Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Exceptional Water Desalination Performance with Anion-Selective Electrodes
Arulrajan, Antony C. ; Ramasamy, Deepika L. ; Sillanpää, Mika ; Wal, Albert van der; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Porada, Slawomir ; Dykstra, Jouke E. - \ 2019
Advanced Materials (2019). - ISSN 0935-9648
anion-selective electrodes - capacitive deionization - water desalination

Capacitive deionization (CDI) typically uses one porous carbon electrode that is cation adsorbing and one that is anion adsorbing. In 2016, Smith and Dmello proposed an innovative CDI cell design based on two cation-selective electrodes and a single anion-selective membrane, and thereafter this design was experimentally validated by various authors. In this design, anions pass through the membrane once, and desalinated water is continuously produced. In the present work, this idea is extended, and it is experimentally shown that also a choice for anion-selective electrodes, in combination with a cation-selective membrane, leads to a functional cell design that continuously desalinates water. Anion-selective electrodes are obtained by chemical modification of the carbon electrode with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. After chemical modification, the activated carbon electrode shows a substantial reduction of the total pore volume and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, but nevertheless maintains excellent CDI performance, which is for the first time that a low-porosity carbon electrode is demonstrated as a promising material for CDI.

Risk to the supply of ecosystem services across aquatic ecosystems
Culhane, Fiona ; Teixeira, Heliana ; Nogueira, Antonio J.A. ; Borgwardt, Florian ; Trauner, Daniel ; Lillebø, Ana ; Piet, Gerjan ; Kuemmerlen, Mathias ; McDonald, Hugh ; O'Higgins, Tim ; Barbosa, Ana Luisa ; Wal, Jan Tjalling Van Der; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Arevalo-Torres, Juan ; Barbière, Julian ; Robinson, Leonie A. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 660 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 611 - 621.
Sustainability - Biodiversity
The capacity of ecosystems to supply ecosystem services is decreasing. Sustaining this supply requires an under- standing of the links between the impacts of pressures introduced by human activities and how this can lead to
changes in the supply of services. Here, we apply a novel approach, assessing‘
risk to ecosystem service supply’ (RESS), across a range of aquatic ecosystems in seven case studies. We link aggregate impact risk from human activities on ecosystem components, with a relative score of their potential to supply services. The greatest RESS is found where an ecosystem component with a high potential to supply services is subject to high impact risk. In this context, we explore variability in RESS across 99 types of aquatic ecosystem component from 11 realms, ranging from oceanic to wetlands. We explore some causes of variability in the RESS observed, including assessment area, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and population density. We found that Lakes, Rivers, Inlets and
Coastal realms had some of the highest RESS, though this was highly dependent on location. We found a positive relationship between impact risk and service supply potential, indicating the ecosystem components we rely on mostfor services, are also those most at risk. However, variability in this relationship indicates that protecting the supply of ecosystem services alone will not protect all parts of the ecosystem at high risk. Broad socio-economic factors explained some of the variability found in RESS. For example, RESS was positively associated with GDP and artificial and agricultural land use in most realms, highlighting the need to achieve balance between increasing GDP and sustaining ecosystem health and human wellbeing more broadly. This approach can be used for sustainablemanagement of ecosystemservice use, to highlight the ecosystemcomponents mostcriticalto supplying services, and those most at risk

Exploring the adoption of precision agricultural technologies : A cross regional study of EU farmers
Barnes, A.P. ; Soto, I. ; Eory, V. ; Beck, B. ; Balafoutis, A. ; Sánchez, B. ; Vangeyte, J. ; Fountas, S. ; Wal, T. van der; Gómez-Barbero, M. - \ 2019
Land Use Policy 80 (2019). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 163 - 174.
EU Policy - Precision Agriculture - Random Intercept Logistic Regression

Precision agricultural technologies (PATs) allow more detailed management of in-field variability. Policy and advisory communities have championed PATs as a route to preserving natural capital whilst increasing productivity from agricultural land. A range of PATs are currently available for the agricultural producer but uptake varies by the type of technology and region. Whereas most studies on uptake have focused on US or Australia we empirically examine uptake of machine guidance (MG) and variable rate nitrogen technologies (VRNT) within European farming systems. Using primary information from 971 arable crop growers across five countries: Belgium, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands and the UK, a multilevel random intercept regression estimated a) the differences between adoption and non-adoption and b) the differences between VRNT and MG adoption. We find, aside from size and income differences, which reflect the economic cost barrier to adoption, an attitudinal difference, in terms of optimism towards the technology's economic return leading to more probability of uptake. Moreover innovative and information seeking behaviour also proved significant when upgrading from machine guidance to variable rate technologies. Subsidy and taxation were considered positive drivers of uptake within the community. However, results suggest that more indirect interventions, such as informational support to counteract industry bias, and demonstration to prove the viability of economic return may be effective at meeting land manager and policy expectations towards PATs.

Linking biodiversity to ecosystem services supply: Patterns across aquatic ecosystems
Teixeira, Heliana ; Lillebø, Ana I. ; Culhane, Fiona ; Robinson, Leonie ; Trauner, Daniel ; Borgwardt, Florian ; Kummerlen, Mathias ; Barbosa, Ana ; McDonald, Hugh ; Funk, Andrea ; O'Higgins, Tim ; Wal, Jan Tjalling Van Der; Piet, Gerjan ; Hein, Thomas ; Arévalo-Torres, Juan ; Iglesias-Campos, Alejandro ; Barbière, Julian ; Nogueira, António J.A. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 657 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 517 - 534.
Global initiatives have been increasingly focusing on mainstreaming the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decision-making at all levels. Due to the accelerated rate at which biodiversity is declining and its consequences for the functioning of ecosystems and subsequently, the services they provide, there is need to develop comprehensive assessments of the services and the benefits nature delivers to society. Based on expertevaluation, we identified relevant flow linkages in the supply-side of the socio-ecological system, i.e. from biodi-
versity to ecosystem services supply for eight case studies across European aquatic ecosystems covering freshwater, transitional, coastal and marine waters realms. Biological mediated services were considered, as well as those reliant on purely physical aspects of the ecosystem, i.e. abiotic outputs, since both have implications for spatial planning, management and decision-making. Due to the multidimensional nature of ecosystems and their biodiversity, our approach used ecosystem components such as habitats and biota as proxies for biodiversity and as the focal point for linkage identification. Statistical analysis revealed the importance of considering mobile biota in the spatial assessment of habitats. Contrary to literature evidences so far, our results showed signifi
cantly different and complementary ecosystem services supply patterns across the continuum of aquatic realms. The implemented score of ecosystem services supply has a high potential for integrated aquatic ecosystem service supply assessments in the context of ecosystem-based management.

Landschapsnetwerken voor bestuivers
Rooij, Sabine van - \ 2018
Cumulatieve effecten van offshore wind parken: habitatverlies zeevogels : update voor vijf zeevogelsoorten tot 2030
Wal, J.T. van der; Puijenbroek, M.E.B. van; Leopold, M.F. - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C059/18) - 96
Arsenite removal in groundwater treatment plants by sequential Permanganate―Ferric treatment
Ahmad, Arslan ; Cornelissen, Emile ; Wetering, Stephan van de; Dijk, Tim van; Genuchten, Case van; Bundschuh, Jochen ; Wal, Albert van der; Bhattacharya, Prosun - \ 2018
Journal of Water Process Engineering 26 (2018). - ISSN 2214-7144 - p. 221 - 229.
Arsenic removal - Arsenite oxidation - Drinking water - Groundwater treatment - Permanganate - Rapid sand filtration

The Dutch drinking water sector is actively investigating methods to reduce arsenic (As) to <1 μg/L in drinking water supply. We investigated (1) the effectiveness of sequential permanganate (MnO4¯ )–ferric (Fe(III)) dosing during aeration–rapid sand filtration to achieve <1 μg/L As (2) the influence of MnO4¯ –Fe(III) dosing on pre-established removal patterns of As(III), Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4 + in rapid sand filters and (3) the influence of MnO4¯ –Fe(III) dosing on the settling and molecular-scale structural properties of the filter backwash solids. We report that MnO4¯ –Fe(III) dosing is an effective technique to improve arsenite [As(III)] removal at groundwater treatment plants. At a typical aeration—rapid sand filtration facility in the Netherlands effluent As concentrations of <1 μg/L were achieved with 1.2 mg/L MnO4 ¯–and 1.8 mg/L Fe(III). The optimized combination of MnO4¯ –and Fe(III) doses did not affect the removal efficiency of Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4 + in rapid sand filters, however, the removal patterns of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in rapid sand filter were altered, as well as the settling behaviour of backwash solids. The characterization of backwash solids by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the changed settling velocity of backwash solids with MnO4¯ –Fe(III) in place was not due to changes in the molecular-scale structure of Fe-precipitates that constitute the major portion of the backwash solids.

Scale model of a training dam using lightweight granulates
Vermeulen, Bart ; Boersema, Matthijs ; Hoitink, Ton ; Sieben, Arjan ; Sloff, Kees ; Wal, Maarten van der - \ 2018
In: River Flow 2018 - Ninth International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics. - EDP Sciences (E3S Web of Conferences ) - 7 p.

Longitudinal training dams (LTDs) are a promising alternative for river groynes. Here we summarize findings of a recent study focused on the along river transition from a series of river groynes to an LTD, where the flow divides between the fairway and the side channel between the LTD and the river bank. A scale model is setup using lightweight granulates made of polystyrene to create conditions that are dynamically similar to a prototype situation in the River Waal. The key advantage of using lightweight granulates is that both the Shields number and the Froude number are similar in the model and the prototype. A high flow and a low flow experiment were carried out. The bedforms in the physical model have dimensions that correspond to theoretical dune height predictions, and also the channel incision due to width reduction is in accordance with expectations. The scour holes that develop near the tip of the groynes, however, are too deep, which may relate to improper scaling of the local turbulent vortices, initiated at the groynes. The morphodynamic developments in the flow divergence zone are subtle, and are overwhelmed by the mobile bed response to the presence of groynes. Considering that the physical model over-predicts the erosion caused by groynes, this suggests that the LTD configuration subject to study results in a comparatively stable bed morphology.

The relationship between job demands, job resources and teachers’ professional learning : is it explained by self-determination theory?
Jansen in de Wal, Joost ; Beemt, Antoine van den; Martens, Rob L. ; Brok, Perry J. den - \ 2018
Studies in Continuing Education (2018). - ISSN 0158-037X
Job demands - job resources - motivation - self-determination theory - teacher professional learning

Although teachers’ commitment to continuous professional learning is crucial for high quality education, research shows that this learning cannot be taken for granted. To better understand how teachers’ learning at work can be supported, this study investigates how effects of job demands (i.e. work pressure and emotional pressure) and job resources (i.e. task autonomy, transformational leadership, and collegial support) on teachers’ learning commitment (i.e. learning frequency and engagement) can be explained by basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation, as posited by self-determination theory. At two occasions, approximately one year apart, data was collected in a sample of 678 (T1) and 536 (T2) Dutch secondary school teachers. Structural equation models showed the consecutive positive longitudinal relationships between teachers’ experience of job resources, basic psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and commitment to professional learning. Job demands were not related to basic need satisfaction over and above the effects of job resources. Implications for how self-determination theory and the job demands resources model can mutually inform each other are discussed. In addition, implications for stimulating teachers’ professional learning in practice are provided.

Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Waarom onderzoek met leefbakken en niet met het terugzetten van gemerkte vis in zee?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Marine Research - 4 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Het gebruik van leefbakken is hiervoor de beste methode. Waarom is dat zo?
Evergreen – bollen Plantengroei bevorderende rhizobacteriën
Dam, M.F.N. van; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Huisman, Huei Ming ; Greve, Gerdit ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Relationship between home-field advantage of litter decomposition and priming of soil organic matter
Lonardo, D.P. di; Manrubia, M. ; Boer, W. de; Zweers, H. ; Veen, G.F. ; Wal, A. van der - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 126 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 49 - 56.
C-plant litter - Carbon cycling - Home field advantage - Nitrogen - Priming effect - Soil organic matter

Home field advantage (HFA; acceleration of plant litter decomposition in soils that receive their indigenous litter) and priming effects (PE; short-term changes in the turnover of soil organic matter caused by the addition of fresh organic carbon) are two aspects of decomposition processes that are driven by the composition and functioning of soil decomposer communities. Physicochemical similarity between added organic compounds and soil organic matter fractions has been indicated as an important steering factor of PE. It is unknown whether PE, like litter decomposition, experience HFA, i.e., whether PE are higher than expected in soils receiving their own litter due to specialization of the decomposer community. Here we studied both HFA and PE by measuring litter- and SOM-derived carbon (C) fluxes after the addition of fresh plant litter. We reciprocally incubated three 13C labelled litter types (maize, bent and beech) in soils from ecosystems where these litters are abundantly produced (e.g., arable sites, grasslands and forests), with and without the addition of mineral nitrogen (N). Generally, respiration of both litter-derived and SOM-derived C were lowest when beech litter was added, and were lower in forest soils than in arable or grassland soils. N addition generally slightly increased the respiration of litter-derived C, but had no effect on SOM-derived C. All litter types induced a positive PE in all soils. HFA effects were not significantly different from zero, but were significantly higher in grasslands than in maize fields amended with nitrogen. We found a positive relationship between litter and priming HFA, indicating that the rates of both litter decomposition and PE may be affected in the same manner by home combinations of plant and litter versus away combinations. This positive relationship disappeared when N was added. Our results provide a first indication that the extent to which indigenous soil microbes are specialized to breakdown home litter, not only accelerates or decelerates the decomposition of litter, but affects the breakdown of SOM in the same way. This could imply that a specialized litter decomposer community driving HFA can further accelerate soil C mineralization via enhanced induction of PE. Therefore, the impact of specialized decomposer communities on the dynamics of soil C pools may be bigger than expected from HFA of litter decomposition alone.

A bead-based suspension array for the detection of Salmonella antibodies in pig sera
Wal, Fimme J. van der; Achterberg, René P. ; Maassen, Catharina B.M. - \ 2018
BMC Veterinary Research 14 (2018)1. - ISSN 1746-6148
Bead-based suspension array - LPS - Pig - Salmonella - Serology - Swine - Triazine chemistry

Background: Slaughter pigs are monitored for the presence of the zoonotic pathogen Salmonella, using both serology and bacteriology. ELISAs used to investigate pig herds are based on the detection of antibodies against components of the Salmonella cell envelope. Nearly all Salmonella isolates in food-producing animals are serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, distributed over various serogroups as determined by the composition of their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ELISAs for Salmonella serology are usually based on serogroup B and C1 LPS, often combined with serogroup D or E LPS. Although C2 LPS may improve serology, use of C2 LPS in a broad ELISA was never achieved. Results: To enable detection of serum antibodies against Salmonella in pigs, a bead-based suspension array was developed with five LPS variants (B, 2× C1, C2, D1), each conjugated to a different bead set using triazine chemistry. Reactivity of the beads was confirmed with rabbit agglutination sera and with experimental pig sera. With a mixture of bead sets, 175 sera from slaughter pigs were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Salmonella. With a combination of ROC analysis (B and D LPS) and a prevalence estimation based on historic data (C LPS), individual cut-offs were defined for each LPS-conjugated bead set, and assay performance was evaluated. Results of the suspension array (BC1C1C2D) suggest that more pigs are seroconverted than indicated by a commercial BC1D1-ELISA, and that most of these extra seropositive samples give a signal on one of the beads with C LPS. These results show that expansion of a standard panel with more C LPS variants improves antibody detection. Conclusions: A suspension array for Salmonella serology in pigs was developed, that detects more seropositive sera than ELISA, which is achieved by expanding the panel of Salmonella LPS variants, including C2 LPS. The results demonstrate that bead-based suspension arrays allow for testing of pig sera, with the advantage of being able to set cut-offs per antigen. Ultimately, this type of assay can be applied in routine veterinary serology to test for antibodies against multiple Salmonella serovars (or other pathogens) in one single serum sample, using up-to-date antigen panels.

Energy consumption in capacitive deionization – Constant current versus constant voltage operation
Dykstra, J.E. ; Porada, S. ; Wal, A. van der; Biesheuvel, P.M. - \ 2018
Water Research 143 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 367 - 375.
Capacitive deionization - Constant current and constant voltage operation - Minimizing energy consumption - Optimizing salt adsorption

In the field of Capacitive Deionization (CDI), it has become a common notion that constant current (CC) operation consumes significantly less energy than constant voltage operation (CV). Arguments in support of this claim are that in CC operation the endpoint voltage is reached only at the end of the charging step, and thus the average cell voltage during charging is lower than the endpoint voltage, and that in CC operation we can recover part of the invested energy during discharge. Though these arguments are correct, in the present work based on experiments and theory, we conclude that in operation of a well-defined CDI cycle, this does not lead, for the case we analyze, to the general conclusion that CC operation is more energy efficient. Instead, we find that without energy recovery there is no difference in energy consumption between CC and CV operation. Including 50% energy recovery, we find that indeed CC is more energy efficient, but also in CV much energy can be recovered. Important in the analysis is to precisely define the desalination objective function, such as that per unit total operational time –including both the charge and discharge steps– a certain desalination quantity and water recovery must be achieved. Another point is that also in CV operation energy recovery is possible by discharge at a non-zero cell voltage. To aid the analysis we present a new method of data representation where energy consumption is plotted against desalination. In addition, we propose that one must analyze the full range of combinations of cycle times, voltages and currents, and only compare the best cycles, to be able to conclude which operational mode is optimal for a given desalination objective. We discuss three methods to make this analysis in a rigorous way, two experimental and one combining experiments and theory. We use the last method and present results of this analysis.

Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: wat zijn de overlevingskansen in de pulsvisserij?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - seals - animal health
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Welke conclusies kunnen uit het onderzoek worden getrokken over de overlevingskansen?
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Hoe gaat dit in zijn werk?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Hoe gaat het onderzoek naar de overlevingskansen van vis in zijn werk?
A molecular network for functional versatility of HECATE transcription factors
Gaillochet, Christophe ; Jamge, Suraj ; Wal, Froukje van der; Angenent, Gerco ; Immink, Richard ; Lohmann, Jan U. - \ 2018
The Plant Journal 95 (2018)1. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 57 - 70.
Arabidopsis thaliana - flowering time - HECATE - NGATHA - regulatory module - shoot apical meristem - transcription factor

During the plant life cycle, diverse signaling inputs are continuously integrated and engage specific genetic programs depending on the cellular or developmental context. Consistent with an important role in this process, HECATE (HEC) basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors display diverse functions, from photomorphogenesis to the control of shoot meristem dynamics and gynoecium patterning. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functional versatility and the deployment of specific HEC subprograms remain elusive. To address this issue, we systematically identified proteins with the capacity to interact with HEC1, the best-characterized member of the family, and integrated this information with our data set of direct HEC1 target genes. The resulting core genetic modules were consistent with specific developmental functions of HEC1, including its described activities in light signaling, gynoecium development and auxin homeostasis. Importantly, we found that HEC genes also play a role in the modulation of flowering time, and uncovered that their role in gynoecium development may involve the direct transcriptional regulation of NGATHA1 (NGA1) and NGA2 genes. NGA factors were previously shown to contribute to fruit development, but our data now show that they also modulate stem cell homeostasis in the shoot apical meristem. Taken together, our results delineate a molecular network underlying the functional versatility of HEC transcription factors. Our analyses have not only allowed us to identify relevant target genes controlling shoot stem cell activity and a so far undescribed biological function of HEC1, but also provide a rich resource for the mechanistic elucidation of further context-dependent HEC activities.

Kwetsbare soorten voor energie-infrastructuur in Nederland : overzicht van effecten van hernieuwbare energie-infrastructuur en hoogspanningslijnen op de kwetsbare soorten vogels, vleermuizen, zeezoogdieren en vissen, en oplossingsrichtingen voor een natuurinclusieve energietransitie
Buij, Ralph ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Geelhoed, Steve ; Jeugd, Henk van der; Klop, Eric ; Lagerveld, Sander ; Limpens, Herman ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Ottburg, Fabrice ; Schippers, Peter ; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Verboom, Jana ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Wegman, Ruut ; Winter, Erwin ; Schotman, Alex - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2883) - 231
De cumulatieve impact van energie-infrastructuur kan een belangrijke rol spelen bij de populatieontwikkeling van kwetsbare soorten door sterfte en habitatverlies als gevolg van aanvaringen met die energie-infrastructuur of het verstorende effect van dergelijke infrastructuur. In dit rapport wordt een zo actueel en volledig mogelijk overzicht gegeven van de staat van kennis en de relatieve kwetsbaarheid van vogels, vleermuizen, zeezoogdieren en vissen in relatie tot de impact van windturbines, hoogspanningslijn
en, waterkrachtcentrales en zonnepaneelvelden. Voor deze soortgroepen en energie-infrastructuur worden de kwetsbare soorten gerangschikt op basis van hun kwetsbaarheid en wordt inzichtelijk gemaakt waar de verspreiding van de kwetsbaarste soorten overlapt met de energie-infrastructuur. We evalueren hoe de cumulatieve impact van energie-infrastructuur op de soortgroepen gekwantificeerd kan worden nu en in de toekomst, en hoe die impact zich verhoudt tot andere antropogene drukfactoren voor de kwetsbaarste soorten. We bespreken mitigatie- en compensatiemaatregelen die in potentie kunnen voorkomen dat Nederlandse populaties van soorten afnemen als gevolg van de huidige en toekomstige energie-infrastructuur op zee en op land. Tot slot worden suggesties gedaan voor het opvullen van de belangrijkste kennishiaten en oplossingsrichtingen die het mogelijk maken de effecten op kwetsbare soorten bij de verdere groei van energie-infrastructuur op land en op zee te minimaliseren.
Desalination with porous electrodes : Mechanisms of ion transport and adsorption
Dykstra, Jouke E. - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bert van der Wal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438339 - 191
Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
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