- Ingrid J. Visseren-Hamakers (1)
- R.J. Kaitho (2)
- Markku Kanninen (1)
- Marcus Lindner (1)
- M. Lindner (1)
- A. Mekoya (2)
- I.V. Nsahlai (1)
- R.M. Ochieng (1)
- S.J. Oosting (2)
- Sabaheta Ramcilovic-Suominen (1)
- Yitagesu T. Tegegne (1)
- S. Tamminga (4)
- A. Tegegne(older publications) (2)
- A. Tegegne (2)
- Y.T. Tegegne (1)
- N.N. Umunna (2)
- I.J. Visseren-Hamakers (1)
- M. Woldemeskel (1)
- A.J. Zijpp van der (2)
Synergies among social safeguards in FLEGT and REDD + in Cameroon
Tegegne, Yitagesu T. ; Ramcilovic-Suominen, Sabaheta ; Fobissie, Kalame ; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Kanninen, Markku - \ 2017
Forest Policy and Economics 75 (2017). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 1 - 11.
Cameroon - Forest governance - Participatory management - Policy implementation - Tenure
Two key international policy processes have been developed to combat illegal logging and promote the contribution of forests to climate change mitigation in developing countries: the European Union's Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and its Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change policy on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD +). The implementation of these policies raises concerns about unintended adverse effects on the environment and local peoples’ livelihoods. To prevent such effects, both processes involve developing country-level safeguards, so that they ‘do no harm’. This paper presents (i) a comparison of the social safeguards of the FLEGT-VPA and REDD + processes and an explanation of their commonalities and differences, and (ii) an exploration of the potential synergies and the challenges to realizing them. The three main research methods used in the study were semi-structured interviews, content analysis of policy documents, and focus group discussions with local communities and indigenous peoples in south and east Cameroon. Our analysis shows that whereas FLEGT-VPA includes legality-based safeguards with legally binding monitoring and reporting obligations, REDD + adopts a right-based approach to safeguards. Potential synergies between the two approaches were identified. The synergies lie in the participatory nature of the process of designing benefit sharing mechanisms, strengthening forest and land tenure, and defining the criteria and indicators in FLEGT-VPA and REDD + safeguards. However, realizing the synergies is challenging, given the existing political economy of Cameroon.
Comparative Analysis of the Interactions between the FLEGT and REDD+ Regimes in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo
Tegegne, Y.T. ; Ochieng, R.M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Fobissie, K.B. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)6. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 602 - 614.
This paper aims to examine and compare the interactions between policy to combat illegal logging (FLEGT VPA) and avoiding deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo by applying an institutional interaction approach. Several interactions have occurred between the two regimes, and more interactions are expected. In both countries, the process for developing the VPA has served as a policy model for designing elements of REDD+. Overlaps in issue-areas and membership triggered these interactions. Implementation of the VPA is also expected to result in positive behavioural change among forest stakeholders that could in turn have positive impacts on REDD+. There are also disruptive interactions, such as the slow pace of VPA implementation affecting REDD+ progress in both countries. Furthermore, there is substantial similarity in terms of the nature and quality of interactions between Cameroon and Congo. Building understanding and exchange of information among stakeholders and request for assistance and jurisdictional delimitation could enhance synergies and mitigate disruptive interactions between the two regimes in both countries.
Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of sheep
Mekoya, A. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Fernandez-Rivera, S. ; Tamminga, S. ; Tegegne, A. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2009
Livestock Science 121 (2009)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 117 - 125.
ethiopian highland sheep - condensed tannins - lotus-corniculatus - menz sheep - semen characteristics - wool production - efficiency - leucaena - leaves - straw
Two successive experiments were conducted to investigate the long-term effects of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on reproductive performance of Ethiopian Menz sheep. Forty ewes and 40 rams ranging in weight and age between 16¿20 kg and 14¿15 months respectively were fed a teff straw basal diet and supplemented with two levels of Sesbania (0, and 95% of supplementary protein provided by Sesbania and the rest being provided by concentrates) for 7 months. In experiment 1 (mating period), 4 paired female¿male groups (diet of the male with or without Sesbania, and diet of the female with or without Sesbania) consisting of 20 animals each were formed and assigned for mating. Ewes that were mated and did not return to heat in subsequent cycles during the 70 days mating period continued in experiment 2 receiving similar supplementary diets (concentrate alone or Sesbania) for the study of pregnancy and lambing. During the mating period, males and animals supplemented with Sesbania were superior (P <0.05) in daily feed nutrients intake, whereas daily body weight gain (ADG) was significantly different (P <0.05) between treatments but not between sex groups. During pregnancy a significant difference (P <0.05) was observed only in nitrogen intake, and ADG of ewes did not differ (P > 0.05) between treatments. Supplementation with Sesbania promoted an increase in testicular size by 13%. Except semen concentration, the other seminal characteristics were not significant (P <0.05) between treatments. The average oestrus cycle length was 19 ± 4.6 days. Mean progesterone profile for cycling ewes on the day of oestrus was 0.4 ± 0.04 and ranged between undetectable levels to 0.75 ng/ml followed by a rise starting on day 4 (1.7 ± 0.16 ng/ml) through day 7 (2.5 ± 0.29 ng/ml) and day 10 (3.6 ± 0.47 ng/ml) to a peak of 3.9 ± 0.45 ng/ml (plateau phase) on day 14. Supplementation with Sesbania improved the proportion of ewes conceived by 17% over supplementation with concentrates. The average birth weight of lambs, and post partum dam weight of ewes was 1.97 kg and 18.6 kg respectively and differed significantly (P <0.05) between treatments. We concluded that inclusion of Sesbania up to 30% in the diet of sheep as supplement before and during the period of mating and pregnancy improved testicular growth and semen quality in rams or reproductive performance of ewes without showing negative effects
Effect of supplementation of Sesbania sesban on post-weaning growth performance and sexual development of Menz sheep (Ethiopia)
Mekoya, A. ; Oosting, S.J. ; Fernandez-Rivera, S. ; Tamminga, S. ; Tegegne, A. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2009
Livestock Science 121 (2009)1. - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 108 - 116.
teff straw - acacia brevispica - oilseed cake - basal diet - ewe lambs - oat hay - puberty - leaves - goats - leucaena
Most supplementation experiments with fodder trees including S. sesban have been of short duration and focused mainly on feed intake and growth rate. Long-term studies regarding the effects of feeding S. sesban on reproductive performance of sheep particularly in both sexes are scanty. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of S. sesban on feed intake, post-weaning growth rate, and onset of puberty of male and female lambs. Sixty weaned female and 60 male Ethiopian highland sheep in weight and age ranging between 7.2 and 11.8 kg and 4 and 5 months respectively were evaluated for a period of 9 months supplemented with three levels of S. sesban (0, 47.5 and 95% of supplementary protein provided by S. sesban and the rest being provided by a mix of concentrates). Between sex groups male sheep, and among treatments animals fed with 47.5 and 95% Sesbania in the supplement had significantly (P <0.05) higher basal feed, supplement, and total feed intake than those supplemented with concentrate alone. Supplementation with Sesbania resulted in significantly (P <0.05) higher DM, OM and N digestibility than supplementation with sole concentrates. Supplementation with 95% Sesbania elicited higher daily weight gain than supplementation with 47.5% Sesbania and sole concentrates over the growth period. The onset of puberty was at 265 (± 36) and 342 (± 45) days of age and puberty weight was 15.2 and 14.6 kg for ram and ewe-lambs respectively. Ram-lambs fed with 47.5% and 95% Sesbania in the supplement reached puberty by 34 and 21 days earlier and were 1.4 kg heavier (P <0.05) than those fed concentrates. Ewe-lambs supplemented with 47.5 and 95% Sesbania were faster (P <0.05) to attain puberty by 43 and 37 days than those supplemented with sole concentrates. The average scrotum circumference gain (SCF) until the onset of puberty was 0.5 (± 0.1) mm¿ d. Supplementation with Sesbania improved SCF gain but was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) among treatments. Mean P4 (progesterone) concentrations during the first behavioural oestrus ranged from non-detectable levels to a peak of 4.32 ng/ml at mid-cycle without significant difference (P > 0.05) among treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that inclusion of S. sesban as a supplement up to 30% of the ration improved feed intake, growth rate, onset of puberty and sexual development of male and female sheep without adverse effects.
Effects of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban supplementation on testicular histology of tropical sheep and goats
Woldemeskel, M. ; Tegegne, A. ; Umunna, N.N. ; Kaitho, R.J. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 2001
Animal Reproduction Science 67 (2001). - ISSN 0378-4320 - p. 253 - 265.
Thirty Ethiopian highland rams with an average body weight of 23.7 kg (S.D.=1.23) and age of 18 months and 25 East African bucks with an average body weight of 18.6 kg (S.D.=2.06) and age of 14 months were used to study the long term effects of supplementation with the leaves of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on testicular histology. Within species, animals were blocked based on body weight and scrotal circumference and randomly assigned, within blocks, to five nutritional treatment groups in a complete randomised block design. All animals were provided with unchopped teff (Eragrostis tef) straw ad libitum and were supplemented with either 150 g of wheat bran (control), leucaena (200 or 400 g) or sesbania (200 or 400 g) leaves for a period of 6 months. At the end of the experimental period, all animals were surgically castrated and testicular samples were collected and prepared for histopathological examination. In sheep 200 g S. sesban induced relatively more necrosis of the seminiferous tubules than 200 g L. pallida, but with similar degree of tubular degeneration. However, lesions in testis of goats fed on 200 g S. sesban and 200 g L. pallida did not differ. The effect of 400 g S. sesban and 400 g L. pallida in sheep indicated that the former hardly induced lesions except depressive effect on spermatogenesis. Similar results were observed in goats. About 400 g S. sesban induced milder lesions in sheep and goats than were 200 g S. sesban. The lesions were compared and discussed in relation to the phytochemical composition of the supplementary feeds.
Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet.
Kaitho, R.J. ; Tegegne, A. ; Umunna, N.N. ; Nsahlai, I.V. ; Tamminga, S. ; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M. - \ 1998
Livestock Production Science 54 (1998). - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 173 - 181.