Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Improved aerosol correction for OMI tropospheric NO2 retrieval over East Asia : Constraint from CALIOP aerosol vertical profile
Liu, Mengyao ; Lin, Jintai ; Folkert Boersma, K. ; Pinardi, Gaia ; Wang, Yang ; Chimot, Julien ; Wagner, Thomas ; Xie, Pinhua ; Eskes, Henk ; Roozendael, Michel Van; Hendrick, François ; Wang, Pucai ; Wang, Ting ; Yan, Yingying ; Chen, Lulu ; Ni, Ruijing - \ 2019
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 1 - 21.

Satellite retrieval of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is critical for NOx pollution and impact evaluation. For regions with high aerosol loadings, the retrieval accuracy is greatly affected by whether aerosol optical effects are treated implicitly (as additional effective clouds) or explicitly, among other factors. Our previous POMINO algorithm explicitly accounts for aerosol effects to improve the retrieval, especially in polluted situations over China, by using aerosol information from GEOS-Chem simulations with further monthly constraints by MODIS/Aqua aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Here we present a major algorithm update, POMINO v1.1, by constructing a monthly climatological dataset of aerosol extinction profiles, based on level 2 CALIOP/CALIPSO data over 2007-2015, to better constrain the modeled aerosol vertical profiles. We find that GEOS-Chem captures the month-to-month variation in CALIOP aerosol layer height (ALH) but with a systematic underestimate by about 300-600 m (season and location dependent), due to a too strong negative vertical gradient of extinction above 1 km. Correcting the model aerosol extinction profiles results in small changes in retrieved cloud fraction, increases in cloud-top pressure (within 2 %-6 % in most cases), and increases in tropospheric NO2 VCD by 4 %-16 % over China on a monthly basis in 2012. The improved NO2 VCDs (in POMINO v1.1) are more consistent with independent ground-based MAX-DOAS observations (R2=0.80, NMB =-3.4 %, for 162 pixels in 49 days) than POMINO (R2=0.80, NMB =-9.6 %), DOMINO v2 (R2=0.68, NMB =-2.1 %), and QA4ECV (R2=0.75, NMB =-22.0 %) are. Especially on haze days, R2 reaches 0.76 for POMINO v1.1, much higher than that for POMINO (0.68), DOMINO v2 (0.38), and QA4ECV (0.34). Furthermore, the increase in cloud pressure likely reveals a more realistic vertical relationship between cloud and aerosol layers, with aerosols situated above the clouds in certain months span id=page2 instead of always below the clouds. The POMINO v1.1 algorithm is a core step towards our next public release of the data product (POMINO v2), and it will also be applied to the recently launched S5P-TROPOMI sensor.

Responses of forest ecosystems in Europe to decreasing nitrogen deposition
Schmitz, Andreas ; Sanders, Tanja G.M. ; Bolte, Andreas ; Bussotti, Filippo ; Dirnböck, Thomas ; Johnson, Jim ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pollastrini, Martina ; Prescher, Anne Katrin ; Sardans, Jordi ; Verstraeten, Arne ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 980 - 994.
Air pollution - Emission reduction - Forest monitoring - Nitrogen deposition - Recovery

Average nitrogen (N) deposition across Europe has declined since the 1990s. This resulted in decreased N inputs to forest ecosystems especially in Central and Western Europe where deposition levels are highest. While the impact of atmospheric N deposition on forests has been receiving much attention for decades, ecosystem responses to the decline in N inputs received less attention. Here, we review observational studies reporting on trends in a number of indicators: soil acidification and eutrophication, understory vegetation, tree nutrition (foliar element concentrations) as well as tree vitality and growth in response to decreasing N deposition across Europe. Ecosystem responses varied with limited decrease in soil solution nitrate concentrations and potentially also foliar N concentrations. There was no large-scale response in understory vegetation, tree growth, or vitality. Experimental studies support the observation of a more distinct reaction of soil solution and foliar element concentrations to changes in N supply compared to the three other parameters. According to the most likely scenarios, further decrease of N deposition will be limited. We hypothesize that this expected decline will not cause major responses of the parameters analysed in this study. Instead, future changes might be more strongly controlled by the development of N pools accumulated within forest soils, affected by climate change and forest management. We find limited indication for response of Europe's forests to declining N deposition. Reactions have been reported for soil solution NO3 and potentially foliar N concentrations but not for other indicators.

A research roadmap for quantifying non-state and subnational climate mitigation action
Hsu, Angel ; Höhne, Niklas ; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Roelfsema, Mark ; Weinfurter, Amy ; Xie, Yihao ; Lütkehermöller, Katharina ; Chan, Sander ; Corfee-Morlot, Jan ; Drost, Philip ; Faria, Pedro ; Gardiner, Ann ; Gordon, David J. ; Hale, Thomas ; Hultman, Nathan E. ; Moorhead, John ; Reuvers, Shirin ; Setzer, Joana ; Singh, Neelam ; Weber, Christopher ; Widerberg, Oscar - \ 2019
Nature Climate Change 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 11 - 17.

Non-state and subnational climate actors have become central to global climate change governance. Quantitatively assessing climate mitigation undertaken by these entities is critical to understand the credibility of this trend. In this Perspective, we make recommendations regarding five main areas of research and methodological development related to evaluating non-state and subnational climate actions: defining clear boundaries and terminology; use of common methodologies to aggregate and assess non-state and subnational contributions; systematically dealing with issues of overlap; estimating the likelihood of implementation; and addressing data gaps.

Linking biodiversity to ecosystem services supply: Patterns across aquatic ecosystems
Teixeira, Heliana ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Culhane, Fiona ; Robinson, Leonie ; Trauner, Daniel ; Borgwardt, Florian ; Kummerlen, Mathias ; Barbosa, Ana ; McDonald, Hugh ; Funk, Andrea ; O'Higgins, Tim ; Wal, Jan Tjalling Van Der; Piet, Gerjan ; Hein, Thomas ; Arévalo-Torres, Juan ; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Barbière, Julian ; Nogueira, António J.A. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 657 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 517 - 534.
Global initiatives have been increasingly focusing on mainstreaming the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decision-making at all levels. Due to the accelerated rate at which biodiversity is declining and its consequences for the functioning of ecosystems and subsequently, the services they provide, there is need to develop comprehensive assessments of the services and the benefits nature delivers to society. Based on expertevaluation, we identified relevant flow linkages in the supply-side of the socio-ecological system, i.e. from biodi-
versity to ecosystem services supply for eight case studies across European aquatic ecosystems covering freshwater, transitional, coastal and marine waters realms. Biological mediated services were considered, as well as those reliant on purely physical aspects of the ecosystem, i.e. abiotic outputs, since both have implications for spatial planning, management and decision-making. Due to the multidimensional nature of ecosystems and their biodiversity, our approach used ecosystem components such as habitats and biota as proxies for biodiversity and as the focal point for linkage identification. Statistical analysis revealed the importance of considering mobile biota in the spatial assessment of habitats. Contrary to literature evidences so far, our results showed signifi
cantly different and complementary ecosystem services supply patterns across the continuum of aquatic realms. The implemented score of ecosystem services supply has a high potential for integrated aquatic ecosystem service supply assessments in the context of ecosystem-based management.

Atmospheric nitrogen deposition impacts on the structure and function of forest mycorrhizal communities : A review
Lilleskov, Erik A. ; Kuyper, Thomas W. ; Bidartondo, Martin I. ; Hobbie, Erik A. - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 246 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 148 - 162.
Community response - Critical loads - Function - Mycorrhizal fungi - Nitrogen deposition

Humans have dramatically increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition globally. At the coarsest resolution, N deposition is correlated with shifts from ectomycorrhizal (EcM) to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree dominance. At finer resolution, ectomycorrhizal fungal (EcMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities respond strongly to long-term N deposition with the disappearance of key taxa. Conifer-associated EcMF are more sensitive than other EcMF, with current estimates of critical loads at 5–6 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the former and 10–20 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the latter. Where loads are exceeded, strong plant-soil and microbe-soil feedbacks may slow recovery rates after abatement of N deposition. Critical loads for AMF and tropical EcMF require additional study. In general, the responses of EcMF to N deposition are better understood than those of AMF because of methodological tractability. Functional consequences of EcMF community change are linked to decreases by fungi with medium-distance exploration strategies, hydrophobic walls, proteolytic capacity, and perhaps peroxidases for acquiring N from soil organic matter. These functional losses may contribute to declines in forest floor decomposition under N deposition. For AMF, limited capacity to directly access complexed organic N may reduce functional consequences, but research is needed to test this hypothesis. Mycorrhizal biomass often declines with N deposition, but the relative contributions of alternate mechanisms for this decline (lower C supply, higher C cost, physiological stress by N) have not been quantified. Furthermore, fungal biomass and functional responses to N inputs probably depend on ecosystem P status, yet how N deposition-induced P limitation interacts with belowground C flux and mycorrhizal community structure and function is still unclear. Current ‘omic analyses indicate potential functional differences among fungal lineages and should be integrated with studies of physiology, host nutrition, growth and health, fungal and plant community structure, and ecosystem processes. Forest mycorrhizal fungal community composition responds strongly to N deposition across broad ranges of spatial, temporal and phylogenetic scales, with functional consequences—including altered tree nutrition and C, N, and P cycling—that are substantial but only partially understood.

Modulation of sensory perception of cheese attributes intensity and texture liking via ortho- and retro-nasal odors
Han, Pengfei ; Fark, Therese ; Wijk, Rene A. de; Roudnitzky, Natacha ; Iannilli, Emilia ; Seo, Han Seok ; Hummel, Thomas - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 73 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 1 - 7.
Cheese - Congruency - Cross-modal sensory enhancement - Orthonasal - Retronasal - Texture

Cross-modal sensory integration plays a key role in food flavor perception and acceptance during consumption. The current study investigated the effect of a butter odor, delivered at various stages of the oral processing cycle, on modulating the sensory properties of cheese. Twenty healthy volunteers (aged between 25 and 29 years, 12 women) were measured for their detection thresholds for the butter odor. In the sensory evaluation sessions, participants chewed and swallowed three types of cheese (low-fat, 20% fat content, LF; a medium-fat, 30% fat content, MF; high-fat, 40% fat content, HF, served in 16 × 16 × 12 mm3 cubes) while the butter odor was presented ortho- and retronasally in two concentrations at various points of the oral processing cycle. After swallowing, participants rated on a visual analogue scale for the intensities of cheese creaminess, butter note, overall flavor, and the pleasantness for cheese texture. Enhancement of added butter odor on perceived sensory attributes differed as a function of the delivery routes and timings. Creaminess intensity increased significantly when butter odor presented retro-nasally at the start of chewing. Butter note was enhanced when the retro-nasal odor was added during chewing. The texture pleasantness was increased with ortho-nasal odor presentation. In addition, for the creaminess intensity and texture liking enhancement, the observed effects were more pronounced with butter odor presentation at the lower concentration. Taken together, these findings suggested the importance of temporal congruency for cross-modal sensory enhancement in food flavor perception. The findings help to better understand flavor perception during oral processing of solid food and add value for future development of foods with nutritional benefits.

Conflation of expert and crowd reference data to validate global binary thematic maps
Waldner, François ; Schucknecht, Anne ; Lesiv, Myroslava ; Gallego, Javier ; See, Linda ; Pérez-Hoyos, Ana ; andrimont, Raphaël D'; Maet, Thomas De; Bayas, Juan Carlos Laso ; Fritz, Steffen ; Leo, Olivier ; Kerdiles, Hervé ; Díez, Mónica ; Tricht, Kristof Van; Gilliams, Sven ; Shelestov, Andrii ; Lavreniuk, Mykola ; Simões, Margareth ; Ferraz, Rodrigo ; Bellón, Beatriz ; Bégué, Agnès ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Stonacek, Vaclav ; Kolomaznik, Jan ; Misurec, Jan ; Verón, Santiago R. ; Abelleyra, Diego De; Plotnikov, Dmitry ; Mingyong, Li ; Singha, Mrinal ; Patil, Prashant ; Zhang, Miao ; Defourny, Pierre - \ 2019
Remote Sensing of Environment 221 (2019). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 235 - 246.
With the unprecedented availability of satellite data and the rise of global binary maps, the collection of shared reference data sets should be fostered to allow systematic product benchmarking and validation. Authoritative global reference data are generally collected by experts with regional knowledge through photo-interpretation. During the last decade, crowdsourcing has emerged as an attractive alternative for rapid and relatively cheap data collection, beckoning the increasingly relevant question: can these two data sources be combined to validate thematic maps? In this article, we compared expert and crowd data and assessed their relative agreement for cropland identification, a land cover class often reported as difficult to map. Results indicate that observations from experts and volunteers could be partially conflated provided that several consistency checks are performed. We propose that conflation, i.e., replacement and augmentation of expert observations by crowdsourced observations, should be carried out both at the sampling and data analytics levels. The latter allows to evaluate the reliability of crowdsourced observations and to decide whether they should be conflated or discarded. We demonstrate that the standard deviation of crowdsourced contributions is a simple yet robust indicator of reliability which can effectively inform conflation. Following this criterion, we found that 70% of the expert observations could be crowdsourced with little to no effect on accuracy estimates, allowing a strategic reallocation of the spared expert effort to increase the reliability of the remaining 30% at no additional cost. Finally, we provide a collection of evidence-based recommendations for future hybrid reference data collection campaigns.
Exploring variability in environmental impact risk from human activities across aquatic ecosystems
Borgwardt, Florian ; Robinson, Leonie ; Trauner, Daniel ; Teixeira, Heliana ; Nogueira, Antonio J.A. ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Piet, Gerjan ; Kuemmerlen, Mathias ; O'Higgins, Tim ; McDonald, Hugh ; Arevalo-Torres, Juan ; Barbosa, Ana Luisa ; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Hein, Thomas ; Culhane, Fiona - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 652 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1396 - 1408.
Aquatic ecosystem - Freshwater - Marine - Coastal - Biodiversity - Drivers
Aquatic ecosystems are under severe pressure. Human activities introduce an array of pressures that impact ecosystems and their components. In this study we focus on the aquatic domains of fresh, coastal and marine waters, including rivers, lakes and riparian habitats to transitional, coastal as well as shelf and oceanic habitats. In an environmental risk assessment approach, we identified impact chains that link 45 human activities through 31 pressures to 82 ecosystem components. In this linkage framework >22,000 activity-pressure-ecosystem component interactions were found across seven European case studies. We identified the environmental impact risk posed by each impact chain by first categorically weighting the interactions according to five criteria: spatial extent, dispersal potential, frequency of interaction, persistence of pressure and severity of the interaction, where extent, dispersal, frequency and persistence account for the exposure to risk (spatial and temporal), and the severity accounts for the consequence of the risk. After assigning a numerical score to each risk criterion, we came up with an overall environmental impact risk score for each impact chain. This risk score was analysed in terms of (1) the activities and pressures that introduce the greatest risk to European aquatic domains, and (2) the aquatic ecosystem components and realms that are at greatest risk from human activities. Activities related to energy production were relevant across the aquatic domains. Fishing was highly relevant in marine and environmental engineering in fresh waters. Chemical and physical pressures introduced the greatest risk to the aquatic realms. Ecosystem components that can be seen as ecotones between different ecosystems had high impact risk. We show how this information can be used in informing management on trade-offs in freshwater, coastal and marine resource use and aid decision-making
PREVIEW study—Influence of a behavior modification intervention (PREMIT) in over 2300 people with pre-diabetes : Intention, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies during the early phase of a lifestyle intervention
Huttunen-Lenz, Maija ; Hansen, Sylvia ; Christensen, Pia ; Larsen, Thomas Meinert ; Sandø-Pedersen, Finn ; Drummen, Mathijs ; Adam, Tanja C. ; Macdonald, Ian A. ; Taylor, Moira A. ; Martinez, J.A. ; Navas-Carretero, Santiago ; Handjiev, Svetoslav ; Poppitt, Sally D. ; Silvestre, Marta P. ; Fogelholm, Mikael ; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. ; Brand-Miller, Jennie ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Raben, Anne ; Schlicht, Wolfgang - \ 2018
Psychology Research and Behavior Management 11 (2018). - p. 383 - 394.
Cognition - Diabetes mellitus - Goals - Habits - Weight loss

Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase. Methods: PREVIEW consisted of an initial weight loss, Phase I, followed by a weight-maintenance, Phase II, for those achieving the 8-week weight loss target of ≥ 8% from initial bodyweight. Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) individuals aged 25 to 70 years with confirmed pre-diabetes were enrolled. Uni-and multivariate statistical methods were deployed to explore differences in intentions, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies between those who achieved the target weight loss (“achievers”) and those who did not (“non-achievers”). Results: At the beginning of Phase I, no significant differences in intentions, self-efficacy and outcome expectancies between “achievers” (1,857) and “non-achievers” (163) were found. “Non-achievers” tended to be younger, live with child/ren, and attended the PREMIT sessions less frequently. At the end of Phase I, “achievers” reported higher intentions (healthy eating χ2 (1)=2.57; P <0.008, exercising χ2 (1)=0.66; P <0.008), self-efficacy (F(2; 1970)=10.27, P <0.005), and were more positive about the expected outcomes (F(4; 1968)=11.22, P <0.005). Conclusion: Although statistically significant, effect sizes observed between the two groups were small. Behavior change, however, is multi-determined. Over a period of time, even small differences may make a cumulative effect. Being successful in behavior change requires that the “new” behavior is implemented time after time until it becomes a habit. Therefore, having even slightly higher self-efficacy, positive outcome expectancies and intentions may over time result in considerably improved chances to achieve long-term lifestyle changes.

Advancing urban green infrastructure in Europe : Outcomes and reflections from the GREEN SURGE project
Pauleit, Stephan ; Ambrose-Oji, Bianca ; Andersson, Erik ; Anton, Barbara ; Buijs, Arjen ; Haase, Dagmar ; Elands, Birgit ; Hansen, Rieke ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kronenberg, Jakub ; Mattijssen, Thomas ; Stahl Olafsson, Anton ; Rall, Emily ; Jagt, Alexander P.N. van der - \ 2018
Urban Forestry and Urban Greening (2018). - ISSN 1618-8667 - 13 p.
Green governance and planning - Green infrastructure - GREEN SURGE - Sustainable urbanisation - Urban learning labs

Urban green infrastructure (UGI) is a promising concept when developing multifunctional green space systems to address major challenges of urbanization such as increasing social cohesion, promoting the transition to a green economy, adaptation to climate change and conservation of biodiversity. In response to the European Commission's Communication on Green Infrastructure from 2013, the GREEN SURGE project aimed to further advance the development of UGI in European cities by (i) strengthening the conceptual foundations of UGI, (ii) developing improved methods and tools for assessment of its state, benefits and governance and, (iii) applying these to build a stronger evidence base. This paper aims to provide an overall synthesis of the project's main achievements. GREEN SURGE adopted an inter- and transdisciplinary approach. Urban Learning Labs and focal Learning Alliances in five cities were instrumental for intensive collaboration between disciplines and across science and practice. Pan-European surveys, e.g. of planning and governance practice or human-nature interactions established the state-of-the-art across the continent and identified good practices. The project consolidated green infrastructure planning and governance conceptually, and it mapped opportunities for better linking government-led planning with bottom-up initiatives for creating and managing UGI. It also introduced a framework for knowledge integration to support UGI valuation. Importantly, development and application of the concept of biocultural diversity gave new insights into human–nature relationships in multicultural urban societies. The results strongly call for more context-sensitive development of UGI that addresses the different needs and diverse cultural practices of people engaging with nature. In a nutshell, GREEN SURGE showed that UGI indeed can make a major contribution to sustainable and resilient urbanisation. Transdisciplinary research in urban labs, if well-conceived, has shown to hold great potential to advance UGI concepts, methods, knowledge and practice.

Trimbot2020 : An outdoor robot for automatic gardening
Strisciuglio, Nicola ; Tylecek, Radim ; Blaich, Michael ; Petkov, Nicolai ; Biber, Peter ; Hemming, Jochen ; Henten, Eldert van; Sattler, Torsten ; Pollefeys, Marc ; Gevers, Theo ; Brox, Thomas ; Fisher, Robert B. - \ 2018
In: 50th International Symposium on Robotics, ISR 2018. - - 1 p.

Robots are increasingly present in modern industry and also in everyday life. Their applications range from health-related situations, for assistance to elderly people or in surgical operations, to automatic and driver-less vehicles (on wheels or flying) or for driving assistance. Recently, an interest towards robotics applied in agriculture and gardening has arisen, with applications to automatic seeding and cropping or to plant disease control, etc. Autonomous lawn mowers are succesful market applications of gardening robotics. In this paper, we present a novel robot that is developed within the TrimBot2020 project, funded by the EU H2020 program. The project aims at prototyping the first outdoor robot for automatic bush trimming and rose pruning.

Changing environmental conditions, property rights and land use planning
Straalen, F.M. van; Hartmann, T. ; Sheehan, John - \ 2018
In: Property rights and climate change / van Straalen, Fennie, Hartmann, Thomas, Sheehan, John, Routledge - ISBN 9781138698000 - p. 1 - 10.
Impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and earthworms on soil aggregate stability, glomalin, and performance of pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan
Muchane, Mary N. ; Pulleman, Mirjam M. ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Jefwa, Joyce ; Kuyper, Thomas W. - \ 2018
Soil Research (2018). - ISSN 1838-675X
endogeic - epigeic - integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) - soil biota - soil fertility - soil structure

Earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) modify soil physical and chemical properties. However, little is known about how their interactions affect water-stable aggregation, glomalin and crop performance. A greenhouse experiment was run for 9 months to test the effects of earthworms (endogeic, Pontoscolex corethrurus and epigeic, Dichogaster bolaui) and AMF (none, Glomus etunicatum and Scutellospora verrucosa) on water-stable aggregation, glomalin levels in aggregate size classes and crop performance. The test crop was pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). The soil material used for the experiment was a humic nitisol from central Kenya mixed with sand (ratio 1: 1). Grass residue (equivalent to 20 t ha-1) was placed on top. The AMF root colonisation and external hyphal length, water-stable macroaggregates and microaggregates, total and easily-extractable glomalin in aggregate size classes, plant biomass and plant N and P uptake were measured. Earthworms were a major source of variation for soil aggregation, glomalin content and crop performance. The epigeic earthworms (D. bolaui) increased the amount of water-stable macroaggregates (by 10%) and glomalin in microaggregates and improved crop (growth and biomass) performance. The endogeic earthworms (P. corethrurus) reduced external hyphal length, root colonisation and crop performance but had no effect on water-stable aggregates and glomalin levels in in aggregate size classes. A significant AMF × earthworm interaction was observed for plant biomass and concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The AMF species together with epigeic earthworms increased plant biomass and N and P concentrations. Our results contribute to the understanding of interactions between AMF and earthworms in relation to soil aggregation, plant productivity and nutrient uptake.

Eighty Years of Mycopathologia: A Retrospective Analysis of Progress Made in Understanding Human and Animal Fungal Pathogens
Chaturvedi, Vishnu ; Bouchara, Jean Philippe ; Hagen, Ferry ; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana ; Badali, Hamid ; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti ; Cano-Lira, Jose F. ; Cao, Cunwei ; Chaturvedi, Sudha ; Chotirmall, Sanjay H. ; Diepeningen, Anne D. Van; Gangneux, Jean Pierre ; Guinea, Jesus ; Hoog, Sybren De; Ilkit, Macit ; Kano, Rui ; Liu, Weida ; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M. ; Souza Carvalho Melhem, Marcia De; Ono, Mario Augusto ; Ran, Yuping ; Ranque, Stephane ; Almeida Soares, Celia Maria De; Sugita, Takashi ; Thomas, Philip A. ; Vecchiarelli, Anna ; Wengenack, Nancy L. ; Woo, Patrick C.Y. ; Xu, Jianping ; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely M. - \ 2018
Mycopathologia (2018). - ISSN 0301-486X
Mycopathologia was founded in 1938 to ‘diffuse the understanding of fungal diseases in man and animals among mycologists.’ This was an important mission considering that pathogenic fungi for humans and animals represent a tiny minority of the estimated 1.5–5 million fungal inhabitants on Earth. These pathogens have diverged from the usual saprotrophic lifestyles of most fungi to colonize and infect humans and animals. Medical and veterinary mycology is the subdiscipline of microbiology that dwells into the mysteries of parasitic, fungal lifestyles. Among the oldest continuing scientific publications on the subject, Mycopathologia had its share of ‘classic papers’ since the first issue was published in 1938. An analysis of the eight decades of notable contributions reveals many facets of host–pathogen interactions among 183 volumes comprising about 6885 articles. We have analyzed the impact and relevance of this body of work using a combination of citation tools (Google Scholar and Scopus) since no single citation metric gives an inclusive perspective. Among the highly cited Mycopathologia publications, those on experimental mycology accounted for the major part of the articles (36%), followed by diagnostic mycology (16%), ecology and epidemiology (15%), clinical mycology (14%), taxonomy and classification (10%), and veterinary mycology (9%). The first classic publication, collecting nearly 200 citations, appeared in 1957, while two articles published in 2010 received nearly 150 citations each, which is notable for a journal covering a highly specialized field of study. An empirical analysis of the publication trends suggests continuing interests in novel diagnostics, fungal pathogenesis, review of clinical diseases especially with relevance to the laboratory scientists, taxonomy and classification of fungal pathogens, fungal infections and carriage in pets and wildlife, and changing ecology and epidemiology of fungal diseases around the globe. We anticipate that emerging and re-emerging fungal pathogens will continue to cause significant health burden in the coming decades. It remains vital that scientists and physicians continue to collaborate by learning each other’s language for the study of fungal diseases, and Mycopathologia will strive to be their partner in this increasingly important endeavor to its 100th anniversary in 2038 and beyond.
Best practice II: effect of discard survival on North Sea sole and plaice
Verkempynck, Ruben ; Brunel, Thomas ; Poos, Jan Jaap ; Batsleer, Jurgen - \ 2018
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C075/18A) - 48
This report investigates the effects of discard survival on the current stock assessment and perception of the North Sea sole and plaice stocks. By recalculating the discard fraction of the catches and rerunning the assessment model, the stock assessment of sole and plaice is corrected for discard survivability. Secondly, all discard survival corrected assessments of both stocks are forecasted over 50 years under a landing obligation and discarding (business as usual) scenario. This simulation shows the effect of discard survival under a landing obligation and under the discarding scenario. The trend and perception of both stocks do not change when discard survivability is taken into account. But the fishing mortality, stock biomass, and recruitment are overestimated. The effect of taking into account discard survivability is a scaling depending on the characteristics of the stock (such as maturity at age) and the extent to which the part of the stock is being discarded. The effect of discard survival is greater in North Sea plaice than in North Sea sole, since the plaice is discarded more. The Fmsy reference points increase with increasing discard survivability. However, the “F-targets”, the F corresponding to the maximal yield under the landing obligation, that are calculated to simulate the “landing obligation-scenario” do not show the same trend with increasing discard survivability. The forecast simulation of North Sea sole and plaice was performed by projecting the stocks with targets for fishing mortality that maximise the yield of both stocks. This method gives insight in the effects of the discarding and landing obligation scenario on the catches, recruitment, spawning stock biomass, and fishing mortality. Differences between scenarios increase with increasing discard survivability, although differences are marginal in the simulation of sole (compared to the differences between scenarios in plaice). Mainly the catches are effected by discard survivability under the landing obligation scenario.
Variations in North Sea sole distribution : variation in North Sea sole distribution with respect to the 56°N parallel perceived through scientific survey and commercial fisheries
Brunel, Thomas ; Verkempynck, Ruben - \ 2018
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C087/18) - 27
The Dutch commercial fisheries report that sole (Solea solea) catches in the north of the North Sea have been increasing over the past years. While the large majority of North Sea sole catches are taken by beam trawl with 80mm mesh size, fishing with this gear is currently not allowed north of 56°N. In order to be able to get permission for a dedicated sole fishery (80 mm) in that area, scientific proof is needed for the increase in sole in the area north of 56°N. This study analyses data collected during the Beam Trawl Survey and STECF landing and effort data to investigate whether the spatial distribution of North Sea sole has changed over the last two decades. The study focusses in particular on the part of the North Sea to the north of the 56°N parallel where the main sole targeting fishery (beam trawl with 80mm mesh size) is currently not allowed to fish. Results based on the survey data show that the abundance and the extent of the distribution of sole in the area north of 56°N has increased (nearly doubled) since 2010. The proportion of the stock distributed north of 56°N also increased, but remains overall low (less than 7.5%). Over the same period, the centre of gravity of the stock has remained at a similar location. The only fleet operating at a scale large enough to provide information on sole at the scale of the North Sea was the Danish gillnet fishery. The proportion of landings of this fleet taken north of 56oN (in front of northern Denmark) has increased markedly since 2012, even when potential changes in the spatial distribution of the effort are taken into account. These results suggest an expansion of the stock at the margin of the distribution, while the core of the distribution of the stock has remained in the southern and central part of the North Sea (south of 54°N).
Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 contributes to freezing tolerance
Arisz, Steven A. ; Heo, Jae-Yun ; Koevoets, Iko Tamar ; Zhao, Tao ; Egmond, Pieter van; Meyer, Jessica ; Zeng, Weiqing ; Niu, Xiaomu ; Wang, Baosheng ; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas ; Schranz, M.E. ; Testerink, Christa - \ 2018
Plant Physiology 177 (2018)4. - ISSN 0032-0889 - p. 1410 - 1424.
Freezing limits plant growth and crop productivity, and plant species in temperate zones have the capacity to develop freezing tolerance through complex modulation of gene expression affecting various aspects of metabolism and physiology. While many components of freezing tolerance have been identified in model species under controlled laboratory conditions, little is known about the mechanisms that impart freezing tolerance in natural populations of wild species. Here, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study of acclimated freezing tolerance in seedlings of Boechera stricta, a highly adapted relative of Arabidopsis thaliana native to the Rocky Mountains. A single QTL was identified that contained the gene encoding ACYL-COA:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 (BstDGAT1), whose expression is highly cold responsive. The primary metabolic enzyme DGAT1 catalyzes the final step in assembly of triacylglycerol (TAG) by acyl transfer from acyl-CoA to diacylglycerol. Freezing tolerant plants showed higher DGAT1 expression during cold acclimation than more sensitive plants and this resulted in increased accumulation of TAG in response to subsequent freezing. Levels of oligogalactolipids which are produced by SFR2 (SENSITIVE TO FREEZING 2), an indispensable element of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis, were also higher in freezing tolerant plants. Furthermore, overexpression of AtDGAT1 led to increased freezing tolerance. We propose that DGAT1 confers freezing tolerance in plants by supporting SFR2-mediated remodeling of chloroplast membranes.
POLAR-guided signalling complex assembly and localization drive asymmetric cell division
Houbaert, Anaxi ; Zhang, Cheng ; Tiwari, Manish ; Wang, Kun ; Marcos Serrano, Alberto de; Savatin, Daniel V. ; Urs, Mounashree J. ; Zhiponova, Miroslava K. ; Gudesblat, Gustavo E. ; Vanhoutte, Isabelle ; Eeckhout, Dominique ; Boeren, Sjef ; Karimi, Mansour ; Betti, Camilla ; Jacobs, Thomas ; Fenoll, Carmen ; Mena, Montaña ; Vries, Sacco de; Jaeger, Geert De; Russinova, Eugenia - \ 2018
Nature 563 (2018)7732. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 574 - 578.

Stomatal cell lineage is an archetypal example of asymmetric cell division (ACD), which is necessary for plant survival1-4. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE3 (GSK3)/SHAGGY-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) phosphorylates both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling module5,6 and its downstream target, the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH)7, to promote and restrict ACDs, respectively, in the same stomatal lineage cell. However, the mechanisms that balance these mutually exclusive activities remain unclear. Here we identify the plant-specific protein POLAR as a stomatal lineage scaffold for a subset of GSK3-like kinases that confines them to the cytosol and subsequently transiently polarizes them within the cell, together with BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL), before ACD. As a result, MAPK signalling is attenuated, enabling SPCH to drive ACD in the nucleus. Moreover, POLAR turnover requires phosphorylation on specific residues, mediated by GSK3. Our study reveals a mechanism by which the scaffolding protein POLAR ensures GSK3 substrate specificity, and could serve as a paradigm for understanding regulation of GSK3 in plants.

Phenotypic variation in egg survival in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis under dry conditions
Hesran, Sophie le; Groot, Thomas ; Knapp, Markus ; Bukovinszky, Tibor ; Forestier, Thomas ; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2018
Biological Control (2018). - ISSN 1049-9644 - 7 p.
Augmentative biological control - Egg hatching - Phytoseiulus persimilis - Relative humidity

The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is widely used for augmentative biological control, as an effective predator of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. However, the biocontrol efficacy of P. persimilis decreases under dry conditions. One of the reasons for this decline concerns P. persimilis’ eggs, which are sensitive to low humidity. In this study, we investigated the possibility to select for a strain of P. persimilis adapted to dry conditions. To understand the potential sources of phenotypic variation in egg survival under dry conditions, we tested the effects of genetic and environmental factors on variation in this trait. We compared egg hatching of five P. persimilis strains, under constant as well as variable humidity conditions, at 25 °C. The results show no intraspecific genetic variation among the five tested strains in egg hatching under constant and variable humidity conditions. In all five strains, less than 20% of the eggs hatched when they were exposed to constant low (60% RH) humidity conditions. However, when eggs were exposed to successive cycles of low and high humidity, a common pattern observed in the field, significantly higher hatching rates were observed. Under variable humidity conditions, more than 73% of the eggs hatched successfully, even when exposure to high humidity was limited to only 13% of the egg developmental time. Although P. persimilis eggs suffered from a high rate of water loss under constant dry conditions, they were able to compensate for this water loss when exposed to high humidity conditions for a few hours during their development. A decreased biocontrol efficacy of P. persimilis under dry conditions may be explained by a higher egg mortality when relative humidity is constantly low. Yet, when relative humidity exhibits diurnal variation, periods of high humidity may mitigate the effects of periods of low humidity during development of P. persimilis eggs.

Educating for self-interest or -transcendence? An empirical approach to investigating the role of moral competencies in opportunity recognition for sustainable development
Ploum, Lisa ; Blok, Vincent ; Lans, Thomas ; Omta, Onno - \ 2018
Business Ethics: a European review. (2018). - ISSN 0962-8770

Entrepreneurship education with a focus on sustainable development primarily teaches students to develop a profit-driven mentality. As sustainable development is a value-oriented and normative concept, the role of individual ethical norms and values in entrepreneurial processes has been receiving increased attention. Therefore, this study addresses the role of moral competence in the process of idea generation for sustainable development. A mixed method design was developed in which would-be entrepreneurs were subjected to a questionnaire (n = 398) and to real-life decision-making processes in a case assignment (n = 96). The results provide stepping stones for implementing (moral) competencies in entrepreneurship education as a possible avenue to move away from a sole focus on a profit-driven mentality.

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