Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies
Erb, Karl-Heinz ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Pongratz, Julia ; Don, Axel ; Kloster, Silvia ; Kuemmerle, Tobias ; Fetzel, Tamara ; Fuchs, Richard ; Herold, Martin ; Haberl, Helmut ; Jones, Chris D. ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; McCallum, Ian ; Robertson, Eddy ; Seufert, Verena ; Fritz, Steffen ; Valade, Aude ; Wiltshire, Andrew ; Dolman, Albertus J. - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 512 - 533.
In the light of daunting global sustainability challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss and food security, improving our understanding of the complex dynamics of the Earth system is crucial. However, large knowledge gaps related to the effects of land management persist, in particular those human-induced changes in terrestrial ecosystems that do not result in land-cover conversions. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of ten common land management activities for their biogeochemical and biophysical impacts, the level of process understanding and data availability. Our review shows that ca. one-tenth of the ice-free land surface is under intense human management, half under medium and one-fifth under extensive management. Based on our review, we cluster these ten management activities into three groups: (i) management activities for which data sets are available, and for which a good knowledge base exists (cropland harvest and irrigation); (ii) management activities for which sufficient knowledge on biogeochemical and biophysical effects exists but robust global data sets are lacking (forest harvest, tree species selection, grazing and mowing harvest, N fertilization); and (iii) land management practices with severe data gaps concomitant with an unsatisfactory level of process understanding (crop species selection, artificial wetland drainage, tillage and fire management and crop residue management, an element of crop harvest). Although we identify multiple impediments to progress, we conclude that the current status of process understanding and data availability is sufficient to advance with incorporating management in, for example, Earth system or dynamic vegetation models in order to provide a systematic assessment of their role in the Earth system. This review contributes to a strategic prioritization of research efforts across multiple disciplines, including land system research, ecological research and Earth system modelling.
Evaluating the performance of land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 on water and energy flux estimation with a single-and multi-layer energy budget scheme
Chen, Yiying ; Ryder, James ; Bastrikov, Vladislav ; McGrath, Matthew J. ; Naudts, Kim ; Otto, Juliane ; Ottlé, Catherine ; Peylin, Philippe ; Polcher, Jan ; Valade, Aude ; Black, Andrew ; Elbers, Jan A. ; Moors, Eddy ; Foken, Thomas ; Gorsel, Eva Van; Haverd, Vanessa ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Knohl, Alexander ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Loustau, Denis ; Ogeé, Jérôme ; Vessala, Timo ; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan - \ 2016
Geoscientific Model Development 9 (2016)9. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 2951 - 2972.

Canopy structure is one of the most important vegetation characteristics for land-atmosphere interactions, as it determines the energy and scalar exchanges between the land surface and the overlying air mass. In this study we evaluated the performance of a newly developed multi-layer energy budget in the ORCHIDEE-CAN v1.0 land surface model (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems-CANopy), which simulates canopy structure and can be coupled to an atmospheric model using an implicit coupling procedure. We aim to provide a set of acceptable parameter values for a range of forest types. Top-canopy and sub-canopy flux observations from eight sites were collected in order to conduct this evaluation. The sites crossed climate zones from temperate to boreal and the vegetation types included deciduous, evergreen broad-leaved and evergreen needle-leaved forest with a maximum leaf area index (LAI; all-sided) ranging from 3.5 to 7.0. The parametrization approach proposed in this study was based on three selected physical processes-namely the diffusion, advection, and turbulent mixing within the canopy. Short-term sub-canopy observations and long-term surface fluxes were used to calibrate the parameters in the sub-canopy radiation, turbulence, and resistance modules with an automatic tuning process. The multi-layer model was found to capture the dynamics of sub-canopy turbulence, temperature, and energy fluxes. The performance of the new multi-layer model was further compared against the existing single-layer model. Although the multi-layer model simulation results showed few or no improvements to both the nighttime energy balance and energy partitioning during winter compared with a single-layer model simulation, the increased model complexity does provide a more detailed description of the canopy micrometeorology of various forest types. The multi-layer model links to potential future environmental and ecological studies such as the assessment of in-canopy species vulnerability to climate change, the climate effects of disturbance intensities and frequencies, and the consequences of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from the terrestrial ecosystem.

Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010
McGrath, M.J. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Meyfroidt, P. ; Kaplan, J.O. ; Bürgi, M. ; Chen, Y. ; Erb, K. ; Gimmi, U. ; McInerney, D. ; Naudts, K. ; Otto, J. ; Pasztor, F. ; Ryder, J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Valade, A. - \ 2015
Biogeosciences 12 (2015)14. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4291 - 4316.

Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

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