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Strigolactone levels in dicot roots are determined by an ancestral symbiosis-regulated clade of the PHYTOENE SYNTHASE gene family
Stauder, Ron ; Welsch, Ralf ; Camagna, Maurizio ; Kohlen, Wouter ; Balcke, Gerd U. ; Tissier, Alain ; Walter, Michael H. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Apocarotenoids - Arbuscular mycorrhiza - Carotenoids - Medicago truncatula - Solanum lycopersicum - Strigolactones - Symbiosis
Strigolactones (SLs) are apocarotenoid phytohormones synthesized from carotenoid precursors. They are produced most abundantly in roots for exudation into the rhizosphere to cope with mineral nutrient starvation through support of root symbionts. Abscisic acid (ABA) is another apocarotenoid phytohormone synthesized in roots, which is involved in responses to abiotic stress. Typically low carotenoid levels in roots raise the issue of precursor supply for the biosynthesis of these two apocarotenoids in this organ. Increased ABA levels upon abiotic stress in Poaceae roots are known to be supported by a particular isoform of phytoene synthase (PSY), catalyzing the rate-limiting step in carotenogenesis. Here we report on novel PSY3 isogenes from Medicago truncatula (MtPSY3) and Solanum lycopersicum (SlPSY3) strongly expressed exclusively upon root interaction with symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and moderately in response to phosphate starvation. They belong to a widespread clade of conserved PSYs restricted to dicots (dPSY3) distinct from the Poaceae-PSY3s involved in ABA formation. An ancient origin of dPSY3s and a potential co-evolution with the AM symbiosis is discussed in the context of PSY evolution. Knockdown of MtPSY3 in hairy roots of M. truncatula strongly reduced SL and AM-induced C13 α-ionol/C14 mycorradicin apocarotenoids. Inhibition of the reaction subsequent to phytoene synthesis revealed strongly elevated levels of phytoene indicating induced flux through the carotenoid pathway in roots upon mycorrhization. dPSY3 isogenes are coregulated with upstream isogenes and downstream carotenoid cleavage steps toward SLs (D27, CCD7, CCD8) suggesting a combined carotenoid/apocarotenoid pathway, which provides “just in time”-delivery of precursors for apocarotenoid formation.
Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Funtional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Slavia Fruicosa and Rosmarinus officinalis
Bozic, D. ; Papaefthimiou, D. ; Brückner, K. ; Vos, C.H.R. de; Tsoleridis, C.A. ; Katsarou, D. ; Papanikolaou, A. ; Pateraki, I. ; Chatzopoulou, F.M. ; Dimitriadou, E. ; Kostas, S. ; Manzano, D. ; Scheler, U. ; Ferrer, A. ; Tissier, A. ; Makris, A.M. ; Kampranis, S.C. ; Kanellis, A. - \ 2015
PLoS One 10 (2015)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 28 p.
creticus subsp creticus - in-vitro antioxidant - diphosphate synthase - subcellular-localization - phenolic diterpenes - gene-cluster - rosemary - l. - expression - metabolism
Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPSand SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL,both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S.fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera.
Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes
Brückner, K. ; Bozic, D. ; Manzano, D. ; Papaefthimiou, D. ; Pateraki, I. ; Scheler, U. ; Ferrer, A. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Kanellis, A.K. ; Tissier, A. - \ 2014
Phytochemistry 101 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 52 - 64.
carnosic acid - functional-characterization - phenolic diterpenes - geranylgeranyl diphosphate - transient expression - abietadiene synthase - salvia-officinalis - terpene synthases - in-vitro - evolution
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gammadomain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split.
Natural products – learning chemistry from plants
Staniek, A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Fraser, P.D. ; Kayser, O. ; Martens, S. ; Tissier, A. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Wessjohann, L. ; Warzecha, H. - \ 2014
Biotechnology Journal 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1860-6768 - p. 326 - 336.
escherichia-coli - benzylisoquinoline alkaloids - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - vanillin production - synthetic biology - organic-synthesis - biosynthesis - biocatalysis - artemisinin - enzymes
Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as fragrances and flavors, medicines, as well as industrial chemicals. As the intricate structures of PNPs often cannot be mimicked by chemical synthesis, the original plant providers constitute the sole source for their industrial, large-scale production. However, sufficient supply is not guaranteed for all molecules of interest, making the development of alternative production systems a priority. Modern techniques, such as genome mining and thorough biochemical analysis, have helped us gain preliminary understanding of the enzymatic formation of the valuable ingredients in planta. Herein, we review recent advances in the application of biocatalytical processes, facilitating generation of complex PNPs through utilization of plant-derived specific enzymes and combinatorial biochemistry. We further evaluate the options of employing heterologous organisms harboring PNP biosynthetic pathways for the production of secondary metabolites of interest.
Module 3. Understanding the coastal zone to develop integrated approaches for management
Tissier, M.D.A. Le; Coulthard, S. ; Boski, T. ; Roth, D. ; Bavinck, M. - \ 2011
In: Integrated coastal management. From post-graduate to professional coastal manager / Le Tissier, M., Roth, D., Bavinck, M., Visser, L., Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789059723276 - p. 125 - 168.
Integrated coastal management. From post-graduate to professional coastal manager
Tissier, M.D.A. Le; Roth, D. ; Bavinck, M. ; Visser, L.E. - \ 2011
Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789059723276 - 205 p.
Module 2. Observations of human and natural dimensions of the coast
Tissier, M.D.A. Le; Coulthard, S. ; Ramachandran, P. ; Roth, D. ; Boski, T. ; Newton, A.C. ; Divien, I. ; Bavinck, M. - \ 2011
In: Integrated coastal management. From post-graduate to professional coastal manager / Le Tissier, M., Roth, D., Bavinck, M., Visser, L., Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789059723276 - p. 69 - 124.
Module 1. Social analysis of the coast – introducing human dimensions
Roth, D. ; Menon, A. ; Bavinck, M. ; Visser, L.E. ; Tissier, M.D.A. Le - \ 2011
In: Integrated coastal management. From post-graduate to professional coastal manager / Le Tissier, M., Roth, D., Bavinck, M., Visser, L., Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789059723276 - p. 17 - 68.
Integrated Coastal Management - from post-graduate to professional Coastal Manager- a teaching manual
Tissier, M.D.A. Le; Coulthard, S. ; Roth, D. ; Whyte, H.A.Y. - \ 2008
Delft : Eburon
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