Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Speaking Power to “Post-Truth” : Critical Political Ecology and the New Authoritarianism
Neimark, Benjamin ; Childs, John ; Nightingale, Andrea J. ; Cavanagh, Connor Joseph ; Sullivan, Sian ; Benjaminsen, Tor A. ; Batterbury, Simon ; Koot, Stasja ; Harcourt, Wendy - \ 2019
Annals of the American Association of Geographers (2019). - ISSN 2469-4452

Given a history in political ecology of challenging hegemonic “scientific” narratives concerning environmental problems, the current political moment presents a potent conundrum: how to (continue to) critically engage with narratives of environmental change while confronting the “populist” promotion of “alternative facts.” We ask how political ecologists might situate themselves vis-à-vis the presently growing power of contemporary authoritarian forms, highlighting how the latter operates through sociopolitical domains and beyond-human natures. We argue for a clear and conscious strategy of speaking power to post-truth, to enable two things. The first is to come to terms with an internal paradox of addressing those seeking to obfuscate or deny environmental degradation and social injustice, while retaining political ecology’s own historical critique of the privileged role of Western science and expert knowledge in determining dominant forms of environmental governance. This involves understanding post-truth, and its twin pillars of alternative facts and fake news, as operating politically by those regimes looking to shore up power, rather than as embodying a coherent mode of ontological reasoning regarding the nature of reality. Second, we differentiate post-truth from analyses affirming diversity in both knowledge and reality (i.e., epistemology and ontology, respectively) regarding the drivers of environmental change. This enables a critical confrontation of contemporary authoritarianism and still allows for a relevant and accessible political ecology that engages with marginalized populations likely to suffer most from the proliferation of post-truth politics. Key Words: authoritarianism, environmental policy, political ecology, post-truth, science.

Potential gains in health expectancy by improving lifestyle : An application for European regions 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services
Füssenich, Koen ; Nusselder, Wilma J. ; Lhachimi, Stefan K. ; Boshuizen, Hendriek C. ; Feenstra, Talitha F. - \ 2019
Population Health Metrics 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 1478-7954
Healthy life years - Life expectancy in good perceived health - Life table modeling

Background: Prevention aiming at smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI could potentially bring large gains in life expectancy (LE) and health expectancy measures such as Healthy Life Years (HLY) and Life Expectancy in Good Perceived Health (LEGPH) in the European Union. However, the potential gains might differ by region. Methods: A Sullivan life table model was applied for 27 European countries to calculate the impact of alternative scenarios of lifestyle behavior on life and health expectancy. Results were then pooled over countries to present the potential gains in HLY and LEGPH for four European regions. Results: Simulations show that up to 4 years of extra health expectancy can be gained by getting all countries to the healthiest levels of lifestyle observed in EU countries. This is more than the 2 years to be gained in life expectancy. Generally, Eastern Europe has the lowest LE, HLY, and LEGPH. Even though the largest gains in LEPGH and HLY can also be made in Eastern Europe, the gap in LE, HLY, and LEGPH can only in a small part be closed by changing smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI. Conclusion: Based on the current data, up to 4 years of good health could be gained by adopting lifestyle as seen in the best-performing countries. Only a part of the lagging health expectancy of Eastern Europe can potentially be solved by improvements in lifestyle involving smoking and BMI. Before it is definitely concluded that lifestyle policy for alcohol use is of relatively little importance compared to smoking or BMI, as our findings suggest, better data should be gathered in all European countries concerning alcohol use and the odds ratios of overconsumption of alcohol.

Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Higuchi, Niro ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Silveira, Marcos ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Chave, Jerôme ; Barlow, Jos ; Bonal, Damien ; Davila Cardozo, Nallaret ; Erwin, Terry ; Fauset, Sophie ; Hérault, Bruno ; Laurance, Susan ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qie, Lan ; Stahl, Clement ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Steege, Hans ter; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Almeida, Everton ; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 39 - 56.
bioclimatic niches - climate change - compositional shifts - functional traits - temporal trends - tropical forests

Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate-induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long-term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water-deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large-statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry-affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet-affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry-affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate-change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole-community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large-statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.

Radiofrequency identification systems: Advantages and constraints for tracking and monitoring of individual animals
Sluis, M. van der; Ellen, E.D. ; Haas, Y. de; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
In: Measuring behavior 2018. - Manchester : - ISBN 9781910029398 - p. 193 - 195.
To track and monitor individual animals in groups, it is possible to use radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. RFID encompasses all wireless communication systems that use radiofrequency fields [1]. RFID systems consist of tags and readers [2]. The tags contain unique identification data and can be attached to the item or, in the proposed application, to the animal that needs to be tracked [2]. The readers are used to read and identify the tags via radiofrequency fields [2]. The development of RFID technology started in the late 1960s and RFID systems are currently used for a large range of applications, including electronic door locking systems, contactless smart cards, and animal identification [2,3,4]. Further progress in the technology of chip manufacturing now makes RFID suitable for novel applications and available at a lower cost [4,5]. Therefore, the existing RFID technology may be applicable for animal tracking and monitoring as well. Here, different types of RFID systems will first be discussed for their applicability in individual animal tracking and monitoring, after which future work using RFID to track individual animals will be presented.
Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests

The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.

Tropical land carbon cycle responses to 2015/16 El Niño as recorded by atmospheric greenhouse gas and remote sensing data
Gloor, Emanuel ; Wilson, Chris ; Chipperfield, Martyn P. ; Chevallier, Frederic ; Buermann, Wolfgang ; Boesch, Hartmut ; Parker, Robert ; Somkuti, Peter ; Gatti, Luciana V. ; Correia, Caio ; Domingues, Lucas G. ; Peters, Wouter ; Miller, John ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - 12 p.
carbon cycle - fire - global warming - tropical forests

The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation. We find roughly equal net carbon release anomalies from Amazonia and tropical Africa, approximately 0.5 PgC each, and smaller carbon release anomalies from tropical East Asia and southern Africa. Atmospheric CO anomalies reveal substantial fire carbon release from tropical East Asia peaking in October 2015 while fires contribute only a minor amount to the Amazonian carbon flux anomaly. Anomalously large Amazonian carbon flux release is consistent with downregulation of primary productivity during peak negative near-surface water anomaly (October 2015 to March 2016) as diagnosed by solar-induced fluorescence. Finally, we find an unexpected anomalous positive flux to the atmosphere from tropical Africa early in 2016, coincident with substantial CO release.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Climate-Forest-Water-People Relations: : Seven System Delineations
Noordwijk, M. van; Creed, Irena F. ; Jones, Julia A. ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Gush, Mark ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Bishop, Kevin ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Xu, Jianchu ; Claassen, Marius ; McNulty, Steven ; Bruijnzeel, L.A. ; Harper, Richard J. ; Mwangi, Hosea ; Hacket-Pain, Andrew ; Orland, Chloé - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 27 - 58.
Determinants of the Forest-Water Relationship
McNulty, Steven ; Archer, E. ; Gush, Mark ; Noordwijk, M. van; Ellison, David ; Blanco, Juan A. ; Xu, Jianchu ; Bishop, Kevin ; Wei, Xiaohua ; Vira, Bhaskar ; Creed, Irena F. ; Mukherji, A. ; Baca, Aurelia ; Serran, Jacqueline ; Harper, Richard J. ; Aldred, David ; Sullivan, Caroline A. - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 61 - 78.
Management Options for Dealing with Changing Forest-Water Relations
Vira, Bhaskar ; Ellison, David ; McNulty, Steven ; Archer, E. ; Bishop, Kevin ; Claassen, Marius ; Creed, Irena F. ; Gush, Mark ; Gyawali, Dipak ; Martin-Ortega, Julia ; Mukherji, A. ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Ovando Pol, Paola ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Wei, Xiaohua ; Xu, Jianchu ; Reed, Maureen G. ; Wilson, Sarah J. - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 122 - 141.
Governance Options for Addressing Changing Forest-Water Relations
Ellison, David ; Claassen, Marius ; Noordwijk, M. van; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Vira, Bhaskar ; Xu, Jianchu ; Archer, E. ; Bishop, Kevin ; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis ; Haywood, Lorren K. ; Robson, James P. - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 147 - 169.
Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
A Dutch perspective on urban growth boundaries : From containing to stimulating growth
Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Tan, Wendy - \ 2018
In: Instruments of Land Policy Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9781138201514 - p. 137 - 141.
Within international planning educational circles, the Netherlands has long been held up as an exemplar of effective national and regional land use planning practices. Well-known examples are the water management policies (van der Cammen and de Klerk 2012). The clearly defined administrative hierarchies, the policy consistency, and the management of the land resource with governmental controls in planning have been praised in planning literature. The Dutch planning system is seen as a great example for other countries, just as Sullivan’s Portland example (Bontje 2003; Fainstein 2005). The urban growth boundary (UGB) of the Regional Framework Plan of Portland is likewise one of the most outstanding elements of the land use planning system in State of Oregon. This is an example of an instrument accompanied by many other complementary ordinances, regulations, and rules that together result in a desired planning outcome. The UGB is therefore often compared to national planning instruments in the Netherlands intent on enforcing a strict boundary between the urban and the rural. In the Netherlands, this divide has always been a keystone concept of the land use planning system, which is to keep as much open space ‘open’ as possible, while concurrently address the need for expansion and growth by ensuring enough land for residential development in a context of land scarcity in the upcoming decades. This is a similar situation to Portland where the growth necessary for the next 20 years needs to be balanced by the geographical constraints of the nature and agricultural areas. Although the regional UGB enjoys statutory status in Portland, regional coordination is considered an informal norm within the Netherlands. For example, certain provinces keep to an 80–20 rule, whereby the majority of new developments should take place within existing urban contours. The regional focus of Portland’s planning system is relevant for international planners as most land use issues tend to cross administrative borders in nature and involve more than a single government level. On the surface, the Dutch planning system might not have much to offer as compared to Portland as the legal force is maintained mostly at the local level in the form of municipal land use plans (Needham 2016). Although the 2008 revision of the planning law (WRO 2008) does enable regional and inter-municipal zoning plans 138that can be brought forward by multiple municipalities or proposed by the Dutch regional government – the province – this instrument has been hardly implemented. From the provincial perspective, ‘overthrowing’ municipalities is politically not popular; municipalities – and their governors – focus on the land in their municipality as they are accountable for planning within the municipality, not outside.
Field methods for sampling tree height for tropical forest biomass estimation
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Qie, Lan ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Chave, Jerôme ; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Arets, Eric ; Ashton, Peter ; Bastin, Jean François ; Berry, Nicholas J. ; Bogaert, Jan ; Boot, Rene ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brienen, Roel ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Canniere, Charles de; Chudomelová, Markéta ; Dančák, Martin ; Ewango, Corneille ; Hédl, Radim ; Lloyd, Jon ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon ; Metali, Faizah ; Moore, Sam ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Pendry, Colin A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Salim, Kamariah Abu ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sukri, Rahayu S. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Umunay, Peter M. ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vernimmen, Ronald R.E. ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1179 - 1189.
Above-ground biomass estimation - Allometry - Carbon stocks - Forest inventory - Forest structure - Sample size
Quantifying the relationship between tree diameter and height is a key component of efforts to estimate biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Although substantial site-to-site variation in height-diameter allometries has been documented, the time consuming nature of measuring all tree heights in an inventory plot means that most studies do not include height, or else use generic pan-tropical or regional allometric equations to estimate height. Using a pan-tropical dataset of 73 plots where at least 150 trees had in-field ground-based height measurements, we examined how the number of trees sampled affects the performance of locally derived height-diameter allometries, and evaluated the performance of different methods for sampling trees for height measurement. Using cross-validation, we found that allometries constructed with just 20 locally measured values could often predict tree height with lower error than regional or climate-based allometries (mean reduction in prediction error = 0.46 m). The predictive performance of locally derived allometries improved with sample size, but with diminishing returns in performance gains when more than 40 trees were sampled. Estimates of stand-level biomass produced using local allometries to estimate tree height show no over- or under-estimation bias when compared with biomass estimates using field measured heights. We evaluated five strategies to sample trees for height measurement, and found that sampling strategies that included measuring the heights of the ten largest diameter trees in a plot outperformed (in terms of resulting in local height-diameter models with low height prediction error) entirely random or diameter size-class stratified approaches. Our results indicate that even limited sampling of heights can be used to refine height-diameter allometries. We recommend aiming for a conservative threshold of sampling 50 trees per location for height measurement, and including the ten trees with the largest diameter in this sample.
Feasibility of coupled empirical and dynamic modeling to assess climate change and air pollution impacts on temperate forest vegetation of the eastern United States
McDonnell, T.C. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Sullivan, T.J. ; Clark, C.M. ; Bonten, L.T.C. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Dovciak, M. - \ 2018
Environmental Pollution 234 (2018). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 902 - 914.
Acidification - Biodiversity - Climate change - Forest understory - Nitrogen
Changes in climate and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition caused pronounced changes in soil conditions and habitat suitability for many plant species over the latter half of the previous century. Such changes are expected to continue in the future with anticipated further changing air temperature and precipitation that will likely influence the effects of N deposition. To investigate the potential long-term impacts of atmospheric N deposition on hardwood forest ecosystems in the eastern United States in the context of climate change, application of the coupled biogeochemical and vegetation community model VSD+PROPS was explored at three sites in New Hampshire, Virginia, and Tennessee. This represents the first application of VSD+PROPS to forest ecosystems in the United States. Climate change and elevated (above mid-19th century) N deposition were simulated to be important factors for determining habitat suitability. Although simulation results suggested that the suitability of these forests to support the continued presence of their characteristic understory plant species might decline by the year 2100, low data availability for building vegetation response models with PROPS resulted in uncertain results at the extremes of simulated N deposition. Future PROPS model development in the United States should focus on inclusion of additional foundational data or alternate candidate predictor variables to reduce these uncertainties. Climate change and elevated N deposition were simulated to be important factors for determining habitat suitability for plants, and are expected to interact with changes in soil chemistry.
Functional Land Management : Bridging the Think-Do-Gap using a multi-stakeholder science policy interface
O’Sullivan, Lilian ; Wall, David ; Creamer, Rachel ; Bampa, Francesca ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2018
Ambio 47 (2018)2. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 216 - 230.
Functional Land Management - Policy framework - Soil functions - Stakeholder workshops - Sustainability - Think-Do-Gap
Functional Land Management (FLM) is proposed as an integrator for sustainability policies and assesses the functional capacity of the soil and land to deliver primary productivity, water purification and regulation, carbon cycling and storage, habitat for biodiversity and recycling of nutrients. This paper presents the catchment challenge as a method to bridge the gap between science, stakeholders and policy for the effective management of soils to deliver these functions. Two challenges were completed by a wide range of stakeholders focused around a physical catchment model—(1) to design an optimised catchment based on soil function targets, (2) identify gaps to implementation of the proposed design. In challenge 1, a high level of consensus between different stakeholders emerged on soil and management measures to be implemented to achieve soil function targets. Key gaps including knowledge, a mix of market and voluntary incentives and mandatory measures were identified in challenge 2.
Assessing the role of artificially drained agricultural land for climate change mitigation in Ireland
Paul, Carsten ; Fealy, Réamonn ; Fenton, Owen ; Lanigan, Gary ; O'Sullivan, Lilian ; Schulte, Rogier P.O. - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 80 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 95 - 104.
Greenhouse gas - Histosol - IWMS - LULUCF - Organic soil - Peatland
In 2014 temperate zone emission factor revisions were published in the IPCC Wetlands Supplement. Default values for direct CO2 emissions of artificially drained organic soils were increased by a factor of 1.6 for cropland sites and by factors ranging from 14 to 24 for grassland sites. This highlights the role of drained organic soils as emission hotspots and makes their rewetting more attractive as climate change mitigation measures. Drainage emissions of humic soils are lower on a per hectare basis and not covered by IPCC default values. However, drainage of great areas can turn them into nationally relevant emission sources. National policy making that recognizes the importance of preserving organic and humic soils’ carbon stock requires data that is not readily available. Taking Ireland as a case study, this article demonstrates how a dataset of policy relevant information can be generated. Total area of histic and humic soils drained for agriculture, resulting greenhouse gas emissions and climate change mitigation potential were assessed. For emissions from histic soils, calculations were based on IPCC emission factors, for humic soils, a modified version of the ECOSSE model was used. Results indicated 370,000 ha of histic and 426,000 ha of humic soils under drained agricultural land use in Ireland (8% and 9% of total farmed area). Calculated annual drainage emissions were 8.7 Tg CO2e from histic and 1.8 Tg CO2e from humic soils (equal to 56% of Ireland's agricultural emissions in 2014, excluding emissions from land use). If half the area of drained histic soils was rewetted, annual saving would amount to 3.2 Tg CO2e. If on half of the deep drained, nutrient rich grasslands drainage spacing was decreased to control the average water table at −25 cm or higher, annual savings would amount to 0.4 Tg CO2e.
Soil protection for a sustainable future : options for a soil monitoring network for Ireland
O'Sullivan, L. ; Bampa, F. ; Knights, K. ; Creamer, R.E. - \ 2017
Soil Use and Management 33 (2017)2. - ISSN 0266-0032 - p. 346 - 363.
drainage class - indicators - land use - natural resource - protection - Soil monitoring - sustainability

The increased recognition of the importance of soil is reflected in the UN Post-2015 Development Agenda with sustainable development goals that directly and indirectly relate to soil quality and protection. Despite a lack of legally binding legislation for soil protection, the European Commission remains committed to the objective of soil protection. However, the achievement of a legally binding framework for soil protection relies on the implementation of a soil monitoring network (SMN) that can detect changes to soil quality over time. As beneficiaries do not pay for the provision of soil information, the options for soil monitoring are limited. The use of existing data sets should be considered first. Using Ireland as an example, this research explored the opportunities for a SMN for Ireland considering three existing national data sets. The options for a SMN are considered in terms of their spatial and stratified distribution, the parameters to be measured and an economic analysis of the options proposed. This research finds that for Ireland, either a 10 or a 16 km2 grid interval stratified by land use and drainage class offers the best potential in relation to the spatial distribution of existing data sets to reflect local data at a national level. With existing data, the stratified SIS data using the 16 km2 grid offers the best value for money, with baseline costs for analysis, excluding field costs, of between €706 481 and €2.8 million. Acknowledging the impossibility of measuring all parameters with ideal frequency, this study proposes a two-tier system for optimized monitoring frequency. Parameters must anticipate future policy requirements. Finally, the implementation of a SMN must be accompanied by standardized methods, defined thresholds and action mandates to maintain soil quality within allowable limits.

Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania
Hutton, Mary Olivia ; Leach, A.M. ; Leip, Adrian ; Galloway, J.N. ; Bekunda, M. ; Sullivan, C. ; Lesschen, J.P. - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr−1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.
Consensus statement : Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics
Simmonds, Peter ; Adams, Mike J. ; Benk, Mária ; Breitbart, Mya ; Brister, J.R. ; Carstens, Eric B. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Delwart, Eric ; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. ; Harrach, Balázs ; Hull, Roger ; King, Andrew M.Q. ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kuhn, Jens H. ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Nibert, Max L. ; Orton, Richard ; Roossinck, Marilyn J. ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Sullivan, Matthew B. ; Suttle, Curtis A. ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Vlugt, René A. Van Der; Varsani, Arvind ; Murilo Zerbini, F. - \ 2017
Nature Reviews Microbiology 15 (2017)3. - ISSN 1740-1526 - p. 161 - 168.
The number and diversity of viral sequences that are identified in metagenomic data far exceeds that of experimentally characterized virus isolates. In a recent workshop, a panel of experts discussed the proposal that, with appropriate quality control, viruses that are known only from metagenomic data can, and should be, incorporated into the official classification scheme of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Although a taxonomy that is based on metagenomic sequence data alone represents a substantial departure from the traditional reliance on phenotypic properties, the development of a robust framework for sequence-based virus taxonomy is indispensable for the comprehensive characterization of the global virome. In this Consensus Statement article, we consider the rationale for why metagenomic sequence data should, and how it can, be incorporated into the ICTV taxonomy, and present proposals that have been endorsed by the Executive Committee of the ICTV.
Trees, forests and water : Cool insights for a hot world
Ellison, David ; Morris, Cindy E. ; Locatelli, Bruno ; Sheil, Douglas ; Cohen, Jane ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Gutierrez, Victoria ; Noordwijk, Meine van; Creed, Irena F. ; Pokorny, Jan ; Gaveau, David ; Spracklen, Dominick V. ; Tobella, Aida Bargués ; Ilstedt, Ulrik ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis ; Sands, David C. ; Muys, Bart ; Verbist, Bruno ; Springgay, Elaine ; Sugandi, Yulia ; Sullivan, Caroline A. - \ 2017
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 43 (2017). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 51 - 61.
Adaptation - Carbon - Climate - Energy - Forest - Mitigation - Reforestation - Sustainability - Water
Forest-driven water and energy cycles are poorly integrated into regional, national, continental and global decision-making on climate change adaptation, mitigation, land use and water management. This constrains humanity's ability to protect our planet's climate and life-sustaining functions. The substantial body of research we review reveals that forest, water and energy interactions provide the foundations for carbon storage, for cooling terrestrial surfaces and for distributing water resources. Forests and trees must be recognized as prime regulators within the water, energy and carbon cycles. If these functions are ignored, planners will be unable to assess, adapt to or mitigate the impacts of changing land cover and climate. Our call to action targets a reversal of paradigms, from a carbon-centric model to one that treats the hydrologic and climate-cooling effects of trees and forests as the first order of priority. For reasons of sustainability, carbon storage must remain a secondary, though valuable, by-product. The effects of tree cover on climate at local, regional and continental scales offer benefits that demand wider recognition. The forest- and tree-centered research insights we review and analyze provide a knowledge-base for improving plans, policies and actions. Our understanding of how trees and forests influence water, energy and carbon cycles has important implications, both for the structure of planning, management and governance institutions, as well as for how trees and forests might be used to improve sustainability, adaptation and mitigation efforts.
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