Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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How private are Europe’s private forests? A comparative property rights analysis
Nichiforel, Liviu ; Keary, Kevin ; Deuffic, Philippe ; Weiss, Gerhard ; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark ; Winkel, Georg ; Avdibegović, Mersudin ; Dobšinská, Zuzana ; Feliciano, Diana ; Gatto, Paola ; Gorriz Mifsud, Elena ; Hoogstra-klein, Marjanke ; Hrib, Michal ; Hujala, Teppo ; Jager, Laszlo ; Jarský, Vilém ; Jodłowski, Krzysztof ; Lawrence, Anna ; Lukmine, Diana ; Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela ; Nedeljković, Jelena ; Nonić, Dragan ; Krajter Ostoić, Silvija ; Pukall, Klaus ; Rondeux, Jacques ; Samara, Theano ; Sarvašová, Zuzana ; Scriban, Ramona Elena ; Šilingienė, Rita ; Sinko, Milan ; Stojanovska, Makedonka ; Stojanovski, Vladimir ; Stoyanov, Nickola ; Teder, Meelis ; Vennesland, Birger ; Vilkriste, Lelde ; Wilhelmsson, Erik ; Wilkes-Allemann, Jerylee ; Bouriaud, Laura - \ 2018
Land Use Policy 76 (2018). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 535 - 552.
Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private forests, and importantly they need to be based on a deep understanding of how property rights held by private forest owners vary across Europe. We collected and analysed data on the content of property rights based on formal legal requirements existing in 31 European jurisdictions. To allow a comparison across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners’ rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions’ former socio-political background and geographical distribution. The variation in the content of property rights has implications for the implementation of international environmental policies, and stresses the need for tailored policy instruments, when addressing European society’s rural development, the bioeconomy, climate change mitigation measures and nature protection strategies.
Major challenges of integrating agriculture into climate change mitigation policy frameworks
Fellmann, T. ; Witzke, P. ; Weiss, F. ; Doorslaer, B. van; Drabik, D. ; Huck, I. ; Salputra, G. ; Jansson, T. ; Leip, A. - \ 2018
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 23 (2018)3. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 451 - 468.
Agriculture - Climate change - Emissions - Mitigation - Policy
Taking the European Union (EU) as a case study, we simulate the application of non-uniform national mitigation targets to achieve a sectoral reduction in agricultural non-carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Scenario results show substantial impacts on EU agricultural production, in particular, the livestock sector. Significant increases in imports and decreases in exports result in rather moderate domestic consumption impacts but induce production increases in non-EU countries that are associated with considerable emission leakage effects. The results underline four major challenges for the general integration of agriculture into national and global climate change mitigation policy frameworks and strategies, as they strengthen requests for (1) a targeted but flexible implementation of mitigation obligations at national and global level and (2) the need for a wider consideration of technological mitigation options. The results also indicate that a globally effective reduction in agricultural emissions requires (3) multilateral commitments for agriculture to limit emission leakage and may have to (4) consider options that tackle the reduction in GHG emissions from the consumption side.
Transdisciplinary understanding of SI in MRAs
Kluvankova, Tatiana ; Gežik, Veronika ; Špaček, Martin ; Brnkalakova, Stanislava ; Slee, Bill ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Valero, Diana ; Bryce, Rosalind ; Alkhaled, Sophie ; Secco, Laura ; Burlando, Catie ; Kozova, Maria ; Miller, David ; Nijnik, Maria ; Perlik, Manfred ; Pisani, Elena ; Price, Martin ; Sarkki, Simo ; Weiss, Gerhard - \ 2017
SIMRA - 53 p.
Set of Methods to Assess SI Implications at Different Levels
Secco, Laura ; Pisani, Elena ; Burlando, Catie ; Re, Riccardo Da; Gatto, Paola ; Pettenella, Davide ; Vassilopoulos, Achilleas ; Akinsete, Ebun ; Koundouri, Phoebe ; Lopolito, Antonio ; Prosperi, Maurizio ; Tuomasiukka, Diana ; Herde, Micheal Den; Lovric, Marko ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, M.W.C. ; Soma, K. ; Ludvig, Alice ; Weiss, Gerhard ; Zivojinovic, Ivana ; Sarkki, Simo ; Ravazzoli, Elisa ; Torre, Cristina Dalla; Streifeneder, Thomas ; Slee, Bill ; Nijnik, Maria ; Miller, David ; Barlagne, Carla ; Prokofieva, Irina - \ 2017
SIMRA - 203 p.
Deliverable No. D9.4: Enhanced modelling of sustainable food and nutrition security: the agri-food commodity and nutrient flows and the food supply chains
Carmona-Garcia, G. ; Leip, A. ; Weiss, F. ; Witzke, P. ; Verma, M. ; Philippidis, George ; Kuiper, M.H. - \ 2017
SUSFANS - 86 p.
Affairs happen-To whom? A study on extrapair paternity in common nightingales
Landgraf, Conny ; Wilhelm, Kerstin ; Wirth, Jutta ; Weiss, Michael ; Kipper, Silke - \ 2017
Current Zoology 63 (2017)4. - ISSN 1674-5507 - p. 421 - 431.
Common nightingale - Direct fitness - Extrapair paternity - Luscinia megarhynchos - Repertoire size - Territorial settlement
Most birds engage in extrapair copulations despite great differences across and within species. Besides cost and benefit considerations of the two sex environmental factors have been found to alter mating strategies within or between populations and/or over time. For socially monogamous species, the main advantage that females might gain from mating with multiple males is probably increasing their offspring's genetic fitness. Since male (genetic) quality is mostly not directly measurable for female birds, (extrapair) mate choice is based on male secondary traits. In passerines male song is such a sexual ornament indicating male phenotypic and/or genetic quality and song repertoires seem to affect female mate choice in a number of species. Yet their role in extrapair mating behavior is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the proportion of extrapair paternity (EPP) in a population of common nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos. We found that EPP rate was rather high (21.5% of all offspring tested) for a species without sexual dimorphism and high levels of paternal care. Furthermore, the occurrence of EPP was strongly related to the spatial distribution of male territories with males settling in densely occupied areas having higher proportions of extrapair young within their own brood. Also, song repertoire size affected EPP: here larger repertoires of social mates were negatively related to the probability of being cuckolded. When directly comparing repertoires sizes of social and extrapair mates, extrapair mates tended to have larger repertoires. We finally discuss our results as a hint for a flexible mating strategy in nightingales where several factors-including ecological as well as male song features- need to be considered when studying reproductive behavior in monogamous species with complex song.
The challenge of financing the implementation of Natura 2000 – Empirical evidence from six European Union Member States
Geitzenauer, Maria ; Blondet, Marieke ; Koning, Jessica De; Ferranti, Francesca ; Sotirov, Metodi ; Weiss, Gerhard ; Winkel, Georg - \ 2017
Forest Policy and Economics 82 (2017). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 3 - 13.
Natura 2000, which is the core pillar of the European Union's biodiversity conservation policy, is an ambitious and complex venture that requires funding to be successful. A major challenge is said to be a lack of available funding, and a low uptake of allocated funds is also reported. However, in in-depth analysis has still not been produced to assess the approaches to funding, the reasons for these approaches and their impact regarding the achievement of the aims of Natura 2000. Thus, with this article, we intend to fill this gap. To accomplish this, a case study analysis was carried out in six selected EU Member States: Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the UK.

In our study, we perceived different approaches which we sum up to two main types of approaches that were present in the Member States to different degrees. The first type was to find the funding necessary for the required activities, and the second was to delay the implementation of Natura 2000. The major reasons for the different approaches were related to domestic political power realities. The funding approaches impacted onto the attractiveness of EU co-financing instruments, and the sustainability of the schemes. Alternative approaches were either absent or declining in importance. The economic benefits were not perceived on the ground.

We conclude that neither a “one size fits all” approach to funding Natura 2000 will work nor will a universal claim for “more money”. Therefore, a successful funding strategy ultimately necessitates effective interventions at institutional levels, the business environment and the local level.
Participation in the implementation of Natura 2000: A comparative study of six EU member states
Blondet, Marieke ; Koning, J. de; Borrass, L. ; Ferranti, Francesca ; Geitzenauer, M. ; Weiss, G. ; Turnhout, E. ; Winkel, G. - \ 2017
Land Use Policy 66 (2017). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 346 - 355.
The establishment of Natura 2000, the European Union’s network of protected areas, has been a challenging process and has caused a variety of conflicts. These conflicts are related to contradictory stakeholder interests and perceptions, as well as to procedural issues and feelings of exclusion, especially by concerned local land user groups. To prevent further conflict, local participation has been stressed as an important tool to increase the inclusiveness of Natura 2000 and its acceptance among land users. In this paper, we present an analysis of participation practices related to the Natura 2000 implementation processes in six EU member states. Based on material collected from semi-structured interviews and document analysis, we describe the organisational settings of the participatory processes, focusing, among other things, on the type of participants involved, the level and intensity of their involvement, and the goal of participation. In addition, we also describe the local context in which the participation processes have been embedded. Finally, we assess the outcomes of the participatory processes in terms of their impact on forest and nature conservation management practices. Our results show that local participation practices were shaped not just by the Natura 2000 policy, but also by the history of the area, including, for example, earlier conflicts among the local actors. We also show that although the participation process leads to a greater acceptance of the Natura 2000 policy, this does not relate to significant changes in management practices among local actors. These findings, however, do not suggest that participation is irrelevant. Rather, we conclude that participation involves context-dependent, localised learning processes that can only be understood by taking the historical socio-economic and institutional context in which they are situated into account.
Agriculture and LULUCF in the 2030 Framework : Final report
Strange Olesen, Asger ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Rayment, Matt ; Ebrahim, Naazia ; Weiss, Peter ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Frelih-Larsen, Ana ; Sikirica, N. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Schelhaas, M. - \ 2016
Luxembourg : European Union - ISBN 9789279591235 - 121 p.
A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food
Raptis, Ioannis ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Makarona, Eleni ; Salapatas, Alexandros ; Petrou, Panagiota ; Kakabakos, Sotirios ; Botsialas, Athanasios ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo ; Lees, Michelle ; Valamontes, Evangelos - \ 2016
In: Frontiers in Biological Detection: From Nanosensors to Systems VIII. - SPIE (Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging 37) - ISBN 9781628419597
food safety - lab-on-a-chip - Mach-Zehnder interferometry - optoelectronic chip

Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

Förster resonance energy transfer and protein-induced fluorescence enhancement as synergetic multi-scale molecular rulers
Ploetz, Evelyn ; Lerner, Eitan ; Husada, Florence ; Roelfs, Martin ; Chung, Sangyoon ; Hohlbein, Johannes ; Weiss, Shimon ; Cordes, Thorben - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322

Advanced microscopy methods allow obtaining information on (dynamic) conformational changes in biomolecules via measuring a single molecular distance in the structure. It is, however, extremely challenging to capture the full depth of a three-dimensional biochemical state, binding-related structural changes or conformational cross-Talk in multi-protein complexes using one-dimensional assays. In this paper we address this fundamental problem by extending the standard molecular ruler based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) into a two-dimensional assay via its combination with protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE). We show that donor brightness (via PIFE) and energy transfer efficiency (via FRET) can simultaneously report on e.g., the conformational state of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) following its interaction with unlabelled proteins (BamHI, EcoRV, and T7 DNA polymerase gp5/trx). The PIFE-FRET assay uses established labelling protocols and single molecule fluorescence detection schemes (alternating-laser excitation, ALEX). Besides quantitative studies of PIFE and FRET ruler characteristics, we outline possible applications of ALEX-based PIFE-FRET for single-molecule studies with diffusing and immobilized molecules. Finally, we study transcription initiation and scrunching of E. coli RNA-polymerase with PIFE-FRET and provide direct evidence for the physical presence and vicinity of the polymerase that causes structural changes and scrunching of the transcriptional DNA bubble.

A Quantitative Theoretical Framework for Protein-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement-Förster-Type Resonance Energy Transfer (PIFE-FRET)
Lerner, Eitan ; Ploetz, Evelyn ; Hohlbein, Johannes ; Cordes, Thorben ; Weiss, Shimon - \ 2016
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical 120 (2016)26. - ISSN 1520-6106 - p. 6401 - 6410.

Single-molecule, protein-induced fluorescence enhancement (PIFE) serves as a molecular ruler at molecular distances inaccessible to other spectroscopic rulers such as Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) or photoinduced electron transfer. In order to provide two simultaneous measurements of two distances on different molecular length scales for the analysis of macromolecular complexes, we and others recently combined measurements of PIFE and FRET (PIFE-FRET) on the single molecule level. PIFE relies on steric hindrance of the fluorophore Cy3, which is covalently attached to a biomolecule of interest, to rotate out of an excited-state trans isomer to the cis isomer through a 90° intermediate. In this work, we provide a theoretical framework that accounts for relevant photophysical and kinetic parameters of PIFE-FRET, show how this framework allows the extraction of the fold-decrease in isomerization mobility from experimental data, and show how these results provide information on changes in the accessible volume of Cy3. The utility of this model is then demonstrated for experimental results on PIFE-FRET measurement of different protein-DNA interactions. The proposed model and extracted parameters could serve as a benchmark to allow quantitative comparison of PIFE effects in different biological systems.

Insight into the evolution of the Solanaceae from the parental genomes of Petunia hybrida
Bombarely, Aureliano ; Moser, Michel ; Amrad, Avichai ; Bao, Manzhu ; Bapaume, Laure ; Barry, Cornelius S. ; Bliek, Mattijs ; Boersma, Maaike R. ; Borghi, Lorenzo ; Bruggmann, Rémy ; Bucher, Marcel ; Agostino, Nunzio D'; Davies, Kevin ; Druege, Uwe ; Dudareva, Natalia ; Egea-Cortines, Marcos ; Delledonne, Massimo ; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe ; Franken, Philipp ; Grandont, Laurie ; Heslop-Harrison, J.S. ; Hintzsche, Jennifer ; Johns, Mitrick ; Koes, Ronald ; Lv, Xiaodan ; Lyons, Eric ; Malla, Diwa ; Martinoia, Enrico ; Mattson, Neil S. ; Morel, Patrice ; Mueller, Lukas A. ; Muhlemann, Joëlle ; Nouri, Eva ; Passeri, Valentina ; Pezzotti, Mario ; Qi, Qinzhou ; Reinhardt, Didier ; Rich, Melanie ; Richert-Pöggeler, Katja R. ; Robbins, Tim P. ; Schatz, Michael C. ; Schranz, Eric ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Schwarzacher, Trude ; Spelt, Kees ; Tang, Haibao ; Urbanus, Susan L. ; Vandenbussche, Michiel ; Vijverberg, Kitty ; Villarino, Gonzalo H. ; Warner, Ryan M. ; Weiss, Julia ; Yue, Zhen ; Zethof, Jan ; Quattrocchio, Francesca ; Sims, Thomas L. ; Kuhlemeier, Cris - \ 2016
Nature Plants 2 (2016). - ISSN 2055-026X

Petunia hybrida is a popular bedding plant that has a long history as a genetic model system. We report the whole-genome sequencing and assembly of inbred derivatives of its two wild parents, P. axillaris N and P. inflata S6. The assemblies include 91.3% and 90.2% coverage of their diploid genomes (1.4 Gb; 2n = 14) containing 32,928 and 36,697 protein-coding genes, respectively. The genomes reveal that the Petunia lineage has experienced at least two rounds of hexaploidization: the older gamma event, which is shared with most Eudicots, and a more recent Solanaceae event that is shared with tomato and other solanaceous species. Transcription factors involved in the shift from bee to moth pollination reside in particularly dynamic regions of the genome, which may have been key to the remarkable diversity of floral colour patterns and pollination systems. The high-quality genome sequences will enhance the value of Petunia as a model system for research on unique biological phenomena such as small RNAs, symbiosis, self-incompatibility and circadian rhythms.

Impacts of European livestock production : Nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity
Leip, Adrian ; Billen, Gilles ; Garnier, Josette ; Grizzetti, Bruna ; Lassaletta, Luis ; Reis, Stefan ; Simpson, David ; Sutton, M.A. ; Vries, Wim De; Weiss, Franz ; Westhoek, Henk - \ 2015
Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)11. - ISSN 1748-9326
air quality - biodiversity loss - climate change - coastal eutrophication - European Union - livestock production - soil acidification

Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a distinct fecal microbiome signature–a case control study
Schulz, C. ; Lerch, M. ; Lahti, L.M. ; Kühn, J. ; Schütte, K. ; Weiss, F. ; Völzke, H. ; Baumeister, S. ; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S. ; Fluhr, G. ; Vos, W.M. de; Mayerle, J. - \ 2015
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now being recognized as the most common liver disorder worldwide. The majority of NAFLD patients are characterized by mere liver steatosis but up to one third progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood but changes in the gut microbiome have been suggested to be involved. Design: Using a case control design we recruited 84 subjects with liver steatosis and 83 controls from the population-based Study of Health in Pommerania. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, BMI > 25 kg/m2, immoderate alcohol intake or gallstone disease were excluded. Liver fat content was quantitated by confounder corrected chemical shift encoded MRI sequence at 1.5T. Cases with steatosis were defined as subjects with a mean liver fat content of 24.9% and controls with 2.2%. NAFLD and NASH were distinguished by using the FIB-4 score (Cut-off 1.3). Phylogenetic profiling of fecal samples was performed using the Human intestinal tract Chip (HITChip). For phenotypic correlation of the gut microbiome signature up to 224 host variables, including diet, were available and 38 reached significance. Results: By study design the extent of steatosis on liver MRI differed significantly between cases and controls (p <10 – 6). Hierarchical clustering showed a clustering tendency. Random Forrest analysis revealed 69%± 14% 95CI classification accuracy on 130 genus-level taxa. Diet did not affect the classification accuracy. Reduced Shannon diversity (p = 0.046) and richness (p = 0.007) in cases were detected. PCA cluster analysis identified 4 out of 130 taxa discriminating between cases and controls (Prevotella oralis and P. melaninogenica, Sutterella wadsworthia, Uncultured Clostridiales) all of those with bimodal distribution. NASH cases showed a significantly increased abundancy of Gram-positive taxa as well as several Bacteroides spp. that could be used as a classifier. Conclusion: In the absence of metabolic syndrome NAFLD is associated with a distinct gut microbiome signature, which is unaffected by diet. Decreased abundancy of taxa, previously defined as tipping elements, points to a pathophysiological relevance. Progression to NASH is correlated with additional distinct changes in the microbiome.
The implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: A trans- and interdisciplinary assessment of challenges and choices.
Winkel, G. ; Blondet, M. ; Borrass, L. ; Frei, T. ; Geitzenauer, M. ; Gruppe, A. ; Jump, A. ; Koning, J. de; Sotirov, M. ; Weiss, G. ; Winter, S. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2015
Environmental Science & Policy 52 (2015). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 23 - 32.
climate-change - biodiversity conservation - european-union - management - science - policy - network - stand
Natura 2000 is the core of the EU's biodiversity conservation policy. 50% of the overall protected area under Natura 2000 is forest. Yet, comparatively little is known about the implementation of the policy in forests. Building on a rich set of social and natural science data, and an inter- and transdisciplinary discussion process involving scientists from different disciplines as well as EU, national and local stakeholders, this paper identifies five important challenges related to the implementation of Natura 2000 in forests: (1) the balancing of biodiversity conservation and timber production, (2) the integration of conservation (science) and local stakeholders’ demands, (3) climate change, (4) lacking and less effective funding, and (5) conflicts related to other sectoral policies. Subsequently, five possible pathways to tackle these challenges are proposed: (1) a learning approach through better communication and transparency, (2) a pathway emphasizing the role of conservation science in developing management strategies and responding to climate change, (3) an approach of better integrating Europe's citizens in the design and implementation of the policy, (4) an approach highlighting the necessity of an effective funding strategy, and (5) the vision to work towards an integrated European land use and conservation policy. In conclusion, we emphasize, on one hand, the distinct character of the five pathways but, on the other hand, underline that probably all of them need to be followed in order to make the implementation of Natura 2000 in Europe's forests a success story.
An economics assessment of GHG mitigation policy options for EU agriculture
Doorslaer, B. van; Witzke, P. ; Huck, I. ; Weiss, F. ; Fellmann, T. ; Salputra, G. ; Jansson, T. ; Drabik, D. ; Leip, A. - \ 2015
Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union (JRC technical reports JC 3434) - ISBN 9789279454165
europees parlement - europees fonds voor regionale ontwikkeling - landbouwbeleid - mitigatie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - emissiereductie - agrarische economie - european parliament - european regional development fund - agricultural policy - mitigation - agricultural research - emission reduction - agricultural economics
The report presents an overview of the historical and projected development of agricultural GHG emissions in the EU. The major objective of the report is to present the improvements made in the CAPRI modelling system with respect to GHG emission accounting and especially regarding the implementation of endogenous technological mitigation options. Furthermore, the CAPRI model was applied to provide a quantitative assessment of illustrative GHG mitigation policy options in the agricultural sector, and their production and economic implications.
Contribution of Dynamic Vegetation Phenology to Decadal Climate Predictability
Weiss, M. ; Miller, P.A. ; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Noije, T. van; Stefanescu, S. ; Haarsma, R. ; Ulft, L.H. van; Hazeleger, W. ; Sager, P. Le; Smith, B. ; Schurgers, G. - \ 2014
Journal of Climate 27 (2014)22. - ISSN 0894-8755 - p. 8563 - 8577.
leaf-area index - ensemble forecasts - data assimilation - soil-moisture - model - prediction - system - impact - skill - oscillation
In this study, the impact of coupling and initializing the leaf area index from the dynamic vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS) is analyzed on skill of decadal predictions in the fully coupled atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice model, the European Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth). Similar to the impact of initializing the model with the observed oceanic state, initializing the leaf area index (LAI) fields obtained from an offline LPJ-GUESS simulation forced by the observed atmospheric state leads to a systematic drift. A different treatment of the water and soil moisture budget in LPJ-GUESS is a likely cause of this drift. The coupled system reduces the cold bias of the reference model over land by reducing LAI (and the associated evaporative cooling), particularly outside the growing season. The coupling with the interactive vegetation module implies more degrees of freedom in the coupled model, which generates more noise that can mask a portion of the extra signal that is generated. The forecast reliability improves marginally, particularly early in the forecast. Ranked probability skill scores are also improved slightly in most areas analyzed, but the signal is not fully coherent over the forecast interval because of the relatively low number of ensemble members. Methods to remove the LAI drift and allow coupling of other variables probably need to be implemented before significant forecast skill can be expected.
Trends in Soil, Sediment and Groundwater Quality Management
Rijnaarts, H. ; Weiss, H. - \ 2014
Science of the Total Environment 485-486 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 701 - 704.
site - germany
Soil, groundwater, surface water and sediment systems play an important role in quality of life. The harmful effects of chemical pollution of such systems have been a concern for politicians, the public and scientists for decades. More than half a century of experience in soil and groundwater quality management gives the opportunity to abstract some interesting trends in societal responses, and how these relate to cost effective research and management approaches.
Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi
Schoch, C.L. ; Robbertse, B. ; Robert, V. ; Vu, D. ; Cardinali, G. ; Irinyi, L. ; Meyer, W. ; Nilsson, R.H. ; Hughes, K. ; Miller, A.N. ; Kirk, P.M. ; Abarenkov, K. ; Aime, M.C. ; Ariyawansa, H.A. ; Bidartondo, M. ; Boekhout, T. ; Buyck, B. ; Cai, Q. ; Chen, J. ; Crespo, A. ; Crous, P.W. ; Damm, U. ; Beer, Z.W. de; Dentinger, B.T.M. ; Divakar, P.K. ; Duenas, M. ; Feau, N. ; Fliegerova, K. ; Garcia, M.A. ; Ge, Z.W. ; Griffith, G.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Groenewald, M. ; Grube, M. ; Gryzenhout, M. ; Gueidan, C. ; Guo, L. ; Hambleton, S. ; Hamelin, R. ; Hansen, K. ; Hofstetter, V. ; Hong, S.B. ; Houbraken, J. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Inderbitzin, P. ; Johnston, P.A. ; Karunarathna, S.C. ; Koljalg, U. ; Kovacs, G.M. ; Kraichak, E. ; Krizsan, K. ; Kurtzman, C.P. ; Larsson, K.H. ; Leavitt, S. ; Letcher, P.M. ; Liimatainen, K. ; Liu, J.K. ; Lodge, D.J. ; Luangsa-ard, J.J. ; Lumbsch, H.T. ; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N. ; Manamgoda, D. ; Martin, M.P. ; Minnis, A.M. ; Moncalvo, J.M. ; Mule, G. ; Nakasone, K.K. ; Niskanen, T. ; Olariaga, I. ; Papp, T. ; Petkovits, T. ; Pino-Bodas, R. ; Powell, M.J. ; Raja, H.A. ; Redecker, D. ; Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M. ; Seifert, K.A. ; Shrestha, B. ; Stenroos, S. ; Stielow, B. ; Suh, S.O. ; Tanaka, K. ; Tedersoo, L. ; Telleria, M.T. ; Udayanga, D. ; Untereiner, W.A. ; Dieguez Uribeondo, J. ; Subbarao, K.V. ; Vagvolgyi, C. ; Visagie, C. ; Voigt, K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Weir, B.S. ; Weiss, M. ; Wijayawardene, N.N. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Xu, J.P. ; Yang, Z.L. ; Zhang, N. ; Zhuang, W.Y. ; Federhen, S. - \ 2014
Database : the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 2014 (2014). - ISSN 1758-0463 - 21 p.
internal transcribed spacer - arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - ribosomal dna - interspecific hybridization - sequence analyses - species complex - identification - evolution - barcode - life
DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi.
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