Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Balance of Emission and Dynamical Controls on Ozone During the Korea-United States Air Quality Campaign From Multiconstituent Satellite Data Assimilation
Miyazaki, K. ; Sekiya, T. ; Fu, D. ; Bowman, K.W. ; Kulawik, S.S. ; Sudo, K. ; Walker, T. ; Kanaya, Y. ; Takigawa, M. ; Ogochi, K. ; Eskes, H. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Thompson, A.M. ; Gaubert, B. ; Barre, J. ; Emmons, L.K. - \ 2019
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 124 (2019)1. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 387 - 413.
air quality - Asia - data assimilation - emission - ozone - satellite

Global multiconstituent concentration and emission fields obtained from the assimilation of the satellite retrievals of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2, Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere, Microwave Limb Sounder, and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/OMI are used to understand the processes controlling air pollution during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign. Estimated emissions in South Korea were 0.42 Tg N for NOx and 1.1 Tg CO for CO, which were 40% and 83% higher, respectively, than the a priori bottom-up inventories, and increased mean ozone concentration by up to 7.5 ± 1.6 ppbv. The observed boundary layer ozone exceeded 90 ppbv over Seoul under stagnant phases, whereas it was approximately 60 ppbv during dynamical conditions given equivalent emissions. Chemical reanalysis showed that mean ozone concentration was persistently higher over Seoul (75.10 ± 7.6 ppbv) than the broader KORUS-AQ domain (70.5 ± 9.2 ppbv) at 700 hPa. Large bias reductions (>75%) in the free tropospheric OH show that multiple-species assimilation is critical for balanced tropospheric chemistry analysis and emissions. The assimilation performance was dependent on the particular phase. While the evaluation of data assimilation fields shows an improved agreement with aircraft measurements in ozone (to less than 5 ppbv biases), CO, NO2, SO2, PAN, and OH profiles, lower tropospheric ozone analysis error was largest at stagnant conditions, whereas the model errors were mostly removed by data assimilation under dynamic weather conditions. Assimilation of new AIRS/OMI ozone profiles allowed for additional error reductions, especially under dynamic weather conditions. Our results show the important balance of dynamics and emissions both on pollution and the chemical assimilation system performance.

Study on the approaches to management for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries : DRuMFISH : final report - Study
Poos, J.J. ; Oliveira, José De; Ulrich, C. ; Brunel, T.P.A. ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian ; Mildenberger, Tobias ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Minto, Coilín ; Pawlowski, Lionel ; Robert, Marianne ; Macher, Claire ; Merzereaud, Mathieu ; Garcia, Dorleta ; Ibaibarriaga, L. ; Bertignac, Michel ; Vermard, Youen ; Fischer, Simon ; Carpi, Piera ; Walker, Nicola ; Earl, Timothy ; Davie, Sarah ; Haslob, Holger ; Kempf, A. ; Taylor, Marc ; Martin, Paloma ; Maynou, Francesc ; Recasens, Laura ; Ramirez, John Gabriel ; Lleonart, Jordi ; Garriga, Mariona ; Tserpes, George ; Sgardeli, Viki ; Coro, Gianpolo ; Scarcella, Giuseppe ; Angelini, Silvia - \ 2018
EU - ISBN 9789292024062 - 84 p.
This is the final report of the European Commission funded research project "DRuMFISH" (service contract n° EASME/EMFF/2014/l.3.2.4/ SI2.721116). The main aim of the project was to develop models and strategies for providing advice for mixed fisheries that account for: (i) fishing mortality ranges consistent with MSY, (ii) all fish caught being landed, and (iii) significant components of the marine fish ecosystem lacking key biological information. In order to meet this aim, DRuMFISH delivered a review of assessment approaches for data-poor stocks, extended mixed fisheries simulation frameworks to include data-poor stocks. The assessment approaches and simulation frameworks were implemented in 7 case studies. These case studies were mixed fisheries in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Celtic Sea, the Bay of Biscay, the Western Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea, and the Aegean Sea. Within the case studies, 35 data-poor stock assessments were done. These assessments provided exploitation status of data-poor stocks. Different harvest control rules were subsequently tested for their expected yields and stock biomasses from the mixed fisheries in the simulation frameworks. Now that data-poor stocks can be incorporated with in the mixed fisheries simulation frameworks, the design of new management plans can account for data-poor stocks in mixed fisheries.
Range extension of the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) within the Dutch Caribbean: First records of young individuals in the waters of Sint Eustatius.
Leurs, Guido ; Boman, Erik ; Walker, Paddy - \ 2018
Matters (2018). - ISSN 2297-8240 - 6 p.
The first observations of juvenile lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris) around the island of Sint Eustatius are described. Observations were made in the summer of 2015 and spring of 2016 and only consisted of individuals estimated to be smaller than 65 cm in total length (TL). These observations represent a range extension of this species within the waters of the Dutch Caribbean.
Carbon storage potential in degraded forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia
Ferraz, António ; Saatchi, Sassan ; Xu, Liang ; Hagen, Stephen ; Chave, Jerome ; Yu, Yifan ; Meyer, Victoria ; Garcia, Mariano ; Silva, Carlos ; Roswintiart, Orbita ; Samboko, Ari ; Sist, Plinio ; Walker, Sarah ; Pearson, Timothy R.H. ; Wijaya, Arief ; Sullivan, Franklin B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Hoekman, Dirk ; Ganguly, Sangram - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
aboveground biomass mapping - airborne lidar - carbon - forest degradation - Indonesia - Kalimantan - peat swamp forests

The forests of Kalimantan are under severe pressure from extensive land use activities dominated by logging, palm oil plantations, and peatland fires. To implement the forest moratorium for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, Indonesia's government requires information on the carbon stored in forests, including intact, degraded, secondary, and peat swamp forests. We developed a hybrid approach of producing a wall-to-wall map of the aboveground biomass (AGB) of intact and degraded forests of Kalimantan at 1 ha grid cells by combining field inventory plots, airborne lidar samples, and satellite radar and optical imagery. More than 110 000 ha of lidar data were acquired to systematically capture variations of forest structure and more than 104 field plots to develop lidar-biomass models. The lidar measurements were converted into biomass using models developed for 66 439 ha of drylands and 44 250 ha of wetland forests. By combining the AGB map with the national land cover map, we found that 22.3 Mha (106 ha) of forest remain on drylands ranging in biomass from 357.2 ±12.3 Mgha-1 in relatively intact forests to 134.2 ±6.1 Mgha-1 in severely degraded forests. The remaining peat swamp forests are heterogeneous in coverage and degradation level, extending over 3.62 Mha and having an average AGB of 211.8 ±12.7 Mgha-1. Emission factors calculated from aboveground biomass only suggest that the carbon storage potential of more than 15 Mha of degraded and secondary dryland forests will be about 1.1 PgC.

Survey of tools for measuring in vivo photosynthesis
Walker, Berkley J. ; Busch, Florian A. ; Driever, Steven M. ; Kromdijk, Johannes ; Lawson, Tracy - \ 2018
In: Photosynthesis / Covshoff, Sarah, New York : Humana Press Inc. (Methods in Molecular Biology ) - ISBN 9781493977857 - p. 3 - 24.
Chlorophyll fluorescence - CO exchange - O exchange - Online mass spectrometry - Photosynthesis
Measurements of in vivo photosynthesis are powerful tools that probe the largest fluxes of carbon and energy in an illuminated leaf, but often the specific techniques used are so varied and specialized that it is difficult for researchers outside the field to select and perform the most useful assays for their research questions. The goal of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of the current tools available for the study of in vivo photosynthesis so as to provide a foundation for selecting appropriate techniques, many of which are presented in detail in subsequent chapters. This chapter also organizes current methods into a comparative framework and provides examples of how they have been applied to research questions of broad agronomical, ecological, or biological importance. The chapter closes with an argument that the future of in vivo measurements of photosynthesis lies in the ability to use multiple methods simultaneously and discusses the benefits of this approach to currently open physiological questions. This chapter, combined with the relevant methods chapters, could serve as a laboratory course in methods in photosynthesis research or as part of a more comprehensive laboratory course in general plant physiology methods.
Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Classification
Walker, Donald A. ; Daniëls, Fred J.A. ; Matveyeva, Nadezhda V. ; Šibík, Jozef ; Walker, Marilyn D. ; Breen, Amy L. ; Druckenmiller, Lisa A. ; Raynolds, Martha K. ; Bültmann, Helga ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Buchhorn, Marcel ; Epstein, Howard E. ; Ermokhina, Ksenia ; Fosaa, Anna M. ; Heidmarsson, Starri ; Heim, Birgit ; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S. ; Koroleva, Natalia ; Lévesque, Esther ; MacKenzie, William H. ; Henry, Greg H.R. ; Nilsen, Lennart ; Peet, Robert ; Razzhivin, Volodya ; Talbot, Stephen S. ; Telyatnikov, Mikhail ; Thannheiser, Dietbert ; Webber, Patrick J. ; Wirth, Lisa M. - \ 2018
Phytocoenologia 48 (2018)2. - ISSN 0340-269X - p. 181 - 201.
Alaska - Bioclimate gradient - Braun-Blanquet approach - Habitat type - Plant growth form - Plot database - Syntaxon - Tundra - Vegetation mapping

Aims: An Arctic Vegetation Classification (AVC) is needed to address issues related to rapid Arctic-wide changes to climate, land-use, and biodiversity. Location: The 7.1 million km2 Arctic tundra biome. Approach and conclusions: The purpose, scope and conceptual framework for an Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA) and Classification (AVC) were developed during numerous workshops starting in 1992. The AVA and AVC are modeled after the European vegetation archive (EVA) and classification (EVC). The AVA will use Turboveg for data management. The AVC will use a Braun-Blanquet (Br.-Bl.) classification approach. There are approximately 31,000 Arctic plots that could be included in the AVA. An Alaska AVA (AVA-AK, 24 datasets, 3026 plots) is a prototype for archives in other parts of the Arctic. The plan is to eventually merge data from other regions of the Arctic into a single Turboveg v3 database. We present the pros and cons of using the Br.-Bl. classification approach compared to the EcoVeg (US) and Biogeoclimatic Ecological Classification (Canada) approaches. The main advantages are that the Br.-Bl. approach already has been widely used in all regions of the Arctic, and many described, well-accepted vegetation classes have a pan-Arctic distribution. A crosswalk comparison of Dryas octopetala communities described according to the EcoVeg and the Braun-Blanquet approaches indicates that the non-parallel hierarchies of the two approaches make crosswalks difficult above the plantcommunity level. A preliminary Arctic prodromus contains a list of typical Arctic habitat types with associated described syntaxa from Europe, Greenland, western North America, and Alaska. Numerical clustering methods are used to provide an overview of the variability of habitat types across the range of datasets and to determine their relationship to previously described Braun-Blanquet syntaxa. We emphasize the need for continued maintenance of the Pan-Arctic Species List, and additional plot data to fully sample the variability across bioclimatic subzones, phytogeographic regions, and habitats in the Arctic. This will require standardized methods of plot-data collection, inclusion of physiogonomic information in the numeric analysis approaches to create formal definitions for vegetation units, and new methods of data sharing between the AVA and national vegetation- plot databases.

Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales : update 2018
Maes, Piet ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Bào, Yīmíng ; Beer, Martin ; Birkhead, Monica ; Briese, Thomas ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Choi, Il Ryong ; Clegg, Christopher S. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Delwart, Eric ; DeRisi, Joseph L. ; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Drosten, Christian ; Druciarek, Tobiasz Z. ; Du, Jiang ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Gergerich, Rose C. ; Gillis, Amethyst N. ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Haenni, Anne Lise ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hồ, Thiện ; Hóng, Ní ; Jain, Rakesh K. ; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Junglen, Sandra ; Keller, Karen E. ; Kemp, Alan ; Kipar, Anja ; Kondov, Nikola O. ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Kormelink, Richard ; Korzyukov, Yegor ; Krupovic, Mart ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Laney, Alma G. ; LeBreton, Matthew ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Markotter, Wanda ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Ng, Terry Fei Fan ; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Peters, Clarence J. ; Plyusnin, Alexander ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Salmenperä, Pertteli ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sanfaçon, Hélène ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schmaljohn, Connie ; Schneider, Bradley S. ; Shirako, Yukio ; Siddell, Stuart ; Sironen, Tarja A. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Storm, Nadia ; Sudini, Harikishan ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E. ; Uppala, Mangala ; Vapalahti, Olli ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wáng, Guópíng ; Wáng, Lìpíng ; Wáng, Yànxiăng ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wiley, Michael R. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wolfe, Nathan D. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Xú, Wénxìng ; Yang, Li ; Yāng, Zuòkūn ; Yeh, Shyi Dong ; Zhāng, Yǒng Zhèn ; Zhèng, Yàzhōu ; Zhou, Xueping ; Zhū, Chénxī ; Zirkel, Florian ; Kuhn, Jens H. - \ 2018
Archives of Virology 163 (2018)8. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 2295 - 2310.
In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.
Modelling the recruitment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) throughout its European range
Bornarel, Virginie ; Lambert, Patrick ; Antunes, Carlos ; Belpaire, Claude ; Ciccotti, Eleonora ; Diaz, Estibaliz ; Diserud, Ola ; Doherty, Denis ; Domingos, Isabel ; Evans, Derek ; Graaf, Martin De; O'Leary, Ciara ; Pedersen, Michael ; Poole, Russell ; Walker, Alan ; Wickström, Håkan ; Beaulaton, Laurent ; Drouineau, Hilaire - \ 2018
ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (2018)2. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 541 - 552.
GEREM - glass eel - panmixia - temperate eel - trend
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) recruitment has been declining at least since the early 1980s at the scale of its distribution area. Since the population is panmictic, its stock assessment should be carried out on a range-wide basis. However, assessing the overall stock during the continental phase remains difficult given its widespread distribution among heterogeneous and separate river catchments. Hence, it is currently considered by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) more feasible to use glass eel recruitment data to assess the status of the overall population. In this study, we used Glass Eel Recruitment Estimation Model (GEREM) to estimate annual recruitment (i) at the river catchment level, a scale for which data are available, (ii) at an intermediate scale (6 European regions), and (iii) at a larger scale (Europe). This study provides an estimate of the glass eel recruitment trend through a single index, which gathers all recruitment time-series available at the European scale. Results confirmed an overall recruitment decline to dramatically low levels in 2009 (3.5% of the 1960-1979 recruitment average) and highlighted a more pronounced decline in the North Sea area compared to elsewhere in Europe.
Economic impacts of marine ecological change : Review and recent contributions of the VECTORS project on European marine waters
Groeneveld, Rolf A. ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Börger, Tobias ; Bosello, Francesco ; Buisman, Erik ; Delpiazzo, Elisa ; Eboli, Fabio ; Fernandes, Jose A. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hattam, Caroline ; Loureiro, Maria ; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D. ; Piwowarczyk, Joanna ; Schasfoort, Femke E. ; Simons, Sarah L. ; Walker, Adam N. - \ 2018
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 201 (2018). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 152 - 163.
Algal blooms - Climatic changes - Economic analysis - Fisheries - Introduced species - Recreation
Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out under the VECTORS project. We focus on three main types of change, namely invasive alien species; outbreak-forming species, such as jellyfish and toxic algae; and gradual changes in species distribution and productivity. The case studies available in the literature demonstrate that the impacts of invasions and outbreaks on fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism can potentially amount to several tens of millions of dollars each year in some regions. Moreover, stated preference studies suggest a substantial impact on coastal tourism and non-use values that is likely not visible in case studies of specific outbreak events. Climate-driven gradual changes in distribution and productivity of commercial fish stocks will have an impact on fisheries, although these impacts are likely to be overshadowed by much larger changes in prices of seafood and fuel.
Global Carbon Budget 2017
Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Sitch, Stephen ; Pongratz, Julia ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Ivar Korsbakken, Jan ; Peters, Glen P. ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Arora, Vivek K. ; Bakker, Dorothee C.E. ; Barbero, Leticia ; Becker, Meike ; Betts, Richard A. ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Cosca, Catherine E. ; Cross, Jessica ; Currie, Kim ; Gasser, Thomas ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Hunt, Christopher W. ; Hurtt, George ; Ilyina, Tatiana ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Kautz, Markus ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lima, Ivan ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin Ichiro ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; Padin, X.A. ; Peregon, Anna ; Pfeil, Benjamin ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rehder, Gregor ; Reimer, Janet ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Tubiello, Francesco N. ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Werf, Guido R. van der; Heuven, Steven Van; Viovy, Nicolas ; Vuichard, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Watson, Andrew J. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke ; Zhu, Dan - \ 2018
Earth System Science Data 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 405 - 448.
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere-the "global carbon budget"-is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land-cover change data and bookkeeping models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1δ. For the last decade available (2007-2016), EFF was 9.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, ELUC 1.3±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM 4.7±0.1 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN 2.4±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND 3.0±0.8 GtC yr-1, with a budget imbalance BIM of 0.6 GtC yr-1 indicating overestimated emissions and/or underestimated sinks. For year 2016 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9±0.5 GtC yr-1. Also for 2016, ELUC was 1.3±0.7 GtC yr-1, GATM was 6.1±0.2 GtC yr-1, SOCEAN was 2.6±0.5 GtC yr-1, and SLAND was 2.7±1.0 GtC yr-1, with a small BIM of-0.3 GtC. GATM continued to be higher in 2016 compared to the past decade (2007-2016), reflecting in part the high fossil emissions and the small SLAND consistent with El Ninõ conditions. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 402.8±0.1 ppm averaged over 2016. For 2017, preliminary data for the first 6-9 months indicate a renewed growth in EFF of C2.0% (range of 0.8 to 3.0 %) based on national emissions projections for China, USA, and India, and projections of gross domestic product (GDP) corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All results presented here can be downloaded from https://doi.org/10.18160/GCP-2017 (GCP, 2017).
Effect of exercise on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and faecal recovery of ADL and TiO2 in ponies
Schaafstra, F.J.W.C. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Schonewille, J.T. ; Roelfsema, E. ; Westermann, C.M. ; Dansen, O. ; Jacobs, M. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Spronck, E.A. ; Blok, M.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2018
Animal 12 (2018)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 2505 - 2510.
digestibility - equines - exercise - markers - total faeces collection
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days. Ponies submitted to HI exercise were gradually trained for the same 47 days according a standardized protocol. Throughout the experiment, the ponies received a fixed level of feed and the daily rations consisted of 4.7 kg DM of grass hay and 0.95 kg DM of concentrate. The diet was supplemented with minerals, vitamins and TiO2 (3.0 g Ti/day). Total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), CP, crude fat, NDF, ADF, starch, sugar and energy was determined with the total faeces collection (TFC) method. In addition, DM and OM digestibility was estimated using internal ADL and the externally supplemented Ti as markers. Urine was collected on the final 2 days of each experimental period. Exercise did not affect apparent digestibility of CP, crude fat, starch and sugar. Digestibility of DM (DMD), OM (OMD), ADF and NDF tended to be lower and DE was decreased when ponies received the HI exercise regime. For all treatments combined, mean faecal recoveries of ADL and Ti were 87.8±1.7% and 99.3±1.7%, respectively. Ti was not detected in the urine, indicating that intestinal integrity was maintained with exercise. Dry matter digestibility estimated with the TFC, ADL and Ti for ponies subjected to LI exercise were 66.3%, 60.3% and 64.8%, respectively, while DMD for HI ponies were 64.2%, 60.3% and 65.2%, respectively. In conclusion, physical exercise has an influence on the GE digestibility of the feed in ponies provided with equivalent levels of feed intake. In addition, the two markers used for estimating apparent DMD and OMD indicate that externally supplemented Ti is a suitable marker to determine digestibility of nutrients in horses performing exercise unlike dietary ADL.
Plasticity of the MFS1 promoter leads to multidrug resistance in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici
Omrane, Selim ; Audéon, Colette ; Ignace, Amandine ; Duplaix, Clémentine ; Aouini, Lamia ; Kema, Gert ; Walker, Anne Sophie ; Fillinger, Sabine - \ 2017
mSphere 2 (2017)5. - ISSN 2379-5042
Antifungal resistance - Bulk progeny analysis - Efflux pumps - Multidrug resistance - Repeated elements - Transcriptional regulation
The ascomycete Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria leaf blotch on wheat. Disease control relies mainly on resistant wheat cultivars and on fungicide applications. The fungus displays a high potential to circumvent both methods. Resistance against all unisite fungicides has been observed over decades. A different type of resistance has emerged among wild populations with multidrugresistant (MDR) strains. Active fungicide efflux through overexpression of the major facilitator gene MFS1 explains this emerging resistance mechanism. Applying a bulkprogeny sequencing approach, we identified in this study a 519-bp long terminal repeat (LTR) insert in the MFS1 promoter, a relic of a retrotransposon cosegregating with the MDR phenotype. Through gene replacement, we show the insert as a mutation responsible for MFS1 overexpression and the MDR phenotype. Besides this type I insert, we found two different types of promoter inserts in more recent MDR strains. Type I and type II inserts harbor potential transcription factor binding sites, but not the type III insert. Interestingly, all three inserts correspond to repeated elements present at different genomic locations in either IPO323 or other Z. tritici strains. These results underline the plasticity of repeated elements leading to fungicide resistance in Z. tritici and which contribute to its adaptive potential.
Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass
Zillikens, M.C. ; Demissie, Serkalem ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. ; Chou, Wen Chi ; Stolk, Lisette ; Livshits, Gregory ; Broer, Linda ; Johnson, Toby ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Luan, J.A. ; Malkin, Ida ; Ried, Janina S. ; Smith, Albert V. ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Hua Zhao, Jing ; Zhang, Weihua ; Aghdassi, Ali ; Åkesson, Kristina ; Amin, Najaf ; Baier, Leslie J. ; Barroso, Inês ; Bennett, David A. ; Bertram, Lars ; Biffar, Rainer ; Bochud, Murielle ; Boehnke, Michael ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Buchman, Aron S. ; Byberg, Liisa ; Campbell, Harry ; Campos Obanda, Natalia ; Cauley, Jane A. ; Cawthon, Peggy M. ; Cederberg, Henna ; Chen, Zhao ; Cho, Nam H. ; Jin Choi, Hyung ; Claussnitzer, Melina ; Collins, Francis ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Jager, Philip L. De; Demuth, Ilja ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M. ; DIatchenko, Luda ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Enneman, Anke W. ; Erdos, Mike ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Eriksson, Joel ; Estrada, Karol ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Fu, Mao ; Garcia, Melissa ; Gieger, Christian ; Girke, Thomas ; Glazer, Nicole L. ; Grallert, Harald ; Grewal, Jagvir ; Han, Bok Ghee ; Hanson, Robert L. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hofman, Albert ; Hoffman, Eric P. ; Homuth, Georg ; Hsueh, Wen Chi ; Hubal, Monica J. ; Hubbard, Alan ; Huffman, Kim M. ; Husted, Lise B. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Ittermann, Till ; Jansson, John Olov ; Jordan, Joanne M. ; Jula, Antti ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Kilpelaïnen, Tuomas O. ; Klopp, Norman ; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L. ; Koistinen, Heikki A. ; Kraus, William E. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen ; Kuulasmaa, Teemu ; Kuusisto, Johanna ; Laakso, Markku ; Lahti, Jari ; Lang, Thomas ; Langdahl, Bente L. ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Lee, Jong Young ; Lerch, Markus M. ; Lewis, Joshua R. ; Lind, Lars ; Lindgren, Cecilia M. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Liu, Tian ; Liu, Youfang ; Ljunggren, Östen ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Luben, Robert N. ; Maixner, William ; McGuigan, Fiona E. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Melhus, Håkan ; Mellström, Dan ; Melov, Simon ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morris, Andrew P. ; Mosekilde, Leif ; Newman, Anne ; Nielson, Carrie M. ; O'Connell, Jeffrey R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Parker, Stephan ; Peacock, Munro ; Perola, Markus ; Peters, Annette ; Polasek, Ozren ; Prince, Richard L. ; Raïkkönen, Katri ; Ralston, Stuart H. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Robbins, John A. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rudan, Igor ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Schadt, Eric E. ; Schipf, Sabine ; Scott, Laura ; Sehmi, Joban ; Shen, Jian ; Soo Shin, Chan ; Sigurdsson, Gunnar ; Smith, Shad ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Stančáková, Alena ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Tan, Sian Tsung ; Tarnopolsky, Mark A. ; Thompson, Patricia ; Thomson, Cynthia A. ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Tikkanen, Emmi ; Tranah, Gregory J. ; Tuomilehto, Jaakko ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Verma, Arjun ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Völzke, Henry ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Walker, Mark ; Weedon, Michael N. ; Welch, Ryan ; Wichman, H.E. ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Williams, Frances M.K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Nicole C. ; Xie, Weijia ; Yu, Lei ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Chambers, John C. ; Döring, Angela ; Duijn, Cornelia M. Van; Econs, Michael J. ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Kooner, Jaspal S. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Spector, Timothy D. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Ossowski, Vicky ; Waterworth, Dawn M. ; Loos, Ruth J.F. ; Karasik, David ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Kiel, Douglas P. - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10-8) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 × 10-6). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.
The chemical basis of mate recognition in two parasitoid wasp species of the genus Nasonia
Mair, Magdalena M. ; Kmezic, Violeta ; Huber, Stephanie ; Pannebakker, Bart A. ; Ruther, Joachim - \ 2017
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 164 (2017)1. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 1 - 15.
chemical communication - cuticular hydrocarbons - Hymenoptera - parasitic wasp - pheromone - Pteromalidae - reproductive isolation - species discrimination
To recognize one's mate is essential for all sexually reproducing animals. In insects, mate recognition is often based on chemical cues such as hydrocarbons which are distributed over the insect's cuticle. In the parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), interspecific mating possibly occurs in microsympatry between Nasonia vitripennis Walker and Nasonia giraulti Darling despite post-zygotic isolation mechanisms preventing hybridization. Males of N. vitripennis are known to equally court con- and heterospecific females, which they recognize by means of cuticular hydrocarbons. A recent study surprisingly showed that this might not be the case in N. giraulti, leaving open how males of this species achieve the recognition of mating partners. In this study, we investigated chemical mate recognition in N. giraulti in more detail and compared observed behaviors with behaviors of N. vitripennis by conducting experiments with both species concurrently and under the same experimental conditions. We disentangled the role of female-derived non-polar cuticular lipids – i.e., cuticular hydrocarbons – and more polar cuticular lipids in the ability of males to recognize con- and heterospecific females. In addition, we tested whether females of the two species discriminate similarly between con- and heterospecific males. We demonstrate that, in contrast to N. vitripennis, males of N. giraulti prefer live conspecific females over heterospecific ones. Furthermore, in contrast to N. vitripennis, mate recognition in N. giraulti males is not based on cuticular hydrocarbons, but rather involves other chemical messengers, presumably more polar cuticular lipids. In both species, discrimination against heterospecific males decreases with female age.
Structure–property relationships in twist-bend nematogens : the influence of terminal groups
Abberley, Jordan P. ; Jansze, Suzanne M. ; Walker, Rebecca ; Paterson, Daniel A. ; Henderson, Peter A. ; Marcelis, A.T.M. ; Storey, John M.D. ; Imrie, Corrie T. - \ 2017
Liquid Crystals 44 (2017)1. - ISSN 0267-8292 - p. 68 - 83.
intercalated phase - liquid crystal dimers - Twist-bend nematic phase
The synthesis and characterisation of a range of non-symmetric liquid crystal dimers designed to exhibit the twist-bend nematic phase is reported. Beginning with 1-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-6-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yl) hexane, each nitrile group is exchanged systematically for a methoxy group. The behaviour of these dimers is interpreted in terms of their bent shape being the predominant driving force for the formation of the twist-bend nematic phase, and the small differences between the twist-bend nematic–nematic transition temperatures are attributed to the differences between the interaction strength parameters of the mesogenic units. The 4-alkyloxyphenyl 4-[6-(4′-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl)hexyloxy]benzoates with ethyl, butyl, hexyl and octyl chains show the twist-bend nematic phase, whereas the corresponding 4-alkyloxyphenyl 4-[5-(4′-cyanobiphenyl-4-yloxy)pentyloxy]benzoates do not. This difference in behaviour is attributed to the more bent structure of the former. Increasing the terminal chain length initially decreases the twist-bend nematic–nematic transition temperature and this suggests that the chain disrupts the interactions between the mesogenic units. Subsequent increases in chain length have a smaller effect suggesting that the chain can be accommodated within an intercalated arrangement. The transitional behaviour of 1-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-6-(4-butyloxybiphenyl-4′-yl) hexane is compared to that of 1-(4-cyanobiphenyl-4′-yloxy)-6-(4-((S)-2-methyl)butyloxybiphenyl-4′-yl) hexane, and it is shown that chain branching strongly destabilises the twist-bend nematic phase. This is attributed to difficulties associated with packing the dimers.
Can guild- or site-specific contrasts in trends or phenology explain the changed role of the Dutch Wadden Sea for fish?
Tulp, Ingrid ; Veer, Henk W. Van Der; Walker, Paddy ; Walraven, Lodewijk Van; Bolle, Loes J. - \ 2017
Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 150 - 163.
Fish community - Nursery - Estuary - Coastal - Marine juvenile
The Wadden Sea bordering the Dutch, German and Danish coast, is traditionally a region with important functions for many fish species: as a nursery area for juveniles (marine juveniles), as a feeding area, as a transit to and from fresh water, and resident species complete their whole life cycle there. Because of indications that the importance of the Dutch Wadden Sea has changed drastically for many species during the past decades, we analysed and classified trends of 24 common fish species in the last 45 years, whichwere assigned to 5 different
ecological guilds. Trends were examined for threeWadden Sea regions and compared to trends in the adjacent two North Sea coastal regions. For these analyses we made a combined use of two longterm time series: an annual beamtrawl survey, the Demeral Fish Survey (DFS) with a high spatial but poor seasonal resolution and a fyke serieswith a high seasonal but poor spatial resolution.Weinvestigated forwhich species the DFS surveywas appropriate for trend analysis, and we evaluated whether a change in timing may contribute to patterns in DFS time trends. Total fish biomass showed a similar pattern in all tidal basins with an increase from 1970 to 1980, a peak in the mid-1980s and a strong decline from 1980 to 2000, with a subsequent stable trend. The pattern in the coastal region deviated especially in the past 10 years, with a further decline along the Dutch Wadden coast and an increase along the mainland coast. Most dramatic declines throughout the Wadden Sea occurred in species
belonging to the marine juvenile guild, notably plaice, sole and dab. A declining trend in marine juveniles is on-going in the western part, while it recently stabilised or even increased in the central and eastern part and in the coastal regions. Resident species showed more variable trends in the Wadden Sea with less pronounced directions: both increases and decreases occurred. In the coastal regions, several resident species have increased considerably in the last 15 years, a pattern not observed in the Wadden Sea. Also the size structure of the fish community changed in all regions,with generally the strongest declines in the largest size classes. The combined use of the two surveys showed that for some species the DFS was not timed in the period of peak occurrence. Although
the phenology of several species has changed, the DFS survey period still encompasses the peak period of most species.
Consumer response to packaging design: the role of packaging materials and visuals in sustainability perceptions and product judgments
Steenis, N.D. ; Herpen, E. van; Lans, I.A. van der; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2016
Introduction This research investigates whether and how different packaging materials and visual designs influence consumers’ perceptions of the packaged product, and how these relate to overall product attitudes. Specific attention is paid to consumer sustainability perceptions, a topic that has garnered increasing managerial and policy-level attention, but that has been left relatively under-represented in marketing research. Previous research on consumer response to packaging has focused chiefly on packaging visuals and verbal elements (labelling) on the packaging (e.g., Celhay & Trinquecoste, 2015; Magnier & Schoormans, 2015), branding effects (e.g., Underwood, 2003; Underwood & Klein, 2002) and holistic design factors (e.g., Orth & Malkewitz, 2008). We aim to contribute to this literature by examining consumer response to packaging materials, which are crucial for the sustainability of a package. Building on theories of cue acquisition and integration (Olson, 1978; Rao & Monroe, 1989; Steenkamp, 1990), we examine the role of packaging design in (i) consumer cue acquisition and perception, (ii) consumer inferences of (expected) packaged product benefits and (iii) overall attitudes towards the packaged product. In this view, we consider the packaging as providing a series of cues which consumers can perceive and interpret to make inferences about the product’s expected benefits, as a basis to inform their overall attitudes towards these products. Empirical study We conducted an empirical study among 249 Dutch students. Stimuli consisted of 14 soup packages constructed from 7 material types (glass jar, bioplastic pot, liquid carton, dry carton and bag, plastic pouch, mixed material pouch consisting of plastic with carton wrapping, can) and two visual schemes (designed to be conventional-looking vs. sustainable-looking). We used an idiosyncratic method of attribute elicitation (based on triadic sorting) that does not impose predefined criteria, but that allows respondents to freely use their own criteria. Specifically, respondents were presented with seven triads of differently packaged soup products and gave short descriptions of their perceptions of these packaged products using their own words. Respondents then profiled each packaged product by indicating the extent to which each of their own descriptions applied to the product, following a “check all that apply” format. Lastly, respondents rated each product on a set of product benefits (i.e., sustainability, convenience, healthiness, naturalness, taste, inexpensive price and quality), obtained from literature, and overall attitude. Based on a content analysis we categorized 3224 elicited descriptions (cue perceptions) into 28 cue perception categories. Notably, we find a high convergence between respondents own descriptions and the benefit dimensions; each benefit was represented by a corresponding category obtained from elicitation. To provide support for this, multilevel regressions were out carried using the 28 elicitation categories as predictors for the benefits. These regressions indeed show high convergence (all p’s <0.0001) between the elicitation categories and benefits that were deemed similar. This supports the contention that consumers use packaging cues to infer about relevant benefits – including both sustainability of product and package. Other relevant spontaneous perceptions that were related to benefit dimensions included in particular transparency, packaging flexibility, modernity (vs. traditional), luxuriousness, product preservability and contents per package. These results are also displayed on a perceptual map based on clustering of dominant score patterns. Visual and material packaging designs significantly contributed to perceived benefits. Visuals most strongly affected perceptions of naturalness (F(1, 248) = 42.511 , p <0.0001, η(_p^2) = 0.146) and sustainability (F(1, 248) = 27.297, p <.0001, η(_p^2) = .099) - even though from an objective point of view the product is not affected. Materials affected most strongly (perceived) packaging sustainability (F(5, 1221) = 38.236, p <.0001, η(_p^2) = .134), but we also find medium-sized effects on overall sustainability, healthiness, naturalness, taste, price and quality. Differences in packaging materials have consequences for perceived environmental impacts, but are also associated with different benefit perceptions beyond sustainability, such as price (F(5, 1305) = 19.053 , p <.0001, η(_p^2) = .071) and can “spill over” towards intrinsic product benefits such as taste (F(5, 1163) = 28.386 , p <.001, η(_p^2) = .103) and healthiness (F(5, 1159) = 25.604 , p <.0001, η(_p^2) = .094). A separate regression showed that all benefit dimensions, in turn, were relevant to consumers’ overall attitude towards the packaged products (p’s <0.05). Discussion Sustainability can be signalled to consumers using both visual and structural aspects of packaging design. Although actual environmental impacts of the packaging likely are a consequence of the packaging’s structural elements, they also affect a wide range of other benefits (e.g., price, convenience), including perceptions of intrinsic product elements (taste, healthiness). Whether more sustainable packaging design is desirable from a managerial perspective will depend to a large extent on product positioning. This is especially relevant for those brands and products that may be harmed in light of more sustainable positioning, (Luchs, Brower, & Chitturi, 2012; Luchs, Walker Naylor, Irwin, & Raghunathan, 2010). We showed how consumers rely on their intuitions when they are confronted with products differing in packaging design to form inferences about product benefits used to assess the product, and that altering packaging sustainability can change how the packaged product is perceived as a whole.
Global Carbon Budget 2016
Quéré, C. Le; Andrew, R.M. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Peters, Glen P. ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Alin, Simone ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Anthoni, Peter ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Currie, Kim ; Delire, Christine ; Doney, Scott C. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoppema, Mario ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Melton, Joe R. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Olsen, Are ; Omar, Abdirahman M. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Salisbury, Joe ; Schuster, Ute ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der; Werf, Guido R. Van Der; Viovy, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2016
Global Carbon Budget 2016
Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M. ; Canadell, Josep G. ; Sitch, Stephen ; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar ; Peters, Glen P. ; Manning, Andrew C. ; Boden, Thomas A. ; Tans, Pieter P. ; Houghton, Richard A. ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Alin, Simone ; Andrews, Oliver D. ; Anthoni, Peter ; Barbero, Leticia ; Bopp, Laurent ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Chini, Louise P. ; Ciais, Philippe ; Currie, Kim ; Delire, Christine ; Doney, Scott C. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gkritzalis, Thanos ; Harris, Ian ; Hauck, Judith ; Haverd, Vanessa ; Hoppema, Mario ; Klein Goldewijk, Kees ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kato, Etsushi ; Körtzinger, Arne ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lefèvre, Nathalie ; Lenton, Andrew ; Lienert, Sebastian ; Lombardozzi, Danica ; Melton, Joe R. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Millero, Frank ; Monteiro, Pedro M.S. ; Munro, David R. ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Nakaoka, S. ; O'Brien, Kevin ; Olsen, Are ; Omar, Abdirahman M. ; Ono, Tsuneo ; Pierrot, Denis ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Salisbury, Joe ; Schuster, Ute ; Schwinger, Jörg ; Séférian, Roland ; Skjelvan, Ingunn ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Sutton, Adrienne J. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tilbrook, Bronte ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T. van der; Werf, Guido R. van der; Viovy, Nicolas ; Walker, Anthony P. ; Wiltshire, Andrew J. ; Zaehle, Sönke - \ 2016
Earth System Science Data 8 (2016)2. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 605 - 649.
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006–2015), EFF was 9.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, ELUC 1.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.5 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.1 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. For year 2015 alone, the growth in EFF was approximately zero and emissions remained at 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, showing a slowdown in growth of these emissions compared to the average growth of 1.8 % yr−1 that took place during 2006–2015. Also, for 2015, ELUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 6.3 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 3.0 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 1.9 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was higher in 2015 compared to the past decade (2006–2015), reflecting a smaller SLAND for that year. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 399.4 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2015. For 2016, preliminary data indicate the continuation of low growth in EFF with +0.2 % (range of −1.0 to +1.8 %) based on national emissions projections for China and USA, and projections of gross domestic product corrected for recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy for the rest of the world. In spite of the low growth of EFF in 2016, the growth rate in atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to be relatively high because of the persistence of the smaller residual terrestrial sink (SLAND) in response to El Niño conditions of 2015–2016. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2016, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach 565 ± 55 GtC (2075 ± 205 GtCO2) for 1870–2016, about 75 % from EFF and 25 % from ELUC. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this data set (Le Quéré et al., 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK)
Walker, Donald A. ; Breen, Amy L. ; Druckenmiller, Lisa A. ; Wirth, Lisa W. ; Fisher, Will ; Raynolds, Martha K. ; Šibík, Jozef ; Walker, Marilyn D. ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Boggs, Keith ; Boucher, Tina ; Buchhorn, Marcel ; Bültmann, Helga ; Cooper, David J. ; Daniëls, Fred J.A. ; Davidson, Scott J. ; Ebersole, James J. ; Elmendorf, Sara C. ; Epstein, Howard E. ; Gould, William A. ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Iversen, Colleen M. ; Jorgenson, M.T. ; Kade, Anja ; Lee, Michael T. ; MacKenzie, William H. ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peirce, Jana L. ; Schickhoff, Udo ; Sloan, Victoria L. ; Talbot, Stephen S. ; Tweedie, Craig E. ; Villarreal, Sandra ; Webber, Patrick J. ; Zona, Donatella - \ 2016
Phytocoenologia 46 (2016)2. - ISSN 0340-269X - p. 221 - 229.
Circumpolar - Cluster analysis - Database - Tundra - Turboveg - Vegetation classification

The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK, GIVD-ID: NA-US-014) is a free, publically available database archive of vegetation-plot data from the Arctic tundra region of northern Alaska. The archive currently contains 24 datasets with 3,026 non-overlapping plots. Of these, 74% have geolocation data with 25-m or better precision. Species cover data and header data are stored in a Turboveg database. A standardized Pan Arctic Species List provides a consistent nomenclature for vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens in the archive. A web-based online Alaska Arctic Geoecological Atlas (AGA-AK) allows viewing and downloading the species data in a variety of formats, and provides access to a wide variety of ancillary data. We conducted a preliminary cluster analysis of the first 16 datasets (1,613 plots) to examine how the spectrum of derived clusters is related to the suite of datasets, habitat types, and environmental gradients. We present the contents of the archive, assess its strengths and weaknesses, and provide three supplementary files that include the data dictionary, a list of habitat types, an overview of the datasets, and details of the cluster analysis.

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