- K. Kukkonen-Harjula (1)
- A. Lorenzo de (3)
- W. Marken Lichtenbelt van (1)
- G. Oriani (1)
- A. Tagliabue (1)
- G. Testolin (3)
- R. Vigano (1)
- N. Vollaard (1)
The validity of predicted body fat percent from body mass index and from impedance in samples of five European populations
Deurenberg, P. ; Andreoli, A. ; Borg, P. ; Kukkonen-Harjula, K. ; Lorenzo, A. de; Marken Lichtenbelt, W. van; Testolin, G. ; Vigano, R. ; Vollaard, N. - \ 2001
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55 (2001). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 973 - 979.
Objectives: To test and compare the validity of a body mass index (BMI)-based prediction equation and an impedance-based prediction equation for body fat percentage among various European population groups. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: The study was performed in five different European centres: Maastricht and Wageningen (The Netherlands), Milan and Rome (Italy) and Tampere (Finland), where body composition studies are routinely performed. Subjects: A total of 234 females and 182 males, aged 18-70 y, BMI 17.0-41.9 kg/m2. Methods: The reference method for body fat percentage (BF?F) was either dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or densitometry (underwater weighing). Body fat percentage (BF€was also predicted from BMI, age and sex (BFÆI) or with a hand-held impedance analyser that uses in addition to arm impedance weight, height, age and sex as predictors (BF6P). Results: The overall mean (±s.e.) bias (measured minus predicted) for BFÆI was 0.2±0.3 (NS) and-0.7±0.3 (NS) in females and males, respectively. The bias of BF6P was 0.2±0.2 (NS) and 1.0±0.4 (P<0.01) for females and males, respectively. There were significant differences in biases among the centres. The biases were correlated with level of BF and with age. After correction for differences in age and BF␋etween the centres the bias of BFÆI was not significantly different from zero in each centre and was not different among the centres anymore. The bias of BF6P decreased after correction and was significant from zero and significant from the other centres only in males from Tampere. Generally, individual biases can be high, leading to a considerably misclassification of obesity. The individual misclassification was generally higher with the BMI-based prediction. Conclusions: The prediction formulas give generally good estimates of BF␘n a group level in the five population samples, except for the males from Tampere. More comparative studies should be conducted to get better insight in the generalisation of prediction methods and formulas. Individual results and classifications have to be interpreted with caution.
Measured and predicted resting metabolic rate in Italian males and females, aged 18-59y
Lorenzo, A. de; Tagliabue, A. ; Andreoli, A. ; Testolin, G. ; Comelli, M. ; Deurenberg, P. - \ 2001
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55 (2001). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 208 - 214.
To determine the resting metabolic rate in a sample of the Italian population, and to evaluate the validity of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate (RMR) from the literature in normal and obese subjects. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: Department of Human Physiology and Nutrition, University 'Tor Vergata', Rome. Subjects: A total of 320 healthy subjects, 127 males and 193 females, aged 18-59 y. Methods: Weight, height and resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry were measured. Resting metabolic rate was also predicted using equations from the literature. Results: Resting metabolic rate (mean ± s.d.) in normal weight subjects was 7983 ± 1007 kJ/24h (males) and 6127 ± 907 kJ/24 h (females). Measured RMR and predicted RMR values using various equations from the literature were significantly different in males and females, except for the Harris-Benedict equation and the Schofield equations. Also, in overweight and obese subjects the prediction error was generally larger compared to normal-weight subjects for all formulas except for the Harris-Benedict and Schofield formulas. In overweight and obese males but not in females, RMR was lower than in normal-weight subjects after correcting for weight and age differences. Stepwise multiple regression of resting metabolic rate against weight, height and age in males and females did not reveal a prediction formula with a lower prediction error than the Harris-Benedict or Schofield formulas and thus was not further explored. Conclusions: The Harris-Benedict formula and the Schofield formula provide a valid estimation of resting metabolic rate at a group level in both normal-weight and overweight Italians. However, the individual error can be so high that for individual use a measured value has to be preferred over an estimated value.
Resting metabolic rate in Italians : relation with body composition and anthropometric parameters
Lorenzo, A. de; Andreoli, A. ; Bertoli, S. ; Testolin, G. ; Oriani, G. ; Deurenberg, P. - \ 2000
Acta Diabetologica 37 (2000). - ISSN 0940-5429 - p. 1 - 7.
The objectives of this study were to obtain values for resting metabolic rate in Italians in relation to parameters of body composition, and to compare them to predicted values using the FAO/WHO/UNU equation. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 131 healthy subjects (46 males and 85 females) at the Human Nutrition Unit, University Tor Vergata, Rome. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate was calculated using their Weir formula. Resting metabolic rate was 1865 - 234 kcal/day in males and 1354 - 154 kcal/day in females. These values decreased slightly with age. The relationships with weight and age were stronger than that with lean mass from DXA as independent variables in multiple regression analysis. Mean resting metabolic rates predicted with FAO/WHO/UNU and Harris-Benedict formula were not significantly different from measured values except for the Harris-Benedict value for females (p < 0.01). Individual differences between measured and predicted values were notably high. The measured values were higher than those reported in the literature. The prediction of resting metabolic rate is more accurate with simple anthropometric parameters than with fat-free mass obtained by DXA. The individual error in the predicted values can be so high that for individual use a measured value is preferred over an estimated value.