Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Genera of phytopathogenic fungi : GOPHY 2
Marin-Felix, Y. ; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Akulov, A. ; Carnegie, A.J. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Gramaje, D. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Guarnaccia, V. ; Halleen, F. ; Lombard, L. ; Luangsa-ard, J. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Moslemi, A. ; Mostert, L. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Spies, C.F.J. ; Thangavel, R. ; Taylor, P.W.J. ; Wilson, A.M. ; Wingfield, B.D. ; Wood, A.R. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2019
Studies in Mycology 92 (2019). - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 47 - 133.
26 new taxa - DNA barcodes - Fungal systematics - Six new typifications

This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA barcodes for the currently accepted species are included. This second paper in the GOPHY series treats 20 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives including: Allantophomopsiella, Apoharknessia, Cylindrocladiella, Diaporthe, Dichotomophthora, Gaeumannomyces, Harknessia, Huntiella, Macgarvieomyces, Metulocladosporiella, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Paraphoma, Phaeoacremonium, Phyllosticta, Proxypiricularia, Pyricularia, Stenocarpella, Utrechtiana and Wojnowiciella. This study includes the new genus Pyriculariomyces, 20 new species, five new combinations, and six typifications for older names.

Harnessing longitudinal information to identify genetic variation in tolerance of pigs to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus infection
Lough, Graham ; Hess, Andrew ; Hess, Melanie ; Rashidi, Hamed ; Matika, Oswald ; Lunney, Joan K. ; Rowland, Raymond R.R. ; Kyriazakis, Ilias ; Mulder, Han A. ; Dekkers, Jack C.M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea - \ 2018
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 50 (2018). - ISSN 0999-193X

Background: High resistance (the ability of the host to reduce pathogen load) and tolerance (the ability to maintain high performance at a given pathogen load) are two desirable host traits for producing animals that are resilient to infections. For Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), one of the most devastating swine diseases worldwide, studies have identified substantial genetic variation in resistance of pigs, but evidence for genetic variation in tolerance has so far been inconclusive. Resistance and tolerance are usually considered as static traits. In this study, we used longitudinal viremia measurements of PRRS virus infected pigs to define discrete stages of infection based on viremia profile characteristics. These were used to investigate host genetic effects on viral load (VL) and growth at different stages of infection, to quantify genetic variation in tolerance at these stages and throughout the entire 42-day observation period, and to assess whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) WUR10000125 (WUR) with known large effects on resistance confers significant differences in tolerance. Results: Genetic correlations between resistance and growth changed considerably over time. Individuals that expressed high genetic resistance early in infection tended to grow slower during that time-period, but were more likely to experience lower VL and recovery in growth by the later stage. The WUR genotype was most strongly associated with VL at early- to mid-stages of infection, and with growth at mid- to late-stages of infection. Both, single-stage and repeated measurements random regression models identified significant genetic variation in tolerance. The WUR SNP was significantly associated only with the overall tolerance slope fitted through all stages of infection, with the genetically more resistant AB pigs for the WUR SNP being also more tolerant to PRRS. Conclusions: The results suggest that genetic selection for improved tolerance of pigs to PRRS is possible in principle, but may be feasible only with genomic selection, requiring intense recording schemes that involve repeated measurements to reliably estimate genetic effects. In the absence of such records, consideration of the WUR genotype in current selection schemes appears to be a promising strategy to improve simultaneously resistance and tolerance of growing pigs to PRRS.

Tropical land carbon cycle responses to 2015/16 El Niño as recorded by atmospheric greenhouse gas and remote sensing data
Gloor, Emanuel ; Wilson, Chris ; Chipperfield, Martyn P. ; Chevallier, Frederic ; Buermann, Wolfgang ; Boesch, Hartmut ; Parker, Robert ; Somkuti, Peter ; Gatti, Luciana V. ; Correia, Caio ; Domingues, Lucas G. ; Peters, Wouter ; Miller, John ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. - \ 2018
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - 12 p.
carbon cycle - fire - global warming - tropical forests

The outstanding tropical land climate characteristic over the past decades is rapid warming, with no significant large-scale precipitation trends. This warming is expected to continue but the effects on tropical vegetation are unknown. El Niño-related heat peaks may provide a test bed for a future hotter world. Here we analyse tropical land carbon cycle responses to the 2015/16 El Niño heat and drought anomalies using an atmospheric transport inversion. Based on the global atmospheric CO2 and fossil fuel emission records, we find no obvious signs of anomalously large carbon release compared with earlier El Niño events, suggesting resilience of tropical vegetation. We find roughly equal net carbon release anomalies from Amazonia and tropical Africa, approximately 0.5 PgC each, and smaller carbon release anomalies from tropical East Asia and southern Africa. Atmospheric CO anomalies reveal substantial fire carbon release from tropical East Asia peaking in October 2015 while fires contribute only a minor amount to the Amazonian carbon flux anomaly. Anomalously large Amazonian carbon flux release is consistent with downregulation of primary productivity during peak negative near-surface water anomaly (October 2015 to March 2016) as diagnosed by solar-induced fluorescence. Finally, we find an unexpected anomalous positive flux to the atmosphere from tropical Africa early in 2016, coincident with substantial CO release.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

Management Options for Dealing with Changing Forest-Water Relations
Vira, Bhaskar ; Ellison, David ; McNulty, Steven ; Archer, E. ; Bishop, Kevin ; Claassen, Marius ; Creed, Irena F. ; Gush, Mark ; Gyawali, Dipak ; Martin-Ortega, Julia ; Mukherji, A. ; Murdiyarso, Daniel ; Ovando Pol, Paola ; Sullivan, Caroline A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Wei, Xiaohua ; Xu, Jianchu ; Reed, Maureen G. ; Wilson, Sarah J. - \ 2018
In: Forest and Water on a Changing Planet: Vulnerability, Adaptation and Governance Opportunities / Creed, Irena F., van Noordwijk, Meine, International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) (IUFRO World Series ) - ISBN 9783902762955 - p. 122 - 141.
Intersectorality in the governance of inland fisheries
Song, Andrew M. ; Bower, Shannon D. ; Onyango, Paul ; Cooke, Steven J. ; Akintola, Shehu L. ; Baer, Jan ; Gurung, Tek B. ; Hettiarachchi, Missaka ; Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul ; Mhlanga, Wilson ; Nunan, Fiona ; Salmi, Pekka ; Singh, Vipul ; Tezzo, Xavier ; Funge-Smith, Simon J. ; Nayak, Prateep K. ; Chuenpagdee, Ratana - \ 2018
Ecology and Society 23 (2018)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Cross-sectoral relationships - Inland fisheries - Integrative environmental governance - Valuation - Water-energy-food nexus

One of the defining characteristics of inland fisheries is that they are closely impacted by other essential human activities that rely on the same fresh or brackish water ecosystems, such as hydroelectricity generation and irrigated agriculture. Starting with the premise that an understanding of fisheries' interactions with these external sectors is in itself critical for achieving sustainability of the fisheries, this paper explores the topic of intersectoral governance and outlines an approach to analyzing the intricate and often challenging sector relationships. By drawing on examples of inland fisheries from around the world, the paper proposes four broad discursive mechanisms that can structure the study of the intersectoral dynamics, i.e., system characterization, valuation, power relations, and vertical policy interaction. A synthesis model then demonstrates their interwoven nature, revealing the way each mechanism influences one another as together they shape overall outcomes. It is apparent that analyses often need to be combined to advance more rigorous (and transdisciplinary) science and also inform appropriate courses for the governance of inland fisheries. Given the typically marginal position of fisheries in inland water-use discussions, we call for a more systematic understanding of intersectoral interactions to enhance the sector's resilience within the wider society and subsequently contribute to integrated governance of waterbodies.

Can farming provide a way out of poverty for smallholder farmers in central Mozambique?
Leonardo, Wilson ; Ven, Gerrie W.J. van de; Kanellopoulos, Argyris ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2018
Agricultural Systems 165 (2018). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 240 - 251.
Farm model - Gross margin - Maize sales - Optimization model - Trade-offs

Given that agriculture is a key economic activity of the majority of people living in rural Africa, agricultural development is at the top of the agenda of African leaders. Intensification of agriculture is considered an entry point to improve food security and income generation in sub-Saharan African (SSA). We used a farm optimization model to perform ex-ante assessment of scenarios that could improve gross margin, a farmer's objective, and maize sales, a national policy objective to improve food security, of large and small farms in maize-based farming systems in two posts representative of rural Mozambique (Dombe and Zembe Administrative Posts in Central Province). For selling maize, farmers first had to be maize self-sufficient. We explored two options for increasing agricultural productivity: (i) extensification, to expand the current cultivated area; and (ii) intensification, to increase input use per unit of land. We considered two scenarios for each of the two options. Extensification: current situation (SC1), hired labour (SC2) and labour-saving (SC3). Intensification: land-saving (SC4) and combined improvement (SC5). For each scenario, we maximized gross margin and maize sales for large and small farms and assessed the trade-offs between the two goals. We further explored the impact of increasing labour and land availability at farm level beyond the current observed levels. SC4 substantially increased both gross margin and maize sales of large and small farms in both posts. Minor trade-offs were observed between the two goals on large farms whereas we saw synergies between the goals for small farms. In Dombe, the gross margin of large farms increased from $ 5550 to $ 7530 y-1 and maize sales from 12.4 t to 30.4 t y-1. In Zembe, the annual gross margin increased from $ 1130 up to $ 2410 per farm and annual maize sales from 5.1 t up to 9.5 t per farm. For small farms in Dombe, the gross margin increased from $ 1820 to $ 2390 y-1 and maize sales from 3.0 t to 9 t y-1. In Zembe, the annual gross margin increased from $ 260 to $ 810 and annual maize sales from 2.0 t to 3.6 t per farm. With the most optimistic scenarios and conditions of more hired labour and labour-saving technologies, both farm types substantially increased both gross margin and maize sales. We conclude that with available resources, the possibilities for increasing gross margin and maize sales are greater where agroecological conditions are more favourable and are much higher for larger farms. Without interventions that allow small farms to access more labour and land, intensification of agriculture is likely to happen only on farms of better-resourced households, indicating the need for alternative forms of on- and off-farm income generation for poorer farmers. The contribution of agriculture to national food security has to come from the large farms, requiring policy support.

Naar een integraal systeem voor productverbetering in Nederland : Advies van de Commissie Criteria Productverbetering
Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Visschers, R. ; Kok, P.M.T. de; Graaf, C. de; Roodenburg, A.J.C. ; Wolvers, D. ; Berg, M. van den - \ 2018
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM briefrapport 2018-0056) - 56
Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

Brain response to food cues varying in portion size is associated with individual differences in the portion size effect in children
Keller, Kathleen L. ; English, Laural K. ; Fearnbach, S.N. ; Lasschuijt, Marlou ; Anderson, Kaitlin ; Bermudez, Maria ; Fisher, Jennifer O. ; Rolls, Barbara J. ; Wilson, Stephen J. - \ 2018
Appetite 125 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 139 - 151.
Brain - Eating behavior - fMRI - Pediatrics - Portion size
Large portions promote intake of energy dense foods (i.e., the portion size effect–PSE), but the neurobiological drivers of this effect are not known. We tested the association between blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) brain response to food images varied by portion size (PS) and energy density (ED) and children's intake at test-meals of high- and low-ED foods served at varying portions. Children (N = 47; age 7–10 years) participated in a within-subjects, crossover study consisting of 4 meals of increasing PS of high- and low-ED foods and 1 fMRI to evaluate food images at 2 levels of PS (Large, Small) and 2 levels of ED (High, Low). Contrast values between PS conditions (e.g., Large PS - Small PS) were calculated from BOLD signal in brain regions implicated in cognitive control and reward and input as covariates in mixed models to determine if they moderated the PSE curve. Results showed a significant effect of PS on intake. Responses to Large relative to Small PS in brain regions implicated in salience (e.g., ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex) were positively associated with the linear slope (i.e., increase in intake from baseline) of the PSE curve, but negatively associated with the quadratic coefficient for the total meal. Responses to Large PS High ED relative to Small PS High ED cues in regions associated with cognitive control (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) were negatively associated with the linear slope of the PSE curve for high-ED foods. Brain responses to PS cues were associated with individual differences in children's susceptibility to overeating from large portions. Responses in food salience regions positively associated with PSE susceptibility while activation in control regions negatively associated with PSE susceptibility.
Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operation on different measuring priciples
Goossens, Dirk ; Nolet, C. ; Etyemezian, Vicken ; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo ; Bakker, G. ; Riksen, M.J.P.M. - \ 2018
Aeolian Research 32 (2018). - ISSN 1875-9637 - p. 1 - 13.
Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as hey pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The
strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.
Genome-wide association study in 79,366 European-ancestry individuals informs the genetic architecture of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
Jiang, Xia ; O'Reilly, Paul F. ; Aschard, Hugues ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Richards, J.B. ; Dupuis, Josée ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Karasik, David ; Pilz, Stefan ; Berry, Diane ; Kestenbaum, Bryan ; Zheng, Jusheng ; Luan, Jianan ; Sofianopoulou, Eleni ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Lutsey, Pamela L. ; Yao, Lu ; Tang, Weihong ; Econs, Michael J. ; Wallaschofski, Henri ; Völzke, Henry ; Zhou, Ang ; Power, Chris ; McCarthy, Mark I. ; Michos, Erin D. ; Boerwinkle, Eric ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; Freedman, Neal D. ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Velde, Nathalie van der; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Enneman, Anke ; Cupples, L.A. ; Booth, Sarah L. ; Vasan, Ramachandran S. ; Liu, Ching Ti ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Shea, M.K. ; Houston, Denise K. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen B. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Lohman, Kurt K. ; Ferrucci, Luigi ; Peacock, Munro ; Gieger, Christian ; Beekman, Marian ; Slagboom, Eline ; Deelen, Joris ; Deelen, Joris ; Heemst, Diana van; Kleber, Marcus E. ; März, Winfried ; Boer, Ian H. De; Wood, Alexis C. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rich, Stephen S. ; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne ; Heijer, Martin Den; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Cavadino, Alana ; Cavadino, Alana ; Joshi, Peter K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Lind, Lars ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Trompet, Stella ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Uitterlinden, Andre G. ; Rivadeneira, Fernando - \ 2018
Nature Communications 9 (2018)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone precursor that is associated with a range of human traits and diseases. Previous GWAS of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations have identified four genome-wide significant loci (GC, NADSYN1/DHCR7, CYP2R1, CYP24A1). In this study, we expand the previous SUNLIGHT Consortium GWAS discovery sample size from 16,125 to 79,366 (all European descent). This larger GWAS yields two additional loci harboring genome-wide significant variants (P = 4.7×10 -9 at rs8018720 in SEC23A, and P = 1.9×10 -14 at rs10745742 in AMDHD1). The overall estimate of heritability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentrations attributable to GWAS common SNPs is 7.5%, with statistically significant loci explaining 38% of this total. Further investigation identifies signal enrichment in immune and hematopoietic tissues, and clustering with autoimmune diseases in cell-type-specific analysis. Larger studies are required to identify additional common SNPs, and to explore the role of rare or structural variants and gene-gene interactions in the heritability of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
Visions for nature and nature’s contributions to people for the 21st century : Report from an IPBES visioning workshop held on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand
Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Belder, E. den; Carvalho Ribeiro, Sonja ; Davies, Kate ; Greenaway, Alison ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, H. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G. ; Ravera, Federica ; Brink, Thelma van den; Argumedo, Alejandro ; Arida, Clarissa ; Armenteras, Dolors ; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle ; Baptiste, Brigitte ; Belanger, Julie ; Bingham, Kelly ; Bowden-Kerby, Austin ; Cao, Mingchang ; Nettleton-Carino, Jocelyn ; Damme, Paul Andre Van; Devivo, R. ; Dickson, Fiona ; Dushimumuremyi, Jean Paul ; Ferrier, S. ; Flores-Díaz, Adriana ; Foley, Melissa ; Garcia Marquez, Jaime ; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina ; Greenhalgh, Suzie ; Hamilton, D.J. ; Hardison, Preston ; Hicks, Geoff ; Hughey, Ken ; Kahui-McConnell, Richelle ; Wangechi Karuri-Sebina, Geci ; Kock, M. de; Leadley, Paul ; Lemaitre, Frederic ; Maltseva, Elina ; Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos A. de; Metwaly, Mona ; Nelson, W. ; Ngo, Hien ; Neumann, Christian ; Norrie, Craig ; Perry, Joanne ; Quintana, Rodrigo ; Rodriguez Osuna, Vanesa Eliana ; Röhrl, Richard ; Seager, J. ; Sharpe, Helen ; Shortland, Tui ; Shulbaeva, Polina ; Rashid Sumaila, U. ; Takahashi, Yasuo ; Titeux, Titeux ; Tiwari, Sunandan ; Trisos, Christopher ; Ursache, Andrei ; Wheatley, Amanda ; Wilson, David ; Wood, S. ; Wyk, Ernita van; Yue, Tian Xiang ; Zulfikar, Dina - \ 2017
- 123 p.
Existing scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) have important limitations and gaps that constrain their usefulness for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Specifically, they fail to incorporate policy objectives related to nature conservation and social-ecological feedbacks, they do not address the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services, and they are typically relevant at only a particular spatial scale. In addition, nature and its benefits are treated as the consequence of human decisions, but are not at the centre of the analysis. To address these issues, the IPBES Scenarios and Models Expert Group initiated the development of a set of Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures based on positive visions for human relationships with nature.
The first step of this process was a visioning workshop with stakeholders and experts on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 73 participants from inter-governmental organisations, national government organisations, non-governmental organisations, academia and the private sector, from 31 countries, and with a range of sectoral expertise on biodiversity topics, from urban development to agriculture to fisheries, worked together in a visioning exercise. This report documents the results from this visioning workshop to inform further stakeholder consultation and the development of the associated multiscale scenarios by modelers and experts.
This creative visioning exercise was carried out in four steps based on a suite of participatory methods that were used to develop visions of alternative futures. First the participants identified important themes to develop the visions. Next, thematic groups identified the main trends for BES in each theme and a set of “Seeds” of emerging initiatives leading to positive futures for our relationship with nature. Implications of what would happen across a range of sectors were identified for each seed. Then a pathway analysis of how the current regime in each theme may be transformed into the future desirable regime was carried
out. Narratives were then built for the visions emerging from each group. Finally, commonalities of visions across the groups were identified, and the regional relevance of each vision for different parts of the world was assessed.
Bio-based chemicals: general discussion
Bitter, Harry ; Clark, James ; Rothenberg, Gadi ; Matharu, Avtar ; Crestini, Claudia ; Argyropoulos, Dimitris ; Cabrera-Rodríguez, Carlos I. ; Dale, Bruce E. ; Stevens, Christian ; Marrocchi, Assunta ; Graca, Ines ; Luo, Hui ; Pant, Deepak ; Wilson, Karen ; Zijlstra, Douwe Sjirk ; Gschwend, Florence ; Mu, Xindong ; Zhou, Long ; Hu, Changwei ; Lapkin, Alexei ; Mascal, Mark ; Budarin, Vitaliy ; Hunt, Andrew ; Waldron, Keith ; Zhang, Fang ; Zhenova, Anna ; Samec, Joseph ; Huber, George ; Coma, Marta ; Huang, Xiaoming ; Bomtempo, José-Vitor - \ 2017
Faraday Discussions 202 (2017). - ISSN 1359-6640 - p. 227 - 245.
Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments
Hasegawa, Toshihiro ; Li, Tao ; Yin, Xinyou ; Zhu, Yan ; Boote, Kenneth ; Baker, Jeffrey ; Bregaglio, Simone ; Buis, Samuel ; Confalonieri, Roberto ; Fugice, Job ; Fumoto, Tamon ; Gaydon, Donald ; Kumar, Soora Naresh ; Lafarge, Tanguy ; Marcaida, Manuel ; Masutomi, Yuji ; Nakagawa, Hiroshi ; Oriol, Philippe ; Ruget, Françoise ; Singh, Upendra ; Tang, Liang ; Tao, Fulu ; Wakatsuki, Hitomi ; Wallach, Daniel ; Wang, Yulong ; Wilson, Lloyd Ted ; Yang, Lianxin ; Yang, Yubin ; Yoshida, Hiroe ; Zhang, Zhao ; Zhu, Jianguo - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 13 p.

The CO2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO2] (E-[CO2]) by comparison to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO2] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO2] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO2] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO2] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO2] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

Improving the built environment in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti-borne diseases
Lindsay, Steve W. ; Wilson, Anne ; Golding, Nick ; Scott, Thomas W. ; Takken, Willem - \ 2017
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 95 (2017)8. - ISSN 0042-9686 - p. 607 - 608.
Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass
Zillikens, M.C. ; Demissie, Serkalem ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. ; Chou, Wen Chi ; Stolk, Lisette ; Livshits, Gregory ; Broer, Linda ; Johnson, Toby ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Luan, J.A. ; Malkin, Ida ; Ried, Janina S. ; Smith, Albert V. ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Hua Zhao, Jing ; Zhang, Weihua ; Aghdassi, Ali ; Åkesson, Kristina ; Amin, Najaf ; Baier, Leslie J. ; Barroso, Inês ; Bennett, David A. ; Bertram, Lars ; Biffar, Rainer ; Bochud, Murielle ; Boehnke, Michael ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Buchman, Aron S. ; Byberg, Liisa ; Campbell, Harry ; Campos Obanda, Natalia ; Cauley, Jane A. ; Cawthon, Peggy M. ; Cederberg, Henna ; Chen, Zhao ; Cho, Nam H. ; Jin Choi, Hyung ; Claussnitzer, Melina ; Collins, Francis ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Jager, Philip L. De; Demuth, Ilja ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A.M. ; DIatchenko, Luda ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Enneman, Anke W. ; Erdos, Mike ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Eriksson, Joel ; Estrada, Karol ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Fu, Mao ; Garcia, Melissa ; Gieger, Christian ; Girke, Thomas ; Glazer, Nicole L. ; Grallert, Harald ; Grewal, Jagvir ; Han, Bok Ghee ; Hanson, Robert L. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hofman, Albert ; Hoffman, Eric P. ; Homuth, Georg ; Hsueh, Wen Chi ; Hubal, Monica J. ; Hubbard, Alan ; Huffman, Kim M. ; Husted, Lise B. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Ittermann, Till ; Jansson, John Olov ; Jordan, Joanne M. ; Jula, Antti ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Kilpelaïnen, Tuomas O. ; Klopp, Norman ; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L. ; Koistinen, Heikki A. ; Kraus, William E. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen ; Kuulasmaa, Teemu ; Kuusisto, Johanna ; Laakso, Markku ; Lahti, Jari ; Lang, Thomas ; Langdahl, Bente L. ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Lee, Jong Young ; Lerch, Markus M. ; Lewis, Joshua R. ; Lind, Lars ; Lindgren, Cecilia M. ; Liu, Yongmei ; Liu, Tian ; Liu, Youfang ; Ljunggren, Östen ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Luben, Robert N. ; Maixner, William ; McGuigan, Fiona E. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Melhus, Håkan ; Mellström, Dan ; Melov, Simon ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morris, Andrew P. ; Mosekilde, Leif ; Newman, Anne ; Nielson, Carrie M. ; O'Connell, Jeffrey R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Parker, Stephan ; Peacock, Munro ; Perola, Markus ; Peters, Annette ; Polasek, Ozren ; Prince, Richard L. ; Raïkkönen, Katri ; Ralston, Stuart H. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Robbins, John A. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rudan, Igor ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Schadt, Eric E. ; Schipf, Sabine ; Scott, Laura ; Sehmi, Joban ; Shen, Jian ; Soo Shin, Chan ; Sigurdsson, Gunnar ; Smith, Shad ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Stančáková, Alena ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Tan, Sian Tsung ; Tarnopolsky, Mark A. ; Thompson, Patricia ; Thomson, Cynthia A. ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Tikkanen, Emmi ; Tranah, Gregory J. ; Tuomilehto, Jaakko ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Verma, Arjun ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Völzke, Henry ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Walker, Mark ; Weedon, Michael N. ; Welch, Ryan ; Wichman, H.E. ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Williams, Frances M.K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Nicole C. ; Xie, Weijia ; Yu, Lei ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Chambers, John C. ; Döring, Angela ; Duijn, Cornelia M. Van; Econs, Michael J. ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Kooner, Jaspal S. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Spector, Timothy D. ; Stefansson, Kari ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Ossowski, Vicky ; Waterworth, Dawn M. ; Loos, Ruth J.F. ; Karasik, David ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Kiel, Douglas P. - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10-8) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 × 10-6). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.
Deliverable No. 1.3: Sustainability metrics for the EU food system: a review across economic, environmental and social considerations
Zurek, Monika ; Leip, Adrian ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Wijnands, Jo ; Terluin, Ida ; Shutes, Lindsay ; Hebinck, Aniek ; Zimmermann, Andrea ; Götz, Christian ; Hornborg, Sara ; Zanten, Hannah van; Ziegler, Friederike ; Havlik, Petr ; Garrone, Maria ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Turrini, Aida ; Dofkova, Marcela ; Trolle, Ellen ; Mistura, Lorenza ; Dubuisson, Carine ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Achterbosch, Thom ; Ingram, John ; Brem-Wilson, Joshua ; Franklin, Alex ; Fried, Jana ; Guzman Rodriguez, Paola ; Owen, Luke ; Saxena, Lopa ; Trenchard, Liz ; Wright, Julia - \ 2017
One of the main objectives of the SUSFANS project is to develop a set of concepts and tools to help policy and decision makers across Europe make sense of the outcomes and trends of the EU food system. This paper proposes a set of metrics for assessing the performance of the EU food system in delivering sustainable food and nutrition security. The performance metrics have been built up through the aggregation of a wide range of variables, which together help to monitor the achievement of four overarching policy goals for the EU food system, namely a balanced diet for EU citizens, reduced environmental impacts, competitive agri-food businesses and equitable outcomes of the food system. The project decided to take a hierarchical approach to aggregating from Individual Variables to Derived Variables to Aggregate Indicators to Performance Metrics. This approach aims at marrying the notion that decision makers want only a small but powerful set of metrics to communicate the findings of the assessment, with the need to substantiate these metrics with the best available data from a large number of sources in a transparent way. In this deliverable the current set up of the performance metrics focus on each individual policy goal. In a related report, the team explores if and how the performance metrics presented here can be quantified using available data and modelling tools, and which of the models of the SUSFANS tool box can estimate which ones of the performance metrics and how (report D1.4). In a final step the SUSFANS team will bring all performance metrics together in an integrated set that will allow a view across all four policy goals and thus across all aspects of sustainable food and nutrition security (forthcoming report D1.5). Further work is the quantification of metrics using case studies and prospective scenario analysis. In addition to their use for monitoring, the proposed metrics are geared towards quantification using selected computational modelling tools. As such, SUSFANS aims to assist in foresight on and the evaluation of transformative changes in the food system with rigour and consistency.
A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes
Lichtenberg, Elinor M. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kremen, Claire ; Batáry, Péter ; Berendse, Frank ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A. ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Snyder, William E. ; Williams, Neal M. ; Winfree, Rachael ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Åström, Sandra ; Benjamin, Faye ; Brittain, Claire ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Clough, Yann ; Danforth, Bryan ; Diekötter, Tim ; Eigenbrode, Sanford D. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Elle, Elizabeth ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Fukuda, Yuki ; Gaines-Day, Hannah R. ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Isaacs, Rufus ; Isaia, Marco ; Jha, Shalene ; Jonason, Dennis ; Jones, Vincent P. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krauss, Jochen ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Macfadyen, Sarina ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Martinez, Eliana ; Memmott, Jane ; Morandin, Lora ; Neame, Lisa ; Otieno, Mark ; Park, Mia G. ; Pfiffner, Lukas ; Pocock, Michael J.O. ; Ponce, Carlos ; Potts, Simon G. ; Poveda, Katja ; Ramos, Mariangie ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Sardiñas, Hillary ; Saunders, Manu E. ; Schon, Nicole L. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Sidhu, C.S. ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Veselý, Milan ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. ; Wilson, Julianna K. ; Crowder, David W. - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 4946 - 4957.
Agricultural management schemes - Arthropod diversity - Biodiversity - Evenness - Functional groups - Landscape complexity - Meta-analysis - Organic farming - Plant diversity
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes.
Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources
Cooper, James W. ; Wilson, Michael H. ; Derks, M.F.L. ; Smit, Sandra ; Kunert, Karl J. ; Cullis, Christopher ; Foyer, C.H. - \ 2017
Journal of Experimental Botany 68 (2017)8. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1941 - 1953.
Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50–5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes.
Use of multi-trait and random regression models to identify genetic variation in tolerance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Lough, Graham ; Rashidi, Hamed ; Kyriazakis, Ilias ; Dekkers, Jack C.M. ; Hess, Andrew ; Hess, Melanie ; Deeb, Nader ; Kause, Antti ; Lunney, Joan K. ; Rowland, Raymond R.R. ; Mulder, Herman ; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea - \ 2017
Genetics, Selection, Evolution 49 (2017)1. - ISSN 0999-193X - p. 1 - 15.

Background: A host can adopt two response strategies to infection: resistance (reduce pathogen load) and tolerance (minimize impact of infection on performance). Both strategies may be under genetic control and could thus be targeted for genetic improvement. Although there is evidence that supports a genetic basis for resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), it is not known whether pigs also differ genetically in tolerance. We determined to what extent pigs that have been shown to vary genetically in resistance to PRRS also exhibit genetic variation in tolerance. Multi-trait linear mixed models and random regression sire models were fitted to PRRS Host Genetics Consortium data from 1320 weaned pigs (offspring of 54 sires) that were experimentally infected with a virulent strain of PRRS virus to obtain genetic parameter estimates for resistance and tolerance. Resistance was defined as the inverse of within-host viral load (VL) from 0 to 21 (VL21) or 0 to 42 (VL42) days post-infection and tolerance as the slope of the reaction-norm of average daily gain (ADG21, ADG42) on VL21 or VL42. Results: Multi-trait analysis of ADG associated with either low or high VL was not indicative of genetic variation in tolerance. Similarly, random regression models for ADG21 and ADG42 with a tolerance slope fitted for each sire did not result in a better fit to the data than a model without genetic variation in tolerance. However, the distribution of data around average VL suggested possible confounding between level and slope estimates of the regression lines. Augmenting the data with simulated growth rates of non-infected half-sibs (ADG0) helped resolve this statistical confounding and indicated that genetic variation in tolerance to PRRS may exist if genetic correlations between ADG0 and ADG21 or ADG42 are low to moderate. Conclusions: Evidence for genetic variation in tolerance of pigs to PRRS was weak when based on data from infected piglets only. However, simulations indicated that genetic variance in tolerance may exist and could be detected if comparable data on uninfected relatives were available. In conclusion, of the two defense strategies, genetics of tolerance is more difficult to elucidate than genetics of resistance.

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