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Olfactory function and the social lives of older adults : A matter of sex
Boesveldt, Sanne ; Yee, Jason R. ; McClintock, Martha K. ; Lundström, Johan N. - \ 2017
Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
Social factors play a critical role in a panoply of health processes, including, as recently demonstrated, olfaction. Here, we investigated sex-dependent differences in the relationship between social lives and ability to identify odors in a large sample of nationally representative older US adults (n = 3005, National Social Life and Aging Project (NSHAP)). Social life was measured by the number of friends and close relatives as well as frequency of socializing. We here confirm the association between social lives and olfactory function and extend the notion by showing specifically that olfactory identification ability is modulated by sex in older adults. The connection between olfactory performance and social lives could reflect social modulation of aging as has been reported for health in general. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms underlying this association and sex difference.
Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptilesand Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Miller, William G. ; Yee, Emma ; Zomer, Aldert ; Graaf-Van Bloois, Linda Van Der; Fitzgerald, C. ; Forbes, Ken J. ; Méric, Guillaume ; Sheppard, S. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Duim, Birgitta - \ 2016
Genome Biology and Evolution 8 (2016)6. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 2006 - 2019.
Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies.
Comparative genomics of campylobacter iguaniorum to unravel genetic regions associated with reptilian hosts
Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Miller, William G. ; Yee, Emma ; Kik, Marja ; Zomer, Aldert L. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Duim, Birgitta - \ 2016
Genome Biology and Evolution 8 (2016)9. - ISSN 1759-6653 - p. 3022 - 3029.
Campylobacter Iguaniorum - Comparative Genomics - Evolution - Phylogeny - Recombination - Reptile
Campylobacter iguaniorum is most closely related to the species C. fetus, C. hyointestinalis, andC. lanienae. Reptiles, chelonians and lizards in particular, appear to be a primary reservoir of this Campylobacter species. Here we report the genome comparison of C. iguaniorumstrain 1485E, isolated from a bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and strain 2463D, isolated froma green iguana (Iguana iguana), with the genomes of closely related taxa, in particular with reptile-Associated C. fetus subsp.Testudinum. In contrast to C. fetus, C. iguaniorum is lacking an S-layer encoding region. Furthermore, a defined lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis locus, encoding multiple glycosyltransferases and bounded by waa genes, is absent from C. iguaniorum. Instead, multiple predicted glycosylation regionswere identified inC. iguaniorum.One of these regions is>50 kb withdeviantG+Ccontent, suggesting acquisition via lateral transfer. These similar, but non-homologous glycosylation regions were located at the same position on the genome in both strains. Multiple genes encoding respiratory enzymes not identified to date within the C. fetus clade were present. C. iguaniorum shared highest homology with C. hyointestinalis and C. fetus. As in reptile-Associated C. fetus subsp.Testudinum, a putative tricarballylate catabolism locus was identified. However, despite colonizing a shared host, no recent recombination between both taxa was detected. This genomic study provides a better understanding of host adaptation, virulence, phylogeny, and evolution of C. iguaniorum and related Campylobacter taxa.
Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids
Graaf-Van Bloois, Linda Van Der; Miller, William G. ; Yee, Emma ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Gorkiewisz, G. ; Forbes, Ken J. ; Zomer, Aldert ; Duim, Birgitta - \ 2016
PLoS ONE 11 (2016)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids.We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs can be present both in chromosomal genomic islands (GI) and on plasmids in the C. fetus strains. The GIs of the chromosomally located T4SS differed mainly by the presence of fic genes, insertion sequence elements and phage-related or hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis showed that T4SS sequences, inserted in the same locations, were conserved in the studied C. fetus genomes. Using phylogenetic analysis of the T4SSs, it was shown that C. fetus may have acquired the T4SS regions from other Campylobacter species by horizontal gene transfer. The identified T4SSs and fic genes were found in Cff and Cfv strains, although the presence of T4SSs and fic genes were significantly associated with Cfv strains. The T4SSs and fic genes could not be associated with S-layer serotypes or geographical origin of the strains.
Genetic variance for uniformity of harvest weight in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Khaw, H.L. ; Ponzoni, R.W. ; Yee, H.Y. ; Aziz, M.A. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Marjanovic, J. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2016
Aquaculture 451 (2016). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 113 - 120.
Competition for resources is common in aquaculture, which inflates the variability of fish body weight. Selective breeding is one of the effective approaches that may enable a reduction of size variability (or increase in uniformity) for body weight by genetic means. The genetic variance of uniformity is commonly known as genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance for particular traits. The data collected from a social interaction experiment were used to investigate the presence of genetic variation in heterogeneity of environmental variance for harvest weight in the GIFT strain. A total of 944 records pooled (by family-group) from 6330 individual harvest weights were used in the analysis. For the estimation of genetic parameters we fitted a bivariate sire-dam model to harvest weight and its standard deviation. To normalize the residuals, individual harvest weight was Box-Cox transformed. The heritability (at the family by group level) and genetic coefficient of variation for standard deviation of Box-Cox transformed harvest weight (0.23 and 0.17, respectively) indicated that uniformity of harvest weight was partly under genetic control. In addition, we found a very low genetic relationship between Box-Cox transformed harvest weight and its standard deviation, rA=0.095±0.183. Hence, these two traits are unrelated and can be selected in different directions using index selection, namely, aiming to increase growth rate while decreasing size variation. We conclude that there is potential to increase harvest weight and its uniformity by selective breeding in the GIFT strain of farmed tilapia. Statement of relevance: Uniformity will help to increase aquaculture production
Genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for harvest weight in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Khaw, H.L. ; Ponzoni, R.W. ; Yee, H.Y. ; Aziz, M.A. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2016
Aquaculture 450 (2016). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 154 - 161.
Trait values of individuals are affected not only by their genetic makeup, but also by environmental factors and interactions with other individuals. The heritable effect of an individual on the trait values of other individuals it interacts with is known as an indirect genetic effect (IGE). Such IGEs may affect response to selection. Fish selected for high growth rate, for example, have been shown to be more aggressive and competitive, which may reduce the observed response in growth rate. The main objective of this study is to quantify the genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for harvest weight in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia. A total of 6330 fish with harvest weight information were used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. A bivariate analysis of harvest weight and survival was conducted by fitting different mixed models to investigate the presence of IGEs and other non-genetic effects. The full set of genetic parameters could not be estimated simultaneously with the inclusion of maternal common environmental effects. A confounding between maternal common environmental effects and direct genetic effects resulted from the mating strategy, where one sire was mated to only one or two dams. A 1 male to 2 females mating design is common in aquaculture, but it has limited power to estimate genetic parameters. Models without maternal common environmental effects showed significant IGE on harvest weight, which contributed 48% of total heritable variance. Models with maternal common environmental effects suggested the presence of IGE. The direct-indirect genetic correlation for harvest weight was negative (-. 0.38. ±. 0.19), indicating that traditional selection, if performed in an environment where the fish have to compete with each other for the resources, will increase competition. A strongly negative genetic correlation between direct effects on survival and indirect effects on harvest weight (-. 0.79. ±. 0.30) showed that individuals with better genes for survival suppressed growth rate of their social partners. Our results suggest that heritable competitive interactions affect harvest weight in Nile tilapia. Hence, breeding schemes may need to be adapted to avoid an increase in aggressiveness due to selection for growth rate in a competitive environment. Further studies are required to investigate the relevance of IGE and its implications on different systems of commercial aquaculture production. Statement of relevance: Sociable fish will help to improve aquaculture production.
Towards a common nutrient use efficiency assessment method for livestock supply chains: : a case study of mixed dairy supply chains in western europe
Uwizeye, U.A. ; Gerber, P.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
The comprehensive assessment of efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use in livestock supply chains is a key step towards sustainable nutrient management . Previously, we identified supply chain level nutrient use efficiency (life-cycle NUE), as a pertinent indicator to support monitoring of practice changes and benchmarking of livestock supply chains . The quantification of life-cycle NUE  requires the computation of NUE at each stage of supply chain, including crop/pasture production, animal production and processing. A ‘perfect’ NUE assessment in crop/pasture production would require measurement of all nutrient flows, including inputs, soil stock changes (SSC), losses and removals in harvested biomass. However, no dataset could be found that includes comprehensive measurement of both SSC and losses. Therefore, existing models commonly estimate the value of these variables by modelling one of these two flows and deriving the other from mass balance. The aim of this study, part of the FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) partnership, was to assess the extent to which reported life-cycle NUE values depend on such methodological choices. We compared three N accounting approaches: i) a simple input-output approach where SSC is set to equal 0 , ii) an approach where N losses are modelled  and iii) an approach where SSC is modelled, based on assumptions about NUE values . Additionally, for P-NUE, we explored methodological approaches to account for “sustainable fertility build-up” in P-deficient and optimum soils . We illustrate both these N and P assessments for mixed dairy systems in Western Europe.
 M.A. Sutton, A. Bleeker, C. Howard, M. Bekunda, B. Grizzetti, W. de Vries, et al., Our Nutrient World: the challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution. Global Overview of Nutrient Management, Sutton, M. A.;Bleeker, A.;Howard, C. M.;Bekunda, M.;Grizzetti, B.;Vries, W. de;Grinsven, H. J. M. van;Abrol, Y. P.;Adhya, T. K.;Billen, G.;Davidson, E. A.;Datta, A.;Diaz, R.;Erisman, J. W.;Liu, X. J.;Oenema, O.;Palm, C.;Raghuram, N.;Reis, S.;Scholz, R. W.;Sims, T.;Westhoek, H.;Zhang, F. S., CEH/UNEP, Edinburgh, UK, 2013.
 P. Gerber, A. Uwizeye, R. Schulte, C. Opio, I. de Boer, Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?, SI Syst. Dyn. Sustain. 9–10 (2014) 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.09.007.
 S. Suh, S. Yee, Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US, Phosphorus Cycle. 84 (2011) 806–813. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.051.
 E. OECD, Gross Nitrogen Balances-Handbook, URL. 20 (2007) 2010.
 G. Velthof, D. Oudendag, H. Witzke, W. Asman, Z. Klimont, O. Oenema, Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE, J. Environ. Qual. 38 (2009) 402–417.
 F.Ş. Özbek, A. Leip, Estimating the gross nitrogen budget under soil nitrogen stock changes: A case study for Turkey, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 205 (2015) 48–56.
 G. Tóth, A. Jones, L. Montanarella, The LUCAS topsoil database and derived information on the regional variability of cropland topsoil properties in the European Union, Environ. Monit. Assess. 185 (2013) 7409–7425. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3109-3.
Inconsistency of Phenotypic and Genomic Characteristics of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Requires Reevaluation of Current Diagnostics
Bloois, L. van; Miller, W.G. ; Yee, E. ; Rijnsburger, M. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Duim, B. - \ 2014
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 52 (2014)12. - ISSN 0095-1137 - p. 4183 - 4188.
pcr assay - identification - time
Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of five C. fetus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the core genomes of 23 C. fetus strains of the two subspecies showed a division into two clusters. The phylogenetic core genome clusters were not consistent with the phenotypic classifications of the C. fetus subspecies. However, they were consistent with the molecular characteristics of the strains, which were determined by multilocus sequence typing, sap typing, and the presence/absence of insertion sequences and a type I restriction modification system. The similarity of the genome characteristics of three of the phenotypically defined C. fetus subsp. fetus strains to C. fetus subsp. venerealis strains, when considering the core genome and accessory genes, requires a critical evaluation of the clinical relevance of C. fetus subspecies identification by phenotypic assays.
Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Vosman, B.J. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Boekel, T. van - \ 2012
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 47 (2012)12. - ISSN 0950-5423 - p. 2636 - 2647.
unguiculata l. walp. - chickpea cicer-arietinum - vigna-unguiculata - aflp analysis - diversity - functionality - markers - protein - dna - variability
The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented landraces (PLs, three clusters). UPs contained, in g kg-1 d.w., less fibre (24) and phenolics (3) than PLs (56 and 8, respectively) but had bigger seeds (200 g d.w. for 1000 seeds) and lower water absorption capacity at 30 °C (1049 g kg-1) than PLs (139 and 1184, respectively). In g kg-1 d.w., protein (255), ash (39), calcium (0.95), phytate (9.3), iron (0.07) and zinc (0.04) contents were similar. UPs genetic similarities corroborated with their chemical composition and functionality clustered by principal component analysis. Therefore, UPs are well interchangeable regarding chemical composition and suitability for boiled and fried cowpea dishes in contrast to PLs. PLs have potential for innovative product design owing to their functional properties.
Keeping local foods on the menu: a study on the small-scale processing of cowpea
Madodé, Y.E.E. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; D.J. Hounhouigan, co-promotor(en): Anita Linnemann; Rob Nout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734358 - 176
vignabonen - voedselverwerking - landrassen - antinutritionele factoren - verteerbaarheid - west-afrika - benin - cowpeas - food processing - landraces - antinutritional factors - digestibility - west africa
Agriculture plays a significant role in the economy of most African countries. Yet malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies occur regularly. Concomitantly, many carbohydrate rich staple foods and meat products are dumped on the African market and compet strongly with local products. The present thesis studied the potential of indigenous resources and locally developed practices to supply culturally acceptable and nutritious foods to African resource-poor people, using cowpea as model crop. This research is implemented using an interdisciplinary approach, which comprised plant breeding, food science and technology, human nutrition and social sciences. This thesis reports the findings of the research on food science and technology.
This study aimed to (i) characterise cowpea landraces in use in Benin with regard to nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties; (ii) determine present cowpea processing methods and eating habits with special reference to the content of cowpea dishes in available iron, zinc and calcium; (iii) assess the effect of the use of alkaline cooking aids on amino acids of cooked cowpea, and (iv) assess the impact of processing techniques on the flatulence generated by the intake of cowpea foods.
The genetic, nutritional and technological characterisation of cowpea landraces in use in Benin showed that a high level of similarity among unpigmented landraces as opposed to pigmented landraces. The cluster of unpigmented landraces significantely differed from the pigmented landraces for their fibre (24 vs. 56 g/kg, d.w.) and phenolics (3 vs. 8 g/kg, d.w.) contents as well as their seed size (200 vs. 139 g/1000 seeds, d.w.) and water absorption capacity (1049 vs. 1184 g/kg, d.w.).
An inventory of 18 cowpea dishes was obtained, which are produced by the combination of the following main unit operations: cooking, dehulling, deep-fat frying, steaming, roasting and soaking. Fermentation and germination are unusual technological practices in West-Africa. Consumers mainly consume Ata, Atassi and Abobo. These dishes contain little available iron because their [phytate] : [iron] molar ratio is above the required thresholds for a good iron uptake by the human body. The incorporation of cowpea leaves in certain dishes resulted in appropriate available iron and calcium potentials.
The constraints to cowpea processing were identified as: their long cooking time, the tediousness of the dehulling process and the perishability of beans and dishes. The local answer to the long cooking time is the use of alkaline cooking aids. These alkaline salts and the applied cooking conditions did not induce any significant change in the amino acid composition of pigmented landraces. Moreover, the toxicity potentially associated with this practice was not confirmed as no lysinoalanine could be quantified while using up to 0.5 % (w/v) of alkaline cooking aids.
Flatulence was indicated as the main constraint to cowpea consumption. Cowpea hulls are usually pointed as the main responsible for flatulence. In this research, galactose-oligosaccharides that are indigestible for humans and cause flatulence formation were not found in cowpea hulls. Fermentation wih Rhizopus or Bacillus bacteria reduced significantly the fermentability of cowpea in vitro and in vivo as compared with traditional processes.
The present study demonstrates the opportunities to improve the quality of cowpea dishes by the incorporation of the leaves and the possibilities to sustain the consumption of cowpea by focusing on soaking and/or fermentation processes.
In male rats with concurrent iron and (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, provision of either iron or (n-3) fatty acids alone alters monoamine metabolism and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency
Baumgartner, J. ; Smuts, C.M. ; Malan, L. ; Arnold, M. ; Yee, B.K. ; Bianco, L.E. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Muller, M.R. ; Langhans, W. ; Hurrell, R.F. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)8. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1472 - 1478.
brain iron - phospholipid supplementation - dopamine metabolism - working-memory - behavior - mice - performance - myelination - nutrition - repletion
Concurrent deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids [(n-3)FAD)] in rats can alter brain monoamine pathways and impair learning and memory. We examined whether repletion with Fe and DHA/EPA, alone and in combination, corrects the deficits in brain monoamine activity (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory [by Morris water maze (MWM) testing] associated with deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and (n-3)FAD [ID+(n-3)FAD] were fed an Fe+DHA/EPA, Fe+(n-3)FAD, ID+DHA/EPA, or ID+(n-3)FAD diet for 5 wk [postnatal d 56–91]. Biochemical measures and MWM performance after repletion were compared to age-matched control rats. The provision of Fe in combination with DHA/EPA synergistically increased Fe concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) (Fe x DHA/EPA interaction). Similarly, provision of DHA/EPA in combination with Fe resulted in higher brain DHA concentrations than provision of DHA alone in the frontal cortex (FC) and OB (P <0.05). Dopamine (DA) receptor D1 was upregulated in the hippocampus of Fe+DHA/EPA rats (fold-change = 1.25; P <0.05) and there were significant Fe x DHA/EPA interactions on serotonin (5-HT) in the OB and on the DA metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the FC and striatum. Working memory performance was impaired in ID+DHA/EPA rats compared with controls (P <0.05). In the reference memory task, Fe+DHA/EPA improved learning behavior, but Fe or DHA/EPA alone did not. These findings suggest that feeding either Fe or DHA/EPA alone to adult rats with both ID and (n-3)FAD affects the DA and 5-HT pathways differently than combined repletion and exacerbates the cognitive deficits associated with combined deficiency.
Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rates disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone
Baumgartner, J. ; Smuts, C.M. ; Malan, L. ; Arnold, M. ; Yee, B.K. ; Bianco, L.E. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Muller, M.R. ; Langhans, W. ; Hurrell, R.F. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2012
The Journal of Nutrition 142 (2012)8. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1463 - 1471.
serotoninergic neurotransmission - working-memory - early-life - dopamine - oligodendrocytes - supplementation - myelination - impairment - expression - nutrition
Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21–56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70–76% and Fe by 20–32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P <0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P <0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P <0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P <0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone.
Bacillus and Rhizopus fermentations reduce the flatulence inducing properties of Vigna unguiculata measured in-vitro
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Li, Z. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M. ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2011
In: Abstract book of the FOOD Denmark PhD Congress 2011: How to obtain high quality healthy foods in different settings, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 22-23 November, 2011. - Frederiksberg, Denmark : FOOD Denmark Research School - ISBN 9788790438166 - p. 28 - 28.
Preparation, Consumption, and Nutritional Composition of West African cowpea dishes
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Houssou, P. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hounhouigan, D.J. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2011
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 50 (2011)2. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 115 - 136.
kanwa alkaline salt - vigna-unguiculata - antinutritional factors - phytic acid - food - quality - phytate - benin - beans - digestibility
In Africa, nutrient intake deficiencies are widespread. We, therefore, investigated the potential contribution of cowpea dishes to the ingestion of several macro- and micronutrients. Processors and consumers were interviewed and cowpea dishes analyzed. Energy, protein, iron, zinc, and calcium contents ranged from 1647 to 2570 kJ, 10 to 25 g, 1 to 35 mg, 1.5 to 3.0 mg, 38 to 380 mg per 100 g d.w., respectively. The iron and calcium contents were highest in dishes containing leaves. The consumption of these dishes should be promoted along with research on how to further decrease the associated antinutritional factors of traditional cowpea dishes
|Inhibition of iron absorption in legume-based dishes: case study of cowpea-derived foods from Benin
Madode, Y.E.E. ; Houssou, P. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Hounhouigan, J.D. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2009
Exploratory and multidisciplinary survey of the cowpea network in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of Ghana: A food sovereignty perspective
Quaye, W. ; Adofo, K. ; Madode, Y.E.E. ; Abizari, A.R. - \ 2009
African Journal of Agricultural Research 4 (2009)4. - ISSN 1991-637X - p. 311 - 320.
kanwa alkaline salt - africa
An exploratory survey of selected deprived communities in the Tolon-Kumbungu district of northern region of Ghana was conducted in August 2007 by a multi-disciplinary team of social scientist, food technologist, plant breeder and food nutritionist. The survey sought to identify with farmers their critical agronomic needs and production constraints in order to develop appropriate breeding strategies, as well as cowpea varietal preference for improved processing technology development. A rural participatory and conventional survey approaches were used. Close to half of the interviewed farmers cultivate both improved and local varieties. It was realized that 33 and 22% cultivated only local and improved varieties respectively. Generally, farmers indicated preference for improved varieties due to market value but rather preferred local varieties for household consumption and food sovereignty purposes. The top three most preferred varietal traits mentioned by farmers for breeding considerations included yield, tolerance to diseases and pests and seed colour. Processors preferred white seed coat varieties due to their good whipping ability and short cooking period. Farmers stressed the role of local varieties in food sovereignty with the early maturing ones being the most significant in household food provision
|The Economics of Agricultural Land Use
Oltmer, K. ; Nijkamp, P. - \ 2005
In: Contemporary issues in urban and regional economics / Yee, L., New York : Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781594543036 - 185 p.
|Biodiversity in urban areas; the role of sustainable functioning of networks
Snep, R.P.H. ; Kwak, R.G.M. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2000
In: Green Cities - p. 20 - 21.