, for the evaluation of infiltration measurement methods, and for developing and validating infiltration models. Soil textural information (clay, silt, and sand content) is available for 3842 out of 5023 infiltration measurements (∼76%) covering nearly all soil USDA textural classes except for the sandy clay and silt classes. Information on land use is available for 76ĝ€% of the experimental sites with agricultural land use as the dominant type (∼40%). We are convinced that the SWIG database will allow for a better parameterization of the infiltration process in land surface models and for testing infiltration models. All collected data and related soil characteristics are provided online in ∗.xlsx and ∗.csv formats for reference, and we add a disclaimer that the database is for public domain use only and can be copied freely by referencing it. Supplementary data are available at (Rahmati et al., 2018). Data quality assessment is strongly advised prior to any use of this database. Finally, we would like to encourage scientists to extend and update the SWIG database by uploading new data to it.

Understanding the spontaneous spreading of stone bunds in Ethiopia : Implications for sustainable land management
Abi, Meskerem ; Kessler, Aad ; Oosterveer, Peter ; Tolossa, Degefa - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ethiopia - Integrated farm management - Mass mobilization - Spontaneous spreading and adoption - Stone bunds - Sustainable land management

This study deals with the spontaneous spreading of stone bunds in the central Ethiopian highlands, i.e., the adoption and implementation of stone bunds by farmers on their own initiative. The study tests the hypothesis that spontaneously implemented stone bunds, as compared to stone bunds implemented by mass mobilization campaigns, are more integrated with other land management practices and lead to higher yields. Data are collected in the Girar Jarso woreda through field observations and household surveys. Descriptive statistics are used to analyze and test the data at 1% and 5% probability levels. Results show that stone bunds are spontaneously implemented mainly on farmlands located nearby the homesteads where farmers perceive severe erosion, poor soil fertility and steep slope gradients. Compared to stone bunds implemented by mass mobilization, spontaneously implemented stone bunds are perceived as better maintained, more frequently modified to fit the farming system and better integrated with soil fertility management practices, such as applying fertilizer, compost and manure. Particularly, this better integration with other practices is very important, because it makes stone bunds more effective in reducing erosion, leading to beneficial effects on soil moisture and soil productivity, as perceived by farmers. The study, therefore, suggests that the mass mobilization campaign should use a more participatory and integrated approach, in which there is ample space for awareness raising and learning concerning the benefits of integrated farm management, and in which farmers themselves have a leading role in the decision on where to construct stone bunds. Such a strategy will lead to more sustainable impact on soil fertility and food security than the current top-down intervention approach.

Local agroforestry practices for food and nutrition security of smallholder farm households in southwestern Ethiopia
Jemal, Omarsherif ; Callo-Concha, Daniel ; Noordwijk, Meine van - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2071-1050
Food and non-food benefit - Homegarden - Multi-functionality - Multipurpose tree on farmland - Multistorey coffee system - Traditional agroforestry - Yayu Biosphere Reserve

Food and nutrition security (FNS) rests on five pillars: availability, access, utilization, stability, and sovereignty. We assessed the potentials of local agroforestry practices (AFPs) for enabling FNS for smallholders in the Yayu Biosphere Reserve (southwestern Ethiopia). Data was collected from 300 households in a stratified random sampling scheme through semi-structured interviews and farm inventory. Utility, edibility, and marketability value were the key parameters used to determine the potential of plants in the AFPs. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were employed to determine the form, variation, and association of local AFP attributes. Homegarden, multistorey-coffee-system, and multipurpose-trees-on-farmlands are the predominant AFPs in Yayu. Multipurpose-trees-on-farmlands are used mainly for food production, multistorey-coffee-system for income-generation, and homegarden for both. The 127 useful plant species identified represent 10 major plant utility groups, with seven (food, fodder, fuel, coffee-shade, timber, non-timber-forest-products, and medicinal uses) found in all three AFPs. In total, 80 edible species were identified across all AFPs, with 55 being primarily cultivated for household food supply. Generally, household income emanates from four major sources, multistorey-coffee-system (60%), homegarden (18%), multipurpose-trees-on-farmlands (13%), and off-farm activities (11%). Given this variation in form, purpose, and extracted benefits, existing AFPs in Yayu support the FNS of smallholders in multiple ways.

Facilitating change for climate-smart agriculture through science-policy engagement
Dinesh, Dhanush ; Zougmore, Robert B. ; Vervoort, Joost ; Totin, Edmond ; Thornton, Phillip K. ; Solomon, Dawit ; Shirsath, Paresh B. ; Pede, Valerien O. ; Lopez Noriega, Isabel ; Läderach, Peter ; Körner, Jana ; Hegger, Dries ; Girvetz, Evan H. ; Friis, Anette E. ; Driessen, Peter P.J. ; Campbell, Bruce M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)8. - ISSN 2071-1050
Adaptation - Agricultural research for development - Agriculture - Climate change - Climate-smart agriculture - Food security - Mitigation - Science-policy engagement - Science-policy interface

Climate change impacts on agriculture have become evident, and threaten the achievement of global food security. On the other hand, the agricultural sector itself is a cause of climate change, and if actions are not taken, the sector might impede the achievement of global climate goals. Science-policy engagement efforts are crucial to ensure that scientific findings from agricultural research for development inform actions of governments, private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international development partners, accelerating progress toward global goals. However, knowledge gaps on what works limit progress. In this paper, we analyzed 34 case studies of science-policy engagement efforts, drawn from six years of agricultural research for development efforts around climate-smart agriculture by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Based on lessons derived from these case studies, we critically assessed and refined the program theory of the CCAFS program, leading to a revised and improved program theory for science-policy engagement for agriculture research for development under climate change. This program theory offers a pragmatic pathway to enhance credibility, salience and legitimacy of research, which relies on engagement (participatory and demand-driven research processes), evidence (building scientific credibility while adopting an opportunistic and flexible approach) and outreach (effective communication and capacity building).

Exploring the sustainability of the cooperative model in dairy : The case of the Netherlands
Bijman, Jos - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Cooperative - Countervailing power - Dairy - History - Institutional environment - Mergers - Strategy - The Netherlands - Transaction cost

Dairy cooperatives have existed in the Netherlands for more than 130 years. They hold a joint market share of more than 80% since the 1950s. This suggests that cooperatives are durable organizations in the dairy industry of the Netherlands. However, the number of dairy cooperatives has declined tremendously, with only five processing cooperatives left in 2015. The paper explores the paradox of high cooperative market share over a long period of time with a steady decline in the number of cooperatives. This historical account of the Dutch dairy industry distinguishes four periods of cooperative evolution. Classical theoretical explanations for the existence of cooperatives, such as bargaining power and transaction costs economics, can explain the rise of dairy cooperatives. However, they cannot sufficiently explain the long term success of the cooperative model in the Dutch dairy industry. Additional explanations can be found in institutional theory, including the impact of an enabling institutional environment.

Environmental impacts of experimental production of lactic acid for bioplastics from Ulva spp
Helmes, Roel J.K. ; López-Contreras, Ana M. ; Benoit, Maud ; Abreu, Helena ; Maguire, Julie ; Moejes, Fiona ; Burg, Sander W.K. van den - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Bioplastics - Lactic acid - Life Cycle Assessment - Seaweed - Ulva spp

An exploratory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was carried out to provide insight into the environmental impacts of using the green seaweed Ulva spp. as a feedstock, for production of bioplastic. The study focused on the production of lactic acid as a precursor of polylactic acid. The study was on the production process: (1) The cultivation of Ulva spp., in an Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture system; (2) the processing of the biomass for solubilization of sugars; (3) the fermentation of the sugars to lactic acid; (4) the isolation of lactic acid from fermentation broth. The study identified environmental hotspots and compared an experimental seaweed production chain with conventional feedstocks. The main hotspot is derived from electricity consumption during seaweed cultivation. The impact of electricity consumption can be lowered by reducing energy use and sourcing renewable energy, and by improving the material efficiency in the product chain. To improve understanding of the process of production's environmental impacts, future studies should broaden the system boundaries and scope of sustainability issues included in the environmental assessment.

Strategies for dealing with uncertainties in strategic environmental assessment : An analytical framework illustrated with case studies from The Netherlands
Bodde, Maartje ; Wel, Karin van der; Driessen, Peter ; Wardekker, Arjan ; Runhaar, Hens - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Effectiveness - Environmental assessment - Governance - Uncertainty

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is a widely applied policy tool that aims to aid decision-makers in making informed, higher-quality decisions that minimize negative environmental impacts. However, different types of uncertainties complicate the ex ante assessment of environmental impacts. Literature suggests uncertainties are often not well addressed, resulting in inaccurate and even unreliable SEAs. At the same time, SEA literature offers limited guidance in how to systematically identify and deal with uncertainties. Therefore, in this paper, we present an analytical framework for characterizing and classifying different forms of uncertainty in SEA, and for identifying strategies for dealing with these uncertainties. The framework is based on literature on uncertainties in other subdomains of the environmental sciences. The framework is applied to five case studies of SEAs for spatial planning in The Netherlands in order to illustrate and critically reflect on our framework, and to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Based on these case studies we concluded the following: (1) The framework is useful for identifying uncertainties in SEA in a systematic way; (2) There is a discrepancy between how uncertainties are dealt with in theory and in practice; (3) In practice, uncertainties seem to be dealt with in a rather implicit way. The framework may help dealing with uncertainties more systematically and more proactively; (4) The most successful way of coping with uncertainties seems to be the application of multiple strategies.

Corporate social responsibility and operational inefficiency : A dynamic approach
Guillamon-Saorin, Encarna ; Kapelko, Magdalena ; Stefanou, Spiro E. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
Corporate social responsibility - Data envelopment analysis - Dynamic technical inefficiency - Operational inefficiency

It is yet to be determined whether the firms' operational inefficiency is reflected on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) engagement approach. This paper aims to examine this association and specifically analyzes to which of the dimensions of CSR operational inefficiency is more closely related. Operational inefficiency is assessed using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) via dynamic inefficiency approach that accounts for the confounding role of adjustment costs related with firms' investments. Using a sample of U.S. firms in a variety of sectors from 2004 to 2015, we find that lower dynamic inefficiency occurs in firms with a higher commitment to CSR activities. We also find that dynamic inefficiency is negatively related to firms' engagement in social and corporate governance dimensions of CSR, whereas it is positively associated with the environmental dimension of CSR. In addition, dynamically inefficient companies have higher level of CSR concerns and lower of CSR strengths. The results are robust to endogeneity issues.

QTL mapping in diploid potato by using selfed progenies of the cross S. tuberosum × S. chacoense
Meijer, D. ; Viquez-Zamora, M. ; Eck, H.J. van; Hutten, R.C.B. ; Su, Y. ; Rothengatter, R. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Lindhout, W.H. ; Heusden, A.W. van - \ 2018
Euphytica 214 (2018)7. - ISSN 0014-2336
Diploid potato - Homozygosity - Inbreeding - Self-compatibility

Usually, mapping studies in potato are performed with segregating populations from crosses between highly heterozygous diploid or tetraploid parents. These studies are hampered by a high level of genetic background noise due to the numerous segregating alleles, with a maximum of eight per locus. In the present study, we aimed to increase the mapping efficiency by using progenies from diploid inbred populations in which at most two alleles segregate. Selfed progenies were generated from a cross between S. tuberosum (D2; a highly heterozygous diploid) and S. chacoense (DS; a homozygous diploid clone) containing the self-incompatibility overcoming S locus inhibitor (Sli-gene). The Sli-gene enables self-pollination and the generation of selfed progenies. One F2 population was used to map several quality traits, such as tuber shape, flesh and skin color. Quantitative trait loci were identified for almost all traits under investigation. The identified loci partially coincided with known mapped loci and partially identified new loci. Nine F3 populations were used to validate the QTLs and monitor the overall increase in the homozygosity level.

Addressing climate change in Responsible Research and Innovation : Recommendations for its operationalization
Ligardo-Herrera, Ivan ; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás ; Inigo, Edurne A. ; Blok, Vincent - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2071-1050
Climate change - Corporate social responsibility - Responsible research and innovation - Sustainable innovation

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) has only lately included environmental sustainability as a key area for the social desirability of research and innovation. That is one of the reasons why just a few RRI projects and proposals include environmental sustainability, and Climate Change (CC) in particular. CC is one of the grand challenges of our time and, thus, this paper contributes to the operationalization of CC prevention in RRI. To this end, the tools employed against CC were identified. Tools originated in corporate social responsibility and sustainable innovation which help to operationalize strategies against CC in RRI practice. Complementarily, the latest proposals by RRI projects and actors related to CC were reviewed. The findings of the document analysis and the web review were arranged in a framework intended for research and innovation that has an indirect but relevant negative impact due to CC. Thus, four main strategies for CC prevention in RRI were determined: a voluntary integration of the aims, a life cycle perspective, open access databases and key performance indicators, and stakeholder management. The article is finished acknowledging diverse barriers hindering the operationalization of CC prevention in RRI, and we introduce future avenues for research in this area.

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