Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Linking ecology and plant pathology to unravel the importance of soil-borne fungal pathogens in species-rich grasslands
Ampt, Eline A. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Raaijmakers, Jos M. ; Termorshuizen, Aad J. ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology 154 (2019)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 141 - 156.
Belowground disease dynamics - Biodiversity - Grassland ecosystems - Neighbor identity - Plant-fungal interaction - Soil-borne fungal diseases

Soil-borne fungal diseases are a major problem in agriculture. A century ago, the Dutch plant pathologist Johanna Westerdijk recognized the importance of linking fungal biology with ecology to understand plant disease dynamics. To explore new ways to manage soil-borne fungal disease in agriculture by ‘learning from nature’, we follow in her footsteps: we link below ground plant-fungal pathogen interactions to ecological settings, i.e. natural grasslands. Ecological research hypothesised that the build-up of ‘enemies’ is reduced in species-rich vegetation compared to monocultures. To understand how plant diversity can suppress soil-borne fungal pathogens, we first need to identify fungal actors in species-rich grasslands. Next-generation sequencing revealed a first glimpse of the potential fungal actors, but their ecological functions often remain elusive. Databases are becoming available to predict the ecological fungal guild, but classic phytopathology studies that isolate and characterize – taxonomically and functionally -, remain essential. Secondly, we need to set-up experiments that reveal ecological mechanisms underlying the complex below ground interactions between plant diversity and fungal pathogens. Several studies suggested that disease incidence of (host-specific) pathogens is related to abundance of the host plant species. However, recent studies suggest that next to host species density, presence of heterospecific species additionally affects disease dynamics. We explore the direct and indirect ways of these neighboring plants diluting pathogen pressure. We argue that combining the expertise of plant pathologists and ecologists will improve our understanding of belowground plant-fungal pathogen interactions in natural grasslands and contribute to the design of sustainable and productive intercropping strategies in agriculture.

Lost in diversity: the interactions between soil-borne fungi, biodiversity and plant productivity
Mommer, L. ; Cotton, Anne ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Ruijven, J. van; Hendriks, Marloes ; Rijssel, Sophie van; Mortel, J.E. van de; Paauw, J.W.M. van der; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Berendse, F. ; Kroon, Hans de; Dumbrell, A.J. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 218 (2018)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 542 - 553.
There is consensus that plant species richness enhances plant productivity within natural grasslands, but the underlying drivers remain debated. Recently, differential accumulation of soil-borne fungal pathogens across the plant diversity gradient has been proposed as a cause of this pattern. However, the below-ground environment has generally been treated as a 'black box' in biodiversity experiments, leaving these fungi unidentified. Using next generation sequencing and pathogenicity assays, we analysed the community composition of root-associated fungi from a biodiversity experiment to examine if evidence exists for host specificity and negative density dependence in the interplay between soil-borne fungi, plant diversity and productivity. Plant species were colonised by distinct (pathogenic) fungal communities and isolated fungal species showed negative, species-specific effects on plant growth. Moreover, 57% of the pathogenic fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) recorded in plant monocultures were not detected in eight plant species plots, suggesting a loss of pathogenic OTUs with plant diversity. Our work provides strong evidence for host specificity and negative density-dependent effects of root-associated fungi on plant species in grasslands. Our work substantiates the hypothesis that fungal root pathogens are an important driver of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships.
Volatile-mediated suppression of plant pathogens is related to soil properties and microbial community composition
Agtmaal, Maaike van; Straathof, Angela L. ; Termorshuizen, Aad ; Lievens, Bart ; Hoffland, Ellis ; Boer, Wietse de - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 117 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 164 - 174.
Fusarium oxysporum - Phytopathology - Pythium intermedium - Rhizoctonia solani - Soil microbial ecology - Soil-borne plant pathogens - Volatile organic compounds

There is increasing evidence that the soil microbial community produces a suite of volatile organic compounds that suppress plant pathogens. However, it remains unknown which soil properties and management practices influence volatile-mediated pathogen suppression. The aim of this study was to relate soil properties to growth suppression of three plant pathogens by soil volatiles. We measured the effect of volatiles emitted from a broad range of agricultural soils on the in vitro growth of the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, and the oomycete Pythium intermedium. Growth suppression of pathogens by soil volatiles could be linked to various soil properties, and some aspects of microbial community composition and field history, using multiple linear regression. Volatile-mediated suppression of mycelial development occurred for each pathogen type, but the magnitude of inhibition differed among soils as well as pathogens. On average R. solani and P. ultimum appeared more sensitive to volatile suppression than F. oxysporum. Suppression of R. solani by volatiles was positively correlated with organic matter content, microbial biomass and proportion of litter saprotrophs in the microbial community, but negatively correlated with pH, microbial diversity (Shannon), and the proportion of Acidobacteria in the community. R. solani, F. oxysporum, and P. intermedium suppression by volatiles was affected by various management practices occurring in the soil's field history, such as reduced tillage, the presence of certain crops in the crop rotation, and the application of solid manure. P. intermedium suppression was also negatively correlated with soil sulphur content. This study identifies pathogen-specific drivers of growth-suppressive volatiles, a critical step in integrating soil volatiles into prediction and management of soil-borne plant diseases.

Root associated fungal communities from the Wageningen long term biodiversity-productivity experiment
Mommer, L. ; Cotton, Anne ; Raaijmakers, J.M. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Ruijven, J. van; Hendriks, Marloes ; Rijssel, Sophie van; Mortel, J.E. van de; Paauw, J.W.M. van der; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek ; Berendse, F. ; Kroon, Hans de; Dumbrell, A.J. - \ 2017
PRJEB18545 - ERP020484
Species-rich plant communities are more productive than species-poor plant communities but the reasons behind this relationship are currently unclear. We characterised the fungal communities associated with plant roots from the Wageningen biodiversity experiment to explore the effect of plant species identity, abundance and diversity on root associated fungal communities. Briefly, the Wageningen biodiversity experiment consisted of plant communities comprised of the following plant species: Agrostis capillaris L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca rubra L., and Holcus lanatus L., Centaurea jacea L., Leucanthemum vulgare Lamk., Plantago lanceolata L., and Rumex acetosa,.These were grown either in monocultures or 2,4 or 8 plant species mixtures. 3cm diameter soil cores were taken from this experiment in 2010 and divided into two depth increments: (0-5, 20-35 cm). Roots from each depth were washed and their fungal communities characterised using 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing of amplicon libraries of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region using primers ITS1F (Gardes & Bruns 1993) and ITS2 (White et al. 1990)
How landscape stewardship emerges out of landscape planning
Opdam, Paul - \ 2017
In: The Science and Practice of Landscape Stewardship / Bieling, Claudia, Plieninger, Tobias, Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107142268 - p. 331 - 346.

Introduction: Landscape Planning Versus Stewardship The landscape, here conceived as a social-ecological system resulting from the interaction between nature and humans, is a public and private domain at the same time. Many parts can be privately owned and used for earning an income, while other parts are public domain. Taken together public and private parts constitute a heterogeneous pattern of natural and human sites supporting natural and social processes. Where the community inhabiting the landscape area perceives its ecological functioning as beneficial, these benefits are called landscape services (Termorshuizen and Opdam 2009). These services may be of private interests e.g. farmers using the potential of the landscape to grow food, as well as of public interest e.g. people enjoying improved mental health by interacting with the natural assets of the landscape. People may have an explicit or hidden demand for these services, but their supply is not regulated by demand supply mechanisms only (Dietz et al. 2003). Therefore, to ascertain these values of public interest, governments have declared rules and legislation that limit the adaptation and use of landscapes, for example rules about the application of fertilisers. In case the central governments have the prime responsibility for common values such as biodiversity and water quality, public agencies initiate and organise the process of adapting landscapes in the face of new challenges, such as expanding cities or climate change impacts. In this process of what is called landscape or environmental planning (Linehan and Gross 1998, Steiner 2000, Hawkins and Selman 2002), conflicts of competing interests are solved in a formal procedure often embedded in legislation, in which stakeholders may be consulted. The government’s responsibilities also include providing knowledge, organising consultation workshops and financing implementation measures. In contrast, in landscape stewardship the organiser role of the government is limited or even not existing. Landscape stewardship is driven by the actions of people, based on their appreciation of the multiple landscape values that they perceive as crucial for their wellbeing (Nassauer 2011). In general terms, landscape stewardship is defined as the active shaping of pathways of social and ecological change for the benefits of ecosystems and society (Chapin III and Knapp 2015), interpreted in the context of sustainability.

Data from: Feeding preference as a main determinant of microscale patchiness among terrestrial nematodes
Quist, C.W. ; Gort, G. ; Mulder, Christian ; Wilbers, R.H.P. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2017
nematode community - quantitative PCR - bio-indicators - spatial distribution - trophic group
Soil biota are responsible for essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and water retention. However, assessment of the condition of soil biota is hampered by an overwhelming level of diversity. With representatives in all trophic levels of the food web, nematode communities can be used as bio-indicators. Accurate assessment of nematode assemblages requires insight in the distribution of specimens with distinct food preferences. With the availability of taxon-specific quantitative-PCR assays, distribution patterns of multiple nematode groups can be investigated simultaneously. Here, microscale patchiness of 45 nematode taxa was studied on 12 sampling sites (each with four adjacent microplots) located on arable fields or semi-natural grasslands (‘system’), and on marine-, river clay or sandy soils (‘soil type’). From each microplot five composite samples were collected. Contrary to our expectations, an increase of the number of cores per composite sample did not result in more accurate measurements, and apparently the levels of microscale patchiness of the taxa are low compared to what has been reported for oligophagous plant-parasites. System and soil type did not affect microscale distribution. To investigate the level of patchiness in more detail, detection probability (DP) and variability of abundances were calculated. Common and widespread bacterivorous and fungivorous taxa had DP ≥ 90%, confirming low level of microscale patchiness. With DPs of 40-70%, predators and most omnivores showed degrees of local clustering. An overview of mean variabilities of abundances is presented that offers insight in how feeding preferences impact the microscale distribution both between and within trophic groups.
Exploring the reservoir of potential fungal plant pathogens in agricultural soil
Agtmaal, M. van; Straathof, Angela ; Termorshuizen, Aad ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Hundscheid, Maria ; Ruyters, Stefan ; Busschaert, Pieter ; Lievens, Bart ; Boer, Wietse de - \ 2017
Applied Soil Ecology 121 (2017). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 152 - 160.
Community dynamics - Fungi - Oomycetes - Soil-borne plant pathogens - Surviving propagules

Soil-borne pathogens cause great crop losses in agriculture. Because of their resilience in the soil, these pathogens persist in a population reservoir, causing future outbreaks of crop diseases. Management focus is usually on the most common pathogens occurring, but it is likely that a mixed population of pathogens together affect crops. Next generation sequencing of DNA from environmental samples can provide information on the presence of potential pathogens. The aim of this study was to obtain insight into the factors that drive the composition of potential plant pathogen populations in agricultural soils. To this end, the alpha and beta diversity of fungal OTUs that were assigned as potential plant pathogens for 42 agricultural soils were assessed. The presented study is the first inventory of the pool of pathogens and its correlating factors. The results of this inventory indicate that the composition of pathogens in soil is driven by pH, soil type, crop history, litter saprotrophic fungi and spatial patterns. The major driving factors differed between potential root- and shoot-infecting fungi, suggesting interactions among environmental factors and pathogen traits like reproduction, survival and dispersal. This information is important to understand risks for disease outbreaks and to recommend management strategies to prevent such outbreaks.

Effects of bio-based residue amendments on greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soil are stronger than effects of soil type with different microbial community composition
Ho, Adrian ; Ijaz, Umer Z. ; Janssens, Thierry K.S. ; Ruijs, Rienke ; Kim, Sang Yoon ; Boer, Wietse de; Termorshuizen, Aad ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Bodelier, Paul L.E. - \ 2017
Global change biology Bioenergy 9 (2017)12. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1707 - 1720.
16S rRNA gene diversity - C : N ratio - Compost - Global warming potential - Litter bag - Nitrous oxide - Soil respiration

With the projected rise in the global human population, agriculture intensification and land-use conversion to arable fields is anticipated to meet the food and bio-energy demand to sustain a growing population. Moving towards a circular economy, agricultural intensification results in the increased re-investment of bio-based residues in agricultural soils, with consequences for microbially mediated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, as well as other aspects of soil functioning. To date, systematic studies to address the impact of bio-based residue amendment on the GHG balance, including the soil microorganisms, and nutrient transformation in agricultural soils are scarce. Here, we assess the global warming potential (GWP) of in situ GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, and N2O) fluxes after application of six bio-based residues with broad C : N ratios (5-521) in two agricultural soils (sandy loam and clay; representative of vast production areas in north-western Europe). We relate the GHG emission to the decomposability of the residues in a litter bag assay and determined the effects of residue input on crop (common wheat) growth after incubation. The shift in the bacterial community composition and abundance was monitored using IonTorrentTM sequencing and qPCR, respectively, by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The decomposability of the residues, independent of C : N ratio, was proportional to the GWP derived from the GHG emitted. The soils harbored distinct bacterial communities, but responded similarly to the residue amendments, because both soils exhibited the highest mean GWP after addition of the same residues (sewage sludge, aquatic plant material, and compressed beet leaves). Our results question the extent of using the C : N ratio alone to predict residue-induced response in GHG emission. Taken together, we show that although soil properties strongly affect the bacterial community composition, microbially mediated GHG emission is residue dependent.

Feeding preference as a main determinant of microscale patchiness among terrestrial nematodes
Quist, Casper W. ; Gort, Gerrit ; Mulder, Christian ; Wilbers, Ruud H.P. ; Termorshuizen, Aad J. ; Bakker, Jaap ; Helder, Hans - \ 2017
Molecular Ecology Resources 17 (2017)6. - ISSN 1755-098X - p. 1257 - 1270.
Soil biota are responsible for essential ecosystem services such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and water retention. However, assessment of the condition of soil biota is hampered by an overwhelming level of diversity. With representatives in all trophic levels of the food web, nematode communities can be used as bioindicators. Accurate assessment of nematode assemblages requires insight into the distribution of specimens with distinct food preferences. With the availability of taxon-specific quantitative PCR assays, distribution patterns of multiple nematode groups can be investigated simultaneously. Here, microscale patchiness of 45 nematode taxa was studied on 12 sampling sites (each with four adjacent microplots) located on arable fields or semi-natural grasslands (‘system’), and on marine, river clay or sandy soils (‘soil type’). From each microplot, five composite samples were collected. Contrary to our expectations, an increase in the number of cores per composite sample did not result in more accurate measurements, and apparently the levels of microscale patchiness of the taxa are low compared to what has been reported for oligophagous plant-parasites. System and soil type did not affect microscale distribution. To investigate the level of patchiness in more detail, detection probability (DP) and variability of abundances were calculated. Common and widespread bacterivorous and fungivorous taxa had DP ≥ 90%, confirming low level of microscale patchiness. With DPs of 40%–70%, predators and most omnivores showed degrees of local clustering. An overview of mean variabilities of abundances is presented that offers insight into how feeding preferences impact the microscale distribution both between and within trophic groups.
Handbook for composting and compost use in organic horticulture
Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Fuchs, J.G. ; Raviv, Michael ; Termorshuizen, Aad - \ 2016
[Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462577497 - 106 p.
organic farming - composting - composts - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - soil microbiology - digestate - biologische landbouw - compostering - compost - tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - bodemmicrobiologie - digestaat
Compost, as a product of recycling processes, can be a very appropriate input material for organic farming, provided the composting process is well-managed, the input materials are free of contaminants, and the resulting product is applied according to the system’s ecological needs. Compost is a very important input material for organic greenhouse production. Organic greenhouse production may vary in the level of intensity, but it is generally a system with high turnover rates of organic matter, high inputs of both nutrients and energy, and high production levels. Compost is used as an important source of organic matter and nutrients in greenhouse horticulture, and is an important component of growing media for nurseries. Compost plays an important role in building a resilient farming system, by providing both the energy sources and the nutrients to sustain soil biodiversity.
Mesoscale distribution patterns of terrestrial nematodes
Quist, C.W. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Brus, D.J. ; Gort, G. ; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Mulder, C. ; Termorshuizen, A. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2015
Nematodes are diverse and abundant in virtually any soil with representatives in all major trophic layers of the soil food web. Therefore nematodes have a potential as a proxy for the biological condition of soils and sediments. Nevertheless, the use of nematodes to assess the biological condition of soil is not widespread mainly due to the scarcity of informative morphological characters. Detailed insight in the spatial distribution of nematode taxa at mesoscale (= hectare and above) is essential to design sampling strategies with known accuracies. This information would allow to exploit the bio-indicative value of individual taxa. However, determining distribution patterns at mesoscale is easier said than done, because geostatistic analysis requires the analyses of large number of plots and data points. The availability of a range of quantitative (q) PCR assays to detect and quantify multiple nematode taxa, made it possible to investigate nematode taxa in a high-throughput manner. In order to assess the degree of spatial variability of individual nematode taxa across the Netherlands, 12 fields, one,hectare each, were sampled intensively. Using a sampling grid optimized for geostatistic analysis, composite samples were taken from 96 - 116 sampling plots per hectare. All samples (>1,200) were analysed with 25 - 32 qPCR assays, to measure total nematode densities and densities of individual nematode taxa. In total about 35,000 qPCR reactions were run, results were visualized as semi-variograms and surface maps. The data that will be presented give insight in the distribution patterns of multiple free-living and plant-parasitic nematode taxa in different soil types and in arable and semi-natural systems. Results are essential ingredients for the design of scientifically sound sampling schemes at landscape scale.
Tools to manage soilborne diseases
Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Postma, J. - \ 2015
In: IPM Innovation in Europe, Poznan, Poland, 14-16 January 2015. - Poznan, Poland : Institute of Plant Protection - p. 66 - 66.
An experimental test of the effect of management strategies and rotation on plant-pathogen suppression by soil microbial communities
Postma, J. ; Pinochet, X. ; Smalla, K. ; Heuer, H. ; Lumini, E. ; Bianciotto, V. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. - \ 2015
In: IPM Innovation in Europe, Poznan, Poland, 14-16 January 2015. - Poznan, Poland : Institute of Plant Protection - p. 67 - 67.
Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application
Ho, A. ; Reim, A. ; Kim, S. ; Meima-Franke, M. ; Termorshuizen, A. ; Boer, W. de; Putten, W.H. van der; Bodelier, P. - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)10. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3864 - 3879.
Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may compensate for the loss of the methane sink function following land-use change.
The spatial distribution of nematode taxa in arable and semi-natural fields
Quist, C.W. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Brus, D.J. ; Gort, G. ; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Mulder, C. ; Termorshuizen, A. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2015
In: 54th Annual meeting of the Society of Nematologists. - SON - p. 74 - 75.
Essentials to assess the impact of bio-based practices on soil life - sampling strategies at landscape scale
Quist, C.W. ; Gort, G. ; Brus, D.J. ; Mulder, C. ; Termorshuizen, A. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings of the BE-Basic Symposium 2015. - - p. 134 - 134.
To assess and monitor the impact of novel bio-based economy related crops and processes on soil life, ideally organismal groups with representatives in all major multiple trophic layers should be used as reporters. Nematodes are represented in each of the three major thropic levels in the soil food web, are highly abundant, and easily extractable from soil (Neher et al., 2005). Moreover, the availability of quantitative molecular assays for a wide range of nematode taxa (Vervoort et al., 2012), allows for a high throughput analysis of samples. Detailed insights in spatial distributions of nematode taxa at meso- (~1 m2) and macro- (~hectare) scale are a prerequisite for (a) the selection of the most informative taxa, and (b) the design of strategies for the affordable and accurate sampling of relatively large areas. To address these two issues ~ 1,500 spatially distant soil samples were collected and ~ 40,000 qPCR reactions were run to detect and quantify ~ 25 nematode taxa per soil sample. This was done for the three main soil types in The Netherlands, namely marine clay, river clay and sandy soil. Results demonstrate that at meso-scale a relatively extensive sampling strategy is sufficient to get insight in the densities of non-rare taxa, and the same strategy can be used for all major Dutch soil types irrespective whether this involves arable or natural soil ecosystems. Hence, statistically robust sampling of nematode communities at landscape scale is far less labor intensive than previously expected. As a next step we present a geo-statistical sampling approach to investigate spatial distribution of nematode taxa on macro-scale.
Micro- and macro-distribution of nematode taxa in arable and natural areas
Quist, C.W. ; Gort, G. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Elsen, S.J.J. van den; Brus, D.J. ; Mulder, C. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Bakker, J. ; Helder, J. - \ 2015
Strategy for Innovation in Soil Tests Illustrated for P Tests
Reijneveld, A. ; Termorshuizen, A. ; Vedder, H. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2014
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 45 (2014)4. - ISSN 0010-3624 - p. 498 - 515.
molar calcium-chloride - plant-available phosphorus - fertilizer requirements - extraction procedure - buffer capacity - yield response - mehlich-3 - olsen - rich - recommendations
Soil phosphorus (P) tests are used for P fertilization recommendations, environmental evaluations, and occasionally for legislation purposes. The basis of fertilization recommendation as function of soil P status was established in the 1950s-1960s. Since then the agroeconomic environment has altered: Environmental protection became increasingly important and P rock resources for fertilizers appeared exhaustible. Also, new insights in soil testing and fertilization recommendations reflecting more efficient use of P became available. However, these new insights seem hard to implement into agricultural practice, to a large extent because replacing existing soil tests and recommendations would imply a very significant effort with respect to introducing new tests and recommendations by fertilization trials in practice. The same would apply for environmental evaluations. Here, a novel, three-step schedule for introducing new soil tests is proposed: (1) establishing new promising soil tests, (2) creating regression models between the old and new soil tests, and (3) implementing the new soil test stepwise by fertilization trials. In this way, the knowledge based on the old soil tests can be used until the new soil tests and their subsequent crop responses are validated sufficiently. As a novel P test we considered combining soil P intensity [as reflected by P-calcium chloride (CaCl2)] with P capacity [as reflected by P-ammonium lactate (Al)] and P-buffering capacity (as reflected by P-Al/P-CaCl2 ratio) characteristics. Researchers tested whether this novel soil test can predict P water (Pw), P-calcium lactate / acetate (CAL), and P-Olsen values. To test the hypothesis, four datasets were used (two with Pw, one with P-CAL, and one with P-Olsen). In all datasets additional soil characteristics were available including soil type. Regression models with R-adj (2) from 0.80 to 0.93 were obtained by using P-Al, P-CaCl2, and soil type. It can be concluded that these regressions can be used as a helpful intermediate instrument when introducing fertilization recommendations based on new soil tests. Predicting one soil P test out of other soil characteristics, analogous to the predicted Pw, P-CAL, and P-Olsen, could also be helpful in comparing P statuses of agricultural land in different nations.
Relationships between soil fertility, herbage quality and manure composition on grassland-based dairy farms
Reijneveld, J.A. ; Abbink, G.W. ; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2014
European Journal of Agronomy 56 (2014). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 9 - 18.
new-zealand - agricultural land - phosphorus status - central-europe - new-york - yield - management - magnesium - trends - fertilization
It is reasonable to expect that compliance with grassland fertilization recommendations in the long run results in optimal soil fertility, and subsequent herbage quality. Here, we evaluate the development of soil, herbage and manure characteristics and their relation over the last decades. We hypothesized that herbage and manure quality are related with soil fertility. We used a large database with results of soil tests, spring forage quality characteristics, and manure analyses, which were made on demand of dairy farmers. We considered the Netherlands as a whole and three selected regions with contrasting soil types (sandy soil, riverine clay, and peaty marine clay). Effects of soil fertility on herbage quality were evident when comparing farms. Farms higher in soil P and K generally have correspondingly higher contents in forage. On average, soil fertility and herbage characteristics were within or just above the agronomical optimal range during the last decades. Herbage crude protein content decreased in all regions during last two decades, which is likely an effect of legislative measures on decreasing the application of N. Selenium (Se) and sulphur (S) contents increased sharply on sandy soils, likely because of increased use of Se and S containing fertilizers. Manure composition did not differ between soil types. In conclusion, at farm level, the element composition of herbage reflected the soil fertility status. The contents of S, P, K, Na, Mg, and Ca in the herbage were all significantly influenced by soil fertility characteristics. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining soil fertility for high quality roughage production. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ontrafelen van het mechanisme achter biologische grondontsmetting
Runia, W.T. ; Thoden, T.C. ; Molendijk, L.P.G. ; Berg, W. van den; Termorshuizen, A.J. ; Streminska, M.A. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Feil, H. ; Meints, H. - \ 2014
Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 122 - 124.
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