Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Assessing physical climate risks for investments: A risky promise
Swart, Rob - \ 2019
Climate Services 14 (2019). - ISSN 2405-8807 - p. 15 - 18.
The world’s financial sector is making significant strides to account for both transition and physical climate risks in investments. The latter holds promise for increasing resilience. But effective frameworks for characterising physical risks for different types of investors and investments are as yet missing or often not used, and avoidance of investments in high-risk areas may counter the positive effects. This short commentary starts to characterise the promises and pitfalls of climate risk assessment in the financial sector and proposes a conceptual framework to capture the main dimensions. A stronger and collaborative role for public and private climate service providers is suggested to upgrade climate risk assessments for financial actors.
Bodies of the plant and Animal Kingdom : An illustrated manuscript on materia medica in the Netherlands (ca. 1800)
Swart, Ingeborg ; Beumer, Mieke ; Klein, Wouter ; Andel, Tinde van - \ 2019
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 237 (2019). - ISSN 0378-8741 - p. 236 - 244.
Amsterdam - Animal products - Drug trade - Historical manuscripts - Medicinal plants

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Around 1800, Amsterdam was a global trade hub for materia medica of Dutch, European and exotic origin. Contemporary knowledge on medicinal plants in academic circles has been well documented in local pharmacopoeia, illustrated herbals and catalogues of botanic gardens. Until the end of the ancient regime, physicians, surgeons and apothecaries were trained how to use plants in their specific guild or Collegium Medicum. Little is known, however, on how the plant collectors and merchants that provided the pharmaceutical substances to apothecaries learnt to recognise the variety of medicinal products. Aim of the study: To analyse the content, origin, purpose and scientific importance of an anonymous, undated, hand-written Dutch manuscript on materia medica, entitled Corpora ex Regno Vegetabili/Animali (Bodies of the Plant/Animal kingdom) kept by the Artis Library of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Materials and methods: We digitised the entire manuscript and dated the paper by means of its watermark. We identified the plant and animal species using the historic Dutch and Latin names, the illustrations and historic literature. We compared the plant properties and uses to contemporary literature to check whether the information in the manuscript was original or copied from another source. Results: The paper was produced between 1759 and 1816 in Zaandam, the Netherlands. The manuscript contains 19 substances of animal origin, one mineral and 273 plants and plant-derived products, which belong to ca. 260 species. While most plants are native or cultivated in the Netherlands, 111 plant entries (105 spp.) represent exotic products, imported from as far as Madagascar and Australia. A total of 134 illustrations were cut out from a 1549 Dutch edition of the New Herbal by Leonhard Fuchs (1543), but only 69% correspond to the correct species. The manuscript contains detailed descriptions on growth locations, field characteristics, flowering season, provenance and quality of the medicinal products, including methods to detect forgery. The author mostly described humoral properties of the plants rather than listing medicinal recipes. We did not find evidence that he copied his texts from other sources, but the Dutch and Latin names correspond largely with the Amsterdam pharmacopoeia from 1795. Conclusions: The author's extensive knowledge on trade names, quality and origin of materia medica and his refrain from using literature suggests he could have been a merchant, an intermediary between herb cultivators, overseas traders and apothecaries. This manuscript offers a unique insight in the global trade in medicinal products and the circulation of knowledge in non-academic circles around 1800.

Adaptation policy at supranational level? Evidence from the European Union
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2019
In: Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Policy / Keskitalo, E.C.H., Preston, B.L., Edward Elgar Publishing (Social and Political Science 2019 ) - ISBN 9781786432513 - p. 194 - 211.
The European Union (EU) is a supranational entity for which climate change adaptation has become an important policy topic. This chapter seeks to address the question of how the EU currently governs climate change adaptation. The authors show how the open method of coordination as governing logic offers the possibility for the European Commission to mainstream climate change adaptation considerations through the acquiscommunautaire. Moreover, this approach also offers the Commission the possibility to stimulate the exchange of best practices, setting up new policy, practice and knowledge networks, involving non-governmental organizations and the private sector in adaptation, and to facilitate coordination and cooperation between member states and regions. Beyond these mostly procedural policy tools, however, the EU has very limited power to force member states to start adapting. The authors reflect on what these insights from the EU mean for governing climate change adaptation at the supranational level in general.
Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
Karasik, David ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Aghdassi, Ali ; Akesson, Kristina ; Amin, Najaf ; Barroso, Inês ; Bennett, David A. ; Bertram, Lars ; Bochud, Murielle ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Broer, Linda ; Buchman, Aron S. ; Byberg, Liisa ; Campbell, Harry ; Campos-Obando, Natalia ; Cauley, Jane A. ; Cawthon, Peggy M. ; Chambers, John C. ; Chen, Zhao ; Cho, Nam H. ; Choi, Hyung Jin ; Chou, Wen Chi ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Jager, Phillip L. De; Demuth, Ilja ; Diatchenko, Luda ; Econs, Michael J. ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Enneman, Anke W. ; Eriksson, Joel ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Estrada, Karol ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Fu, Mao ; Gieger, Christian ; Grallert, Harald ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Lenore, Launer J. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Huffman, Kim M. ; Husted, Lise B. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Ittermann, Till ; Jansson, John Olov ; Johnson, Toby ; Biffar, Reiner ; Jordan, Joanne M. ; Jula, Antti ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. ; Klopp, Norman ; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L. ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Kooner, Jaspal S. ; Kraus, William E. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Kuulasmaa, Teemu ; Kuusisto, Johanna ; Laakso, Markku ; Lahti, Jari ; Lang, Thomas ; Langdahl, Bente L. ; Lerch, Markus M. ; Lewis, Joshua R. ; Lill, Christina ; Lind, Lars ; Lindgren, Cecilia ; Liu, Yongmei ; Livshits, Gregory ; Ljunggren, Östen ; Loos, Ruth J.F. ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Luan, Jian An ; Luben, Robert N. ; Malkin, Ida ; McGuigan, Fiona E. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Melhus, Håkan ; Mellström, Dan ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morris, Andrew P. ; Mosekilde, Leif ; Nethander, Maria ; Newman, Anne B. ; Oconnell, Jeffery R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Peacock, Munro ; Perola, Markus ; Peters, Annette ; Prince, Richard L. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Ralston, Stuart H. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Robbins, John A. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rudan, Igor ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Schipf, Sabine ; Shin, Chan Soo ; Smith, Albert V. ; Smith, Shad B. ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Spector, Timothy D. ; StanÄ Áková, Alena ; Stefansson, Kari ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Thompson, Patricia ; Thomson, Cynthia A. ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Tikkanen, Emmi ; Tranah, Gregory J. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Duijn, Cornelia M. Van; Schoor, Natasja M. Van; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Völzke, Henry ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Walker, Mark ; J Wareham, Nicholas ; Waterworth, Dawn ; Weedon, Michael N. ; Wichmann, H.E. ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Williams, Frances M.K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Nicole C. ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. ; Yu, Lei ; Zhang, Weihua ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Nielson, Carrie M. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Demissie, Serkalem ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Ohlsson, Claes - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 276 - 278.
body composition - body fat - meta-Analysis of genome-wide association studies - metabolic profile - skeletal muscle

Background Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age 2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

Folic acid and Vitamin B12 supplementation and the risk of cancer : Long-term Follow-up of the B Vitamins for the Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) Trial
Araghi, Sadaf Oliai ; Kiefte-De Jong, Jessica C. ; Dijk, Suzanne C. Van; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Laarhoven, Hanneke W. van; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Lemmens, Valery ; Stricker, Bruno H. ; Uitterlinden, Andre G. ; Velde, Nathalie Van Der - \ 2019
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 28 (2019)2. - ISSN 1055-9965 - p. 275 - 282.

Background: Folic acid and vitamin B12 play key roles in one-carbon metabolism. Disruption of one-carbon metabolism may be involved in the risk of cancer. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of supplementation with both folic acid and vitamin B12 on the incidence of overall cancer and on colorectal cancer in the B Vitamins for the Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) trial. Methods: Long-term follow-up of B-PROOF trial participants (N ¼ 2,524), a multicenter, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial designed to assess the effect of 2 to 3 years daily supplementation with folic acid (400 mg) and vitamin B12 (500 mg) versus placebo on fracture incidence. Information on cancer incidence was obtained from the Netherlands cancer registry (Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland), using the International Statistical Classification of Disease (ICD-10) codes C00-C97 for all cancers (except C44 for skin cancer), and C18-C20 for colorectal cancer. Results: Allocation to B vitamins was associated with a higher risk of overall cancer [171 (13.6%) vs. 143 (11.3%); HR 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.53, P ¼ 0.05]. B vitamins were significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer [43(3.4%) vs. 25(2.0%); HR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.08-2.90, P ¼ 0.02]. Conclusions: Folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Impact: Our findings suggest that folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Further confirmation in larger studies and in meta-analyses combining both folic acid and vitamin B12 are needed to evaluate whether folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation should be limited to patients with a known indication, such as a proven deficiency.

The association between apathy, decline in physical performance, and falls in older persons
Henstra, Marieke J. ; Rhebergen, Didi ; Stek, Max L. ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Dijk, Suzanne C. van; Zillikens, M.C. ; Oliai Araghi, Sadaf ; Groot, Lisette C.M.G.M. de; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Velde, Nathalie van der - \ 2019
Aging clinical and experimental research (2019). - ISSN 1594-0667 - 9 p.
Apathy - Community-dwelling - Fall risk factor - Older persons - Physical performance

Background: Symptoms of apathy are common in older persons. Negative effects on physical performance and fall risk are plausible, considering the pathophysiology of apathy. However, literature is scarce. Aim: To longitudinally assess the association between apathy and (1) decline of physical performance and (2) the number of falls in older community-dwelling persons. Methods: The ‘B vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures’ study provided data on 2919 older persons over a period of 2 years. Apathy was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale 3. A physical performance score (PPS) was calculated using three performance tests. Falls were registered prospectively. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs), Incidence Rate Ratios (IRRs), and their 95% confidence intervals. Effect modification by age and gender was investigated. We also investigated mediation by baseline PPS for the association between apathy and the number of falls. Results: Apathy and decline of PPS were independently associated. After stratification, the effect only remained in men. Age was an effect modifier; higher ORs for decreasing age. Apathy was also independently associated with the number of falls. After stratification, women had higher IRRs than men. Age modified the association in the opposite direction: higher IRRs for increasing age. Baseline PPS was a mediator in the association. Conclusion: The impact of apathy on physical performance and fall incidents varied with age and gender. Potentially, in older individuals with apathy, fall risk is preceded by a decline in physical performance. In clinical practice, identifying apathy in older persons might be useful to target mobility preserving interventions.

How could climate services support disaster risk reduction in the 21st century
Street, R.B. ; Buontempo, C. ; Mysiak, J. ; Karali, E. ; Pulquério, M. ; Murray, V. ; Swart, R. - \ 2019
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 34 (2019). - ISSN 2212-4209 - p. 28 - 33.
Climate services - DRR decision-support - Post-2015 agenda

In January 2018, three leading European initiatives on climate services (CS) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiated a discussion on how the DRR community could be best served by new and emerging CS. The aim was to identify challenges and opportunities for delivery of effective operational disaster risk management and communication informed by an understanding of future climate risks. The resulting discussion engaged experts from civil protection, health, insurance, engineering and the climate service community. Discussions and subsequent reflections recognised that CS can strengthen all phases of the DRR cycle and that there are lessons to learn from experience that could enhance and demonstrate the value of CS supporting the DRR community. For this to happen, however, the supporting information should be relevant, accessible, legitimate and credible and engage both service supply and demand sides. It was also agreed that there was need for identifiable and credible champions recognised as providing leadership and focal points for the development, delivery and evaluation of CS supporting DRR. This paper summarises the identified key challenges (e.g. disconnection between CS and DRR; accessibility of relevant and quality-controlled information; understanding of information needs; and understanding the role of CS and its link to the DRR planning cycle). It also suggests taking advantage of the unique opportunities as a result of the increased coherence and mutual reinforcement across the post-2015 international agendas and the increasing recognition that links between public health and DRR can provide impetus and a focus for developing CS that support DRR.

A systematic knowledge synthesis on the spatial dimensions of Q fever epidemics
Rooij, Myrna M.T. de; Leuken, Jeroen P.G. van; Swart, Arno ; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.E. ; Nielen, Mirjam ; Koeijer, Aline A. de; Janse, Ingmar ; Wouters, Inge M. ; Heederik, Dick J.J. - \ 2019
Zoonoses and Public Health 66 (2019)1. - ISSN 1863-1959 - p. 14 - 25.
airborne exposure - Coxiella burnetii - epidemiology - Q fever - risk assessment - spatial analysis

From 2007 through 2010, the Netherlands experienced the largest Q fever epidemic ever reported. This study integrates the outcomes of a multidisciplinary research programme on spatial airborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii and reflects these outcomes in relation to other scientific Q fever studies worldwide. We have identified lessons learned and remaining knowledge gaps. This synthesis was structured according to the four steps of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA): (a) Rapid source identification was improved by newly developed techniques using mathematical disease modelling; (b) source characterization efforts improved knowledge but did not provide accurate C. burnetii emission patterns; (c) ambient air sampling, dispersion and spatial modelling promoted exposure assessment; and (d) risk characterization was enabled by applying refined dose–response analyses. The results may support proper and timely risk assessment and risk management during future outbreaks, provided that accurate and structured data are available and exchanged readily between responsible actors.

Brief communication: Strengthening coherence between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction
Mysiak, J. ; Castellari, Sergio ; Kurnik, Blaz ; Swart, R.J. ; Pringle, Patrick ; Schwarzenbach, R. ; Wolters, H. ; Jeuken, A. ; Linden, Paul van der - \ 2018
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 18 (2018)11. - ISSN 1561-8633 - p. 3137 - 3143.
Reducing disaster risks and adapting to climate change are ever more important policy goals in Europe and worldwide. The commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and complementary multilateral frameworks, including the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, has galvanised pursuits for policy coherence. The report »Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Europe: enhancing coherence of the knowledge base, policies and practices« of the European Environment Agency identified several ways how coherence and resilience can be built through knowledge sharing, collaboration and investments.
Identification of relevant international networks, programmes and institutions for JPI Climate research : Work Package 3 - Deliverable 3.1
Aalbers, C.B.E.M. ; Coninx, I. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2018
Wageningen : - 60 p.
Antibacterial prenylated stilbenoids from peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Araya-Cloutier, Carla ; Bijlsma, Judith ; Swart, Anne de; Sanders, Mark G. ; Waard, Pieter de; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Phytochemistry Letters 28 (2018). - ISSN 1874-3900 - p. 13 - 18.
Antimicrobial - Leguminosae - Natural product - Prenylation - Secondary metabolite - Stilbene

Stilbenoids are a class of secondary metabolites with a stilbene backbone that can be produced by peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as defence metabolites. Six monomeric prenylated stilbenoids, including the compound arachidin-6 (4), were isolated from extracts of fungus-elicited peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) using preparative liquid chromatography. Their structures were confirmed by MSn, HRMS and NMR spectroscopy and their antibacterial activity was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Similarly to other phenolic compounds, prenylated derivatives of stilbenoids were more active than their non-prenylated precursors piceatannol, resveratrol, and pinosylvin. Chiricanine A (6), a chain-prenylated pinosylvin derivative, was the most potent compound tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μg mL−1. Arachidin-6 (4), a ring-prenylated piceatannol derivative, had moderate potency (MIC 50–75 μg mL−1). In conclusion, prenylated stilbenoids represent a group of potential natural antibacterials which show promising activity against MRSA.

Prevalence of Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in four regions in the Netherlands, 2011-2015
Maas, Miriam ; Vries, Ankje De; Reusken, Chantal ; Buijs, Jan ; Goris, Marga ; Hartskeerl, Rudy ; Ahmed, Ahmed ; Tulden, Peter van; Swart, Arno ; Pijnacker, Roan ; Koene, Miriam ; Lundkvist, Åke ; Heyman, Paul ; Rockx, Barry ; Giessen, Joke Van Der - \ 2018
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology 8 (2018)1.
epidemiology - hantavirus - Leptospirosis - prevalence - Rattus norvegicus - Seoul virus

Background: Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) may carry pathogens that can be a risk for public health. Brown rats in the Netherlands were tested for the zoonotic pathogens Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), in order to obtain insight in their prevalence. Methods and results: Cross-sectional studies were performed at four locations from 2011 to 2015. The rats were tested for Leptospira spp. using real-time PCR and/or culture resulting in a prevalence ranging between 33–57%. Testing for SEOV was done through an adapted human Seoul hantavirus ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. Although at several locations the ELISA indicated presence of SEOV antibodies, none could be confirmed by focus reduction neutralization testing. Conclusion: The results indicate a widespread presence of Leptospira spp. in brown rats in the Netherlands, including areas with a low leptospirosis incidence in humans. No evidence for circulation of SEOV was found in this study.

Social vulnerability to climate change in European cities – state of play in policy and Practice
Breil, M. ; Downing, C. ; Kazmierczak, A. ; Mäkinen, K. ; Romanovska, L. ; Terämä, E. ; Swart, R.J. - \ 2018
Copenhagen : EEA - European Environment Agency (ETC/CCA Technical Paper 2018/1) - 85 p.
Climate change impacts do not affect all citizens in the same way. They often cause worse impacts on certain vulnerable groups within cities. The aim of this technical paper is to provide the state-of-play in policy and practice for addressing social vulnerability to climate change in urban areas.
Adaptation to climate change at local level in Europe: An overview
Aguiar, F.C. ; Bentz, J. ; Silva, J.M.N. ; Fonseca, A.L. ; Swart, R.J. ; Santos, F.D. ; Penha-Lopes, Gil - \ 2018
Environmental Science & Policy 86 (2018). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 38 - 63.
Europe’s climate change vulnerability pushes for initiatives such as the European Adaptation Strategy and the associated Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy. What are the triggers and barriers, for which sectors and for which risks and how is adaptation funded? This paper examines 147 Local Adaptation Strategies in Europe. Key triggers were incentives via research projects, implementation of EU policies and the increasing frequency of extreme climate events. Insufficient resources, capacity, political commitment and uncertainty were the main barriers. Prioritized sectors reflected the main local vulnerabilities - flood protection and water management, built environment and urban planning. Differing patterns of adaptation planning and adaptive capacity were identified among different regions in Europe. Large municipalities generally fund adaptation locally, whereas international and national funding appears to be more important for adaptation in less urban or densely populated territories. The database of LAS described in the present study can be expanded and used to increase the understanding of and promotion of local adaptation action in Europe and beyond.
Sensitivity of tidal characteristics in double inlet systems to momentum dissipation on tidal flats : a perturbation analysis
Hepkema, Tjebbe M. ; Swart, Huib E. de; Zagaris, Antonios ; Duran–Matute, Matias - \ 2018
Ocean Dynamics 68 (2018)4-5. - ISSN 1616-7341 - p. 439 - 455.
Marsdiep–Vlie system - Momentum sink - Overtides - Perturbation analysis - Sediment transport
In a tidal channel with adjacent tidal flats, along–channel momentum is dissipated on the flats during rising tides. This leads to a sink of along–channel momentum. Using a perturbative method, it is shown that the momentum sink slightly reduces the M2 amplitude of both the sea surface elevation and current velocity and favours flood dominant tides. These changes in tidal characteristics (phase and amplitude of sea surface elevations and currents) are noticeable if widths of tidal flats are at least of the same order as the channel width, and amplitudes and gradients of along–channel velocity are large. The M2 amplitudes are reduced because stagnant water flows from the flats into the channel, thereby slowing down the current. The M4 amplitudes and phases change because the momentum sink acts as an advective term during the fall of the tide, such a term generates flood dominant currents. For a prototype embayment that resembles the Marsdiep–Vlie double–inlet system of the Western Wadden Sea, it is found that for both the sea surface elevation and current velocity, including the momentum sink, lead to a decrease of approximately 2% in M2 amplitudes and an increase of approximately 25% in M4 amplitudes. As a result, the net import of coarse sediment is increased by approximately 35%, while the transport of fine sediment is hardly influenced by the momentum sink. For the Marsdiep–Vlie system, the M2 sea surface amplitude obtained from the idealised model is similar to that computed with a realistic three–dimensional numerical model whilst the comparison with regard to M4 improves if momentum sink is accounted for.
Dietary patterns and physical activity in the metabolically (un)healthy obese: the Dutch Lifelines cohort study
Slagter, Sandra N. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Klauw, Melanie M. Van Der; Sijtsma, Anna ; Swart-Busscher, Linda G. ; Perenboom, Corine W.M. ; Vries, Jeanne H.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V. Van - \ 2018
Nutrition Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1475-2891
Background
Diversity in the reported prevalence of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), suggests that modifiable factors may be at play. We evaluated differences in dietary patterns and physical activity between MHO and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO).
Methods
Cross-sectional data of 9270 obese individuals (30–69 years) of the Lifelines Cohort Study was used. MHO was defined as obesity and no metabolic syndrome risk factors and no cardiovascular disease history. MUO was defined as obesity and ≥2 metabolic syndrome risk factors. Sex-specific associations of dietary patterns (identified by principal component analysis) and physical activity with MHO were assessed by multivariable logistic regression (reference group: MUO). Analyses were adjusted for multiple covariates.
Results
Among 3442 men and 5828 women, 10.2% and 24.4% had MHO and 56.9% and 35.3% MUO, respectively. We generated four obesity-specific dietary patterns. Two were related to MHO, and in women only. In the highest quartile (Q) of ‘bread, potatoes and sweet snacks’ pattern, odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for MHO was 0.52 (0.39–0.70). For the healthier pattern ‘fruit, vegetables and fish’, an OR of 1.36 (1.09–1.71) in Q3 and 1.55 (1.21–1.97) in Q4 was found for MHO. For physical activity, there was a positive association between moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity in the highest tertile and MHO in women and men, respectively (OR 1.19 (1.01–1.41) and OR 2.02 (1.50–2.71)).
Conclusion
The healthier diet -characterized by ‘fruit, vegetables and fish’- and moderate physical activity in women, and vigorous physical activity in men may be related to MHO. The (refined) carbohydrate-rich ‘bread, potatoes and sweet snacks’ dietary pattern was found to counteract MHO in women.
Airborne Emissions from Livestock Farms and Exposure of Nearby Residents using an Atmospheric Dispersion Model
Sterk, H.A.M. ; Swart, A.N. ; Leuken, J.P.G. van; Schijven, J.F. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Wouters, I.M. ; Janse, I. ; Wichink Kruit, R.J. ; Pul, W.A.J. van - \ 2018
In: ITM 2016: Air Pullution Modeling and its Application XXV. - Springer (Springer Proceedings in Complexity ) - ISBN 9783319576442 - p. 487 - 494.
To estimate the exposure of local residents to substances emitted by livestock farms, we applied a dispersion model to calculate the air concentrations in the surroundings following from these emissions. At several livestock farms, indoor air measurements were performed to determine emission strengths, while ambient measurements were carried out to compare with model results. Measured substances were particulate matter (PM), endotoxins and micro-organisms. The dispersion model only simulated PM concentrations, which were used as a proxy to determine the dispersion concentrations of endotoxins and micro-organisms. For the living micro-organisms, the process of inactivation has to be taken into account. Here we describe the followed methodology and preliminary results.
Strategic narratives to induce preparedness and prevention in cities : New governance tool for public action
Coninx, I. ; Michalek, Gabriela ; Bentz, J. ; Swart, R.J. ; Schwarze, Reimund - \ 2017
Weather- and climate-related natural hazards in Europe
Kurnik, Blaz ; Linden, P. van der; Mysiak, J. ; Swart, R.J. ; Füssel, H.M. ; Christiansen, Trine ; Cavicchia, Leone ; Gualdi, S. ; Mercogliano, Paola ; Rianna, Guido ; Kramer, K. ; Michetti, Melania ; Salis, Michele ; Schelhaas, M. ; Leitner, M. ; Vanneuville, W. ; Macadam, Ian - \ 2017
In: Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Europe / Castellari, Sergio, Kurnik, Blaz, EEA - European Environment Agency (EEA Report 15/2017) - ISBN 9789292138936 - p. 46 - 91.
Since 2003, Europe has experienced several extreme summer heat waves. Such heat waves are projected to occur as often as every 2 years in the second half of the 21st century, under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). The impacts will be
particularly strong in southern Europe.
Heavy precipitation events have increased in northern and north-eastern Europe since the 1960s, whereas different indices show diverging trends for south-western and southern Europe. Heavy precipitation events are projected to
become more frequent in most parts of Europe.
The number of very severe flood events in Europe has varied since 1980, but the economic losses have increased. It isnot currently possible to quantify the contribution due to increased heavy precipitation in parts of Europe compared with better reporting and land use changes.
Observations of windstorm location, frequency and intensity have showed considerable variability across Europe during the 20th century. Models project an eastward extension of the North Atlantic storm track towards central Europe, with an increase in the number of cyclones in central Europe and a decreased number in the Norwegian and Mediterranean Seas.
For medicanes (also termed Mediterranean Sea hurricanes), a decreased frequency but increased intensity of medicanes is projected in the Mediterranean area.
Landslides are a natural hazard that cause fatalities and significant economic losses in various parts of Europe. Projected increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will affect rock slope stability conditions and favour increases in the frequency of shallow landslides, especially in European mountains.
The severity and frequency of droughts appear to have increased in parts of Europe, in particular in southern and south-eastern Europe. Droughts are projected to increase in frequency, duration, and severity in most of Europe, with the strongest increase projected for southern Europe.
Forest fire risk depends on many factors, including climatic conditions, vegetation, forest management practices and other socio-economic factors. The burnt area in the Mediterranean region increased from 1980 to 2000; it has decreased thereafter. Projected increases in heat waves together with an expansion of the fire-prone area will increase the duration of fire seasons across Europe, in particular in southern Europe.
Observational data between 1970 and 2015 show that alpine avalanches cause on average 100 fatalities every winter in the Alps. Increased temperatures are expected to lead to decreases in alpine snow cover and duration, and in turn
to decreased avalanche activity below about 1 500-2 000 m elevation in spring, but increased avalanche activity above 2 000 m elevation, especially in winter.
Hail is responsible for significant damage to crops, vehicles, buildings and other infrastructure. Despite improvements in data availability, trends and projections of hail events are still subject to large uncertainties owing to a lack of direct
observation and inadequate microphysical schemes in numerical weather prediction and climate models.
Extreme high coastal water levels have increased at most locations along the European coastline. This increase appears to be predominantly due to increases in mean local sea level rather than to changes in storm activity. Projected changes in the frequency and intensity of storm surges are expected to cause significant ecological damage, economic loss and other societal problems along low-lying coastal areas in northern and western Europe, unless additional adaptation measures are implemented.
Impacts of natural hazards in Europe
Groeve, Tom De; Kurnik, Blaz ; Mysiak, J. ; Swart, R.J. ; Semenza, Jan C. ; Kendrovski, Vladimir ; Kramer, K. ; Ivits, Eva ; Vanneuville, W. ; Carrera, Lorenzo ; Blauhut, V. ; Erhard, M. ; Christiansen, Trine - \ 2017
In: Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Europe / Castellari, Sergio, Kurnik, Blaz, EEA - European Environment Agency (EEA Report 15/2017) - ISBN 9789292138936 - p. 92 - 115.
Climate change has caused noticeable effects on human health in Europe, mainly as a result of extreme events, an increase in climate-sensitive diseases, and a deterioration in environmental and social conditions. Heat waves were the
deadliest extreme weather event in the period 1991–2015 in Europe.
Increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather- and climate-related events may lead to more disastrous impacts on ecosystems and their services. Management of ecosystems can help to avoid or significantly reduce these impacts.
The total reported economic losses caused by extreme weather- and climate-related events in the EEA member countries over the period 1980-2015 amount to around EUR 433 billion (in 2015 values). A large share of the total losses (70 %) has been caused by a small number of events (3 %).
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