Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Carbon and nutrient cycling in organic agriculture: a chronosequence approach
Rijssel, Sophie van; Koorneef, G.J. ; Koetsenruijter, Gijs ; Schrama, Mels ; Putten, W.H. van der; Veen, Ciska G.F. - \ 2018
A key challenge is to increase sustainability in agriculture without yield loss. Organic agriculture uses no chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Instead, yield depends on nutrients released from organic inputs, and thereby on soil communities that drive soil carbon and nutrient cycling. However, these soil communities may need time to establish, resulting in lower yields during the beginning of this conversion. How carbon and nutrient cycling change during the conversion from conventional to organic agriculture is not well understood, but it may help us to understand, and eventually reduce, the yield gap. Here, we studied how carbon and nitrogen cycling change when converting conventional agricultural systems into organic agricultural systems. We used a hronosequence
approach, where we collected soil samples from 37 organic fields, on both sand and clay soils, that have been converted from conventional to organic agriculture between 1 to 40 years ago and from neighboring conventional fields. Under controlled conditions we measured potential rates of carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Potential carbon mineralization and substrate induced respiration were higher in organic soils, but there was no effect of time since conversion. This might be explained by variation in abiotic factors such as soil organic
matter content. We use our data to unravel how fast ecosystem processes change after the conversion of conventional into organic farming systems. Our findings will yield important insights how the performance of soil communities is changed during transition and this will help us to understand changes in crop yield.
Hoe behouden we het veen voor iedereen?
Gies, Edo - \ 2018
Bodemdaling vertragen in het veenweidegebied met boeren en natuur - naar draagvlak en draagkracht
Position and final paper of RICHFIELDS : deliverable D1.2
Bogaardt, M.J. ; Copani, Giacomo ; Cueva, Javier de la; Finglas, Paul ; Geelen, M.M.E.E. ; Hodgkins, Charo ; Korousic, Barbara ; Mikkelsen, Bent ; Poppe, K.J. ; Pour Abdollahian, Golboo ; Puttelaar, J. van den; Raats, Monique ; Selnes, T. ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Veen, H.B. van der; Veer, P. van 't; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2018
EU - 49 p.
Using Data on Social Influence and Collective Action for Parameterizing a Geographically-Explicit Agent-Based Model for the Diffusion of Soil Conservation Efforts
Oel, P.R. Van; Mulatu, D.W. ; Odongo, V.O. ; Willy, D.K. ; Veen, A. van der - \ 2018
Environmental Modeling and Assessment (2018). - ISSN 1420-2026 - 19 p.
Agent-based modeling - Kenya - Lake Naivasha basin - Sedimentation - Soil conservation - Spatial diffusion - Subjective norms

Social influence affects individual decision-making on soil conservation. Understanding the emergent diffusion of collective conservation effort is relevant to natural resource management at the river basin level. This study focuses on the effect of subjective norms and collective action on the diffusion of Soil Conservation Effort (SCE) in the Lake Naivasha basin (Kenya) for the period 1965–2010. A geographically-explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) version of the CONSUMAT model was developed: the CONSERVAT model. In our model, we have represented heterogeneity in the physical environment and in the social network using empirical data. To parameterize the model, physical data, and social data from a household survey (n = 307) were used. Model simulation results show that it is possible to reproduce empirical spatiotemporal diffusion patterns of SCE levels which are quite sensitive to the way in which social survey data are used to initialize the model. Overall, this study demonstrates (i) that social survey data can effectively be used for parameterization of a geographically-explicit ABM, and (ii) that empirical knowledge on natural environment characteristics and social phenomena can be used to build an agent-based model at the river basin level. This study is an important first step towards including subjective norms for evaluating the effectiveness of alternative policy strategies for natural resource management.

Data from: Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in a long-term non-weeded field experiment
Veen, Ciska G.F. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2018
biodiversity-ecosystem functioning
Many grassland biodiversity experiments show a positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, however, in most these experiments plant communities are established by sowing and natural colonization is prevented by selective weeding of non-sown species. During ecosystem restoration, for example on abandoned fields, plant communities start on bare soil, and diversity is often manipulated in a single sowing event. How such initial plant diversity manipulations influence plant biodiversity development and ecosystem functioning is not well understood. We examined how relationships between taxonomic and functional diversity, biomass production and stability develop over 16 years in non-weeded plots sown with 15 species, 4 species, or that were not sown. We found that sown plant communities become functionally similar to unsown, naturally colonized plant communities. However, initial sowing treatments had long-lasting effects on species composition and taxonomic diversity. We found only few relationships between biomass production, or stability in biomass production, and functional or taxonomic diversity, and the ones we observed were negative. In addition, the cover of dominant plant species was positively related to biomass production and stability. We conclude that effects of introducing plant species at the start of secondary succession can persist for a long time, and that in secondary succession communities with natural plant species dynamics diversity-functioning relationships can be weak or negative. Moreover, our findings indicate that in systems where natural colonization of species is allowed effects of plant dominance may underlie diversity-functioning relationships.
Hoe behouden we het veen?
Akker, Jan van den - \ 2018
Welke kansen bieden onderwaterdrains
Analyzing Pellets and Feces of African Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus albididorsalis) Results in Different Estimates of Diet Composition
Veen, Jan ; Dallmeijer, Hanneke ; Damme, Cindy J.G. van; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Veen, Thor - \ 2018
Waterbirds 41 (2018)3. - ISSN 1524-4695 - p. 295 - 304.
African Royal Terns - Delta du Saloum - diet overlap - fish - otoliths - prey - Senegal - Thalasseus maximus albididorsalis.

A frequently used method to estimate diet composition is based on the identification of fish otoliths present in pellets and feces. However, whether pellets and feces provide similar unbiased estimates of the diet remains poorly understood. The diet of African Royal Terns (Thalasseus maximus albididorsalis) breeding in the Parc National du Delta du Saloum, Senegal, was studied. Prey species composition based on otoliths in freshly regurgitated pellets and a mixture of pellets and feces (excrement) accumulated near nests during the incubation period were compared. Altogether, 59 fish species were identified. Pellets contained far less prey species than excrement. Maximum diet overlap between excrement and pellets varied between 0.34 and 0.43 (mean = 0.36). Differences between minimum and maximum overlap between both sample types were small in all years. Pellets contained almost exclusively large otoliths (widths 3.0-8.5 mm), whereas excrement contained two fractions: large sized ones, identical to those present in the pellets and smaller-sized ones (0.5-3.0 mm) originating from feces. It is hypothesized that large otoliths cannot pass the intestinal tracts of the birds and are therefore regurgitated. Differences in prey species composition in pellets and excrement could potentially be explained by a combination of seasonal changes in availability of prey species and size of otoliths. Neither pellets nor feces alone give an unbiased picture of the diet of African Royal Terns.

Metabolic modelling and energy parameter estimation of Tetradesmus obliquus
León-Saiki, G.M. ; Ferrer Ledo, Narcís ; Lao-Martil, David ; Veen, Douwe van der; Wijffels, René H. ; Martens, Dirk E. - \ 2018
Algal Research 35 (2018). - ISSN 2211-9264 - p. 378 - 387.
Compartmentalized metabolism - Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) - Maintenance requirement - Microalgae - Scenedesmus obliquus

We developed a metabolic network describing the primary metabolism of Tetradesmus obliquus aimed to get a better understanding of metabolism to improve industrial production. The network includes 351 reactions with 183 metabolites distributed over 4 compartments: cytosol, chloroplast, mitochondria, and extracellular space. The energy requirements for biomass assembly and maintenance (Kx and mATP, respectively) were experimentally determined from batch cultures and included in the model. The determined values were 121.02 mmolATP·gDW −1 for Kx and 0.66 mmolATP·gDW −1·h−1 for the mATP. The maintenance value found for T. obliquus is, to our knowledge, one of the lowest reported in literature for microalgae. This low value is also in agreement with the photon maintenance requirement found experimentally for T. obliquus (1.18 mmolph·gDW −1·h−1). Finally, the theoretical maximum yields based on the model for biomass, triacylglycerides (TAG), and starch yield on light were calculated to be 1.15 g·molph −1, 1.05 gTAG·molph −1, and 2.69 gstarch·molph −1.

Evaporation from (Blue-)Green Roofs : Assessing the benefits of a storage and capillary irrigation system based on measurements and modeling
Cirkel, Dirk Gijsbert ; Voortman, Bernard R. ; Veen, Thijs van; Bartholomeus, Ruud P. - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2073-4441
Blue-green roofs - Capillary irrigation - Latent heat flux - Lysimeter - Potential and actual evaporation - Sedums - Sensible heat flux - Urban areas - Water availability

Worldwide cities are facing increasing temperatures due to climate change and increasing urban density. Green roofs are promoted as a climate adaptation measure to lower air temperatures and improve comfort in urban areas, especially during intensive dry and warm spells. However, there is much debate on the effectiveness of this measure, because of a lack of fundamental knowledge about evaporation from different green roof systems. In this study, we investigate the water and energy balance of different roof types on a rooftop in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on lysimeter measurements and modeling, we compared the water and energy balance of a conventional green roof with blue-green roofs equipped with a novel storage and capillary irrigation system. The roofs were covered either with Sedum or by grasses and herbs. Our measurements and modeling showed that conventional green roof systems (i.e., a Sedum cover and a few centimeters of substrate) have a low evaporation rate and due to a rapid decline in available moisture, a minor cooling effect. Roofs equipped with a storage and capillary irrigation system showed a remarkably large evaporation rate for Sedum species behaving as C3 plants during hot, dry periods. Covered with grasses and herbs, the evaporation rate was even larger. Precipitation storage and capillary irrigation strongly reduced the number of days with dry-out events. Implementing these systems therefore could lead to better cooling efficiencies in cities.

Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy : Diverse mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens
Głobińska, Anna ; Boonpiyathad, Tadech ; Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn ; Kleuskens, Mirelle ; Veen, Willem van de; Sokolowska, Milena ; Akdis, Mübeccel - \ 2018
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 121 (2018)3. - ISSN 1081-1206 - p. 306 - 312.

Objective: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy based on the recent publications and clinical trials. Data sources: PubMed literature review. Study selections: In this review, we focus on diverse mechanisms of AIT and provide an insight into alternative routes of administration. Additionally, we review and discuss the most recent studies investigating potential biomarkers and highlight their role in clinical settings. Results: Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) induces the reinstatement of tolerance toward allergens and represents a disease-modifying treatment. In the last decades, substantial progress in understanding the mechanisms of AIT has been achieved. Establishment of long-term clinical tolerance to allergens engages a complex network of interactions, modulating the functions of basophils, mast cells, allergen-specific regulatory T and B cells, and production of specific antibodies. The reduction of symptoms and clinical improvement is achieved by skewing the immune response away from allergic inflammation. Conclusion: Although the complex nature of AIT mechanisms is becoming more clear, the need to discover reliable biomarkers to define patients likely to respond to the treatment is emerging.

Botanisch bij de les met abiotische stress
Linden, Gerard van der - \ 2018
Genetische gemodificeerd voedsel
Smulders, Rene - \ 2018
Kennisdesk vraag DGAN-ANK 17153843
Veen, Hennie van der - \ 2018
A recipe to support research and innovation : Developing a European Food, Nutrition and Health Research Infrastructure
Hoes, A.C. ; Selnes, T. ; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. ; Veer, P. van 't; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Veen, H.B. van der - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research (Policy brief Wageningen Economic Research 2018-069) - 8 p.
Data from: Variation in home-field advantage and ability in leaf litter decomposition across successional gradients
Veen, Ciska G.F. ; Keiser, Ashley D. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Wardle, David A. - \ 2018
decomposition - functional breadth - succession - soil - plant-litter feedback
1. It is increasingly recognized that interactions between plants and soil (a)biotic conditions can influence local decomposition processes. For example, decomposer communities may become specialized in breaking down litter of plant species that they are associated with, resulting in accelerated decomposition, known as ‘home-field advantage’ (HFA). Also, soils can vary inherently in their capacity to degrade organic compounds, known as ‘ability’. However, we have a poor understanding how environmental conditions drive the occurrence of HFA and ability. 2. Here, we studied how HFA and ability change across three types of successional gradients: coastal sand dunes (primary succession), inland drift sands (primary succession), and ex-arable fields (secondary succession). Across these gradients, litter quality (i.e., nutrient, carbon and lignin contents) increases with successional time for coastal dunes and decreases for the other two gradients. 3. We performed a 12-month reciprocal litter transplant experiment under greenhouse conditions using soils and litters collected from early-, mid-, and late-successional stages of each gradient. 4. We found that HFA and ability did not consistently shift with successional stage for all gradients, but were instead specific for each type of successional gradient. In coastal dunes HFA was positive for early-successional litter, in drift sands it was negative for mid-successional litter, and for ex-arable fields, HFA increased with successional time. Ability of decomposer communities was highest in mid-successional stages for coastal dunes and drift sands, but for ex-arable fields ability decreased throughout with successional time. High HFA was related to high litter C content and soil and organic matter content in soils and to low litter and soil nutrient concentrations. Ability did not consistently occur in successional stages with high or low litter quality. 5. Synthesis: Our findings show that specific environmental conditions, such as changes in litter or soil quality, along environmental gradients can shape the influence of HFA and ability on decomposition. In sites with strong HFA or ability, interactions between plants, litter and decomposer communities will be important drivers of nutrient cycling and hence have the potential to feedback to plant growth.
Fishing community preferences and willingness to pay for alternative developments of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) for Lake Naivasha, Kenya
Mulatu, Dawit W. ; Oel, Pieter R. van; Odongo, Vincent ; Veen, Anne van der - \ 2018
Lakes & Reservoirs : Research and Management 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1320-5331 - p. 190 - 203.
Choice experiment - Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) - Fishing community - Welfare and Lake Naivasha - Willingness to pay

Ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) is an important complement to existing fisheries management approaches to maintain ecosystem health and function; to translate goals and aspirations for sustainability into operational objectives, the preferences of the fishing communities should be considered for successful implementation of EBFM. This study analysed the preferences of the fishing community for alternative EBFM developments for Lake Naivasha, Kenya, and estimated the willingness to pay, using a choice experiment approach. Protection of fish breeding grounds, improving tilapia fish abundance and accessibility of fishing zones were identified as relevant EBFM attributes for the choice experiment. A monetary attribute (payment for fishing permit) was also included. In addition to a conditional logit model, mixed logit models are estimated to account for heterogeneity in preferences. This study results indicated fishing communities are most concerned about tilapia fish abundance and protection of fish breeding grounds. The welfare measures reveal that members of the Lake Naivasha fishing community are willing to pay a considerable sum of money for ecosystem services improvement, relative to their low income derived from fishing. These study findings highlighted that evaluating the preferences of the fishing community and valuing the fishery at an ecosystem level are vital to prioritize and choose between alternative interventions for sound implementation of EBFM.

Determinants of successful lifestyle change during a 6-month preconception lifestyle intervention in women with obesity and infertility
Karsten, Matty D.A. ; Oers, Anne M. van; Groen, Henk ; Mutsaerts, Meike A.Q. ; Poppel, Mireille N.M. van; Geelen, Anouk ; Beek, Cornelieke van de; Painter, Rebecca C. ; Mol, Ben W.J. ; Roseboom, Tessa J. ; Hoek, Annemieke ; Burggraaff, J.M. ; Kuchenbecker, W.K.H. ; Perquin, D.A.M. ; Koks, C.A.M. ; Golde, R. van; Kaaijk, E.M. ; Schierbeek, J.M. ; Oosterhuis, G.J.E. ; Broekmans, F.J. ; Vogel, N.E.A. ; Lambalk, C.B. ; Veen, F. van der; Klijn, N.F. ; Mercelina, P.E.A.M. ; Kasteren, Y.M. van; Nap, A.W. ; Mulder, R.J.A.B. ; Gondrie, E.T.C.M. ; Bruin, J.P. de - \ 2018
European Journal of Nutrition (2018). - ISSN 1436-6207
Determinants - Lifestyle intervention - Obesity - Preconception

Purpose: To identify demographic, (bio)physical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of successful lifestyle change and program completion by performing a secondary analysis of the intervention arm of a randomized-controlled trial, investigating a preconception lifestyle intervention. Methods: The 6-month lifestyle intervention consisted of dietary counseling, physical activity, and behavioral modification, and was aimed at 5–10% weight loss. We operationalized successful lifestyle change as successful weight loss (≥ 5% weight/BMI ≤ 29 kg/m2), weight loss in kilograms, a reduction in energy intake, and an increase in physical activity during the intervention program. We performed logistic and mixed-effect regression analyses to identify baseline factors that were associated with successful change or program completion. Results: Women with higher external eating behavior scores had higher odds of successful weight loss (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.05–1.16). Women with the previous dietetic support lost 0.94 kg less during the intervention period (95% CI 0.01–1.87 kg). Women with higher self-efficacy reduced energy intake more than women with lower self-efficacy (p < 0.01). Women with an older partner had an increased energy intake (6 kcal/year older, 95% CI 3–13). A high stage of change towards physical activity was associated with a higher number of daily steps (p = 0.03). A high stage of change towards weight loss was associated with completion of the intervention (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Determinants of lifestyle change and program completion were: higher external eating behavior, not having received previous dietetic support, high stage of change. This knowledge can be used to identify women likely to benefit from lifestyle interventions and develop new interventions for women requiring alternative support. Trial registration: The LIFEstyle study was registered at the Dutch trial registry (NTR 1530; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1530).

Relationship between home-field advantage of litter decomposition and priming of soil organic matter
Lonardo, D.P. di; Manrubia, M. ; Boer, W. de; Zweers, H. ; Veen, G.F. ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 126 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 49 - 56.
C-plant litter - Carbon cycling - Home field advantage - Nitrogen - Priming effect - Soil organic matter

Home field advantage (HFA; acceleration of plant litter decomposition in soils that receive their indigenous litter) and priming effects (PE; short-term changes in the turnover of soil organic matter caused by the addition of fresh organic carbon) are two aspects of decomposition processes that are driven by the composition and functioning of soil decomposer communities. Physicochemical similarity between added organic compounds and soil organic matter fractions has been indicated as an important steering factor of PE. It is unknown whether PE, like litter decomposition, experience HFA, i.e., whether PE are higher than expected in soils receiving their own litter due to specialization of the decomposer community. Here we studied both HFA and PE by measuring litter- and SOM-derived carbon (C) fluxes after the addition of fresh plant litter. We reciprocally incubated three 13C labelled litter types (maize, bent and beech) in soils from ecosystems where these litters are abundantly produced (e.g., arable sites, grasslands and forests), with and without the addition of mineral nitrogen (N). Generally, respiration of both litter-derived and SOM-derived C were lowest when beech litter was added, and were lower in forest soils than in arable or grassland soils. N addition generally slightly increased the respiration of litter-derived C, but had no effect on SOM-derived C. All litter types induced a positive PE in all soils. HFA effects were not significantly different from zero, but were significantly higher in grasslands than in maize fields amended with nitrogen. We found a positive relationship between litter and priming HFA, indicating that the rates of both litter decomposition and PE may be affected in the same manner by home combinations of plant and litter versus away combinations. This positive relationship disappeared when N was added. Our results provide a first indication that the extent to which indigenous soil microbes are specialized to breakdown home litter, not only accelerates or decelerates the decomposition of litter, but affects the breakdown of SOM in the same way. This could imply that a specialized litter decomposer community driving HFA can further accelerate soil C mineralization via enhanced induction of PE. Therefore, the impact of specialized decomposer communities on the dynamics of soil C pools may be bigger than expected from HFA of litter decomposition alone.

Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
IPM
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Role of starch in Tetradesmus obliquus
León Saiki, Graciela Mitsue - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): Dirk Martens; Douwe van der Veen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433082 - 222
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