Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sprayer boom optimization for bed-grown crops
Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Velde, P. van - \ 2018
pesticide - sprayer - model - design
For full-field grown arable crops, the application of evenly distributed sprays can be managed by selecting proper nozzles, nozzle spacings and sprayer boom height. For bed-grown crops, ideally the spray is applied evenly to the bed only, while no spray should be applied onto the paths in between the beds. This is a complicating factor that usually cannot be fulfilled easily. A model has been developed to help design the adequate set-ups of nozzles on a sprayer boom optimized for bed-grown crops. For this purpose, the spray distribution patterns of various single nozzles at different boom heights have been measured on a patternator. The model combines these spray patterns while varying nozzle types, nozzle spacings and the position and tilting of end nozzles. The model searches for set-ups that fulfil the requirements as defined by the user. Currently, the model focussed on the use of Lechler Varioselect fourfold nozzle bodies to find optimal solutions for beds with widths between 1.1 and 1.5 m and boom heights of 0.2 to 0.6 m above the crop, while being able to apply different dose rates depending on crop canopy height. Hundreds of thousands potential set-ups were simulated, but only relatively few meet the requirements. In the ideal set-up the application rate would be manageable by merely opening or closing the nozzles while assuring an even spray distribution on top of the bed. The model can be modified easily to use different nozzle types and boom set-ups, provided that the necessary spray patterns are available. Different user requirements can be implemented as well, for instance for band spraying or other user-definable spray distributions.
Investigating the variance of edge-of-field deposits of spray drift
Holterman, H.J. ; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Stallinga, H. ; Velde, P. van; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2018
pesticide - statistics - risk assessment - systems analysis
Spray applications in arable crops often lead to off-target spray deposits downwind from the treated field. Throughout several decades, many experiments have been carried out by different researchers to quantify the downwind spray deposits. Relations between downwind spray deposits and parameters like sprayer settings, field conditions and environmental conditions were investigated. Still, there is a large variance in the observed data that cannot be explained satisfactorily by the experimental and environmental conditions. Sprayer boom movements and local fluctuations in driving speed, wind speed and wind direction are the most likely factors affecting variance in downwind spray deposits.
In this study variations in downwind deposits of spray drift caused by sprayer boom movements are investigated both experimentally and based on simulations using the spray drift model IDEFICS. Downwind deposits of spray drift were measured alongside a treated potato field, at 2 m and 5 m off the edge. Wind speed and direction were recorded during the experiments. Horizontal and vertical movements of the sprayer boom were recorded as well. Variance of spray deposits at 2 m downwind from the field edge was about 50%. At 5 m downwind variance was about 30%.
A quasi-dynamic model was developed based on the IDEFICS spray drift model. In the new model the effect of both horizontal and vertical boom movements on downwind spray deposits was studied. From the above mentioned experiments, the most important frequencies and amplitudes of boom movements were derived. Using these frequencies, the model simulations resulted in variances of spray drift deposits similar to those established experimentally. Effects of fluctuating wind directions are to be investigated in the near future.
Exposure assessment for edge-of-field watercourses next to tree nurseries regarding spray drift deposits
Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2018
pesticide - statistics - risk assessment - systems analysis - surface water - spatial
Spray applications in arable crops often lead to off-target spray deposits downwind from the treated field. Throughout several decades, many experiments have been carried out by different researchers to quantify the downwind spray deposits. Relations between downwind spray deposits and parameters like sprayer settings, field conditions and environmental conditions were investigated. Still, there is a large variance in the observed data that cannot be explained satisfactorily by the experimental and environmental conditions. Sprayer boom movements and local fluctuations in driving speed, wind speed and wind direction are the most likely factors affecting variance in downwind spray deposits.
In this study variations in downwind deposits of spray drift caused by sprayer boom movements are investigated both experimentally and based on simulations using the spray drift model IDEFICS. Downwind deposits of spray drift were measured alongside a treated potato field, at 2 m and 5 m off the edge. Wind speed and direction were recorded during the experiments. Horizontal and vertical movements of the sprayer boom were recorded as well. Variance of spray deposits at 2 m downwind from the field edge was about 50%. At 5 m downwind variance was about 30%.
A quasi-dynamic model was developed based on the IDEFICS spray drift model. In the new model the effect of both horizontal and vertical boom movements on downwind spray deposits was studied. From the above mentioned experiments, the most important frequencies and amplitudes of boom movements were derived. Using these frequencies, the model simulations resulted in variances of spray drift deposits similar to those established experimentally. Effects of fluctuating wind directions are to be investigated in the near future.
Optimizing sprayer boom design for bed-grown crops
Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Velde, P. van - \ 2018
In: International Advances in Pesticide Application. - Warwick UK : Association of Applied Biologists Warwick Enterprise Park (Aspects of Applied Biology ) - p. 123 - 130.
bed sprayer - optimizing distribution - simulation - model - patternator
For bed-grown crops, ideally the spray is applied evenly to the bed only, while no spray should be applied onto the paths between the beds. Usually these criteria cannot be fulfilled easily. The current study describes the development and use of a model to design adequate set-ups of nozzles on a sprayer boom optimized for bed-grown crops. Spray patterns of various single nozzles at different boom heights have been measured on a patternator. The model combines these spray patterns while varying nozzle types, nozzle spacing and the position and angling of end nozzles. Examples are given for designs using Lechler Varioselect fourfold nozzle bodies to find optimal solutions for beds with widths between 1.1 and 1.5 m and boom heights of 0.2 to 0.6 m above the crop, while being able to apply different dose rates depending on crop canopy height. A large number of potential set-ups are simulated, but only relatively few meet the requirements that can be defined by the user.
Including multistress in risk assessment of pesticides. Current state of knowledge, based on a literature review and evaluation of tank mixture applications in a spraying schedule for strawberries
Vliet, P. van; Arts, G.H.P. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Wipfler, E.L. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2018
In: SETAC Europe 28th Annual Meeting 13−17 May 2018, Rome, Italy. - SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe (SETAC Europe) ) - p. 480 - 480.
multistress, pesticides, environmental risk, aquatic
Development of a spray drift model for spray applications in fruit orchards
Holterman, H.J. ; Zande, J.C. van der; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Wennerker, M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Wageningen Plant Research rapport WPR-566) - 71
Implementation of a dynamic intestinal gut-on-a-chip barrier model for transport studies of lipophilic dioxin congeners
Kulthong, Kornphimol ; Duivenvoorde, Loes ; Mizera, Barbara Z. ; Rijkers, Deborah ; Dam, Guillaume ten; Oegema, Gerlof ; Puzyn, Tomasz ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Zande, Meike van der - \ 2018
RSC Advances : An international journal to further the chemical sciences 8 (2018)57. - ISSN 2046-2069 - p. 32440 - 32453.

Novel microfluidic technologies allow the manufacture of in vitro organ-on-a-chip systems that hold great promise to adequately recapitulate the biophysical and functional complexity of organs found in vivo. In this study, a gut-on-a-chip model was developed aiming to study the potential cellular association and transport of food contaminants. Intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) were cultured on a porous polyester membrane that was tightly clamped between two glass slides to form two separate flow chambers. Glass syringes, polytetrafluoroethylene tubing and glass microfluidic chips were selected to minimize surface adsorption of the studied compounds (i.e. highly lipophilic dioxins), during the transport studies. Confocal microscopy studies revealed that, upon culturing under constant flow for 7 days, Caco-2 cells formed complete and polarized monolayers as observed after culturing for 21 days under static conditions in Transwells. We exposed Caco-2 monolayers in the chip and Transwell to a mixture of 17 dioxin congeners (7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans) for 24 h. Gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was used to assess the cellular association and transport of individual dioxin congeners across the Caco-2 cell monolayers. After 24 h, the amount of transported dioxin mixture was similar in both the dynamic gut-on-a-chip model and the static Transwell model. The transport of individual congeners corresponded with their number of chlorine atoms and substitution patterns as revealed by quantitative structure-property relationship modelling. These results show that the gut-on-a-chip model can be used, as well as the traditional static Transwell system, to study the cellular association and transport of lipophilic compounds like dioxins.

Impact of nanoparticle surface functionalization on the protein corona and cellular adhesion, uptake and transport 03 Chemical Sciences 0306 Physical Chemistry (incl. Structural)
Abdelkhaliq, Ashraf ; Zande, Meike van der; Punt, Ans ; Helsdingen, Richard ; Boeren, Sjef ; Vervoort, Jacques J.M. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Bouwmeester, Hans - \ 2018
Journal of Nanobiotechnology 16 (2018)1.
Cellular adhesion and uptake - High throughput screening - Label-free LC-MS/MS - Nanoparticles - Quantitative proteomics

Background: Upon ingestion, nanoparticles can interact with the intestinal epithelial barrier potentially resulting in systemic uptake of nanoparticles. Nanoparticle properties have been described to influence the protein corona formation and subsequent cellular adhesion, uptake and transport. Here, we aimed to study the effects of nanoparticle size and surface chemistry on the protein corona formation and subsequent cellular adhesion, uptake and transport. Caco-2 intestinal cells, were exposed to negatively charged polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) (50 and 200 nm), functionalized with sulfone or carboxyl groups, at nine nominal concentrations (15-250 μg/ml) for 10 up to 120 min. The protein coronas were analysed by LC-MS/MS. Results: Subtle differences in the protein composition of the two PSNPs with different surface chemistry were noted. High-content imaging analysis demonstrated that sulfone PSNPs were associated with the cells to a significantly higher extent than the other PSNPs. The apparent cellular adhesion and uptake of 200 nm PSNPs was not significantly increased compared to 50 nm PSNPs with the same surface charge and chemistry. Surface chemistry outweighs the impact of size on the observed PSNP cellular associations. Also transport of the sulfone PSNPs through the monolayer of cells was significantly higher than that of carboxyl PSNPs. Conclusions: The results suggest that the composition of the protein corona and the PSNP surface chemistry influences cellular adhesion, uptake and monolayer transport, which might be predictive of the intestinal transport potency of NPs.

Driftreductie Munckhof MAS 3 rijen boomgaardspuit : effect van VARIMAS variabele luchtondersteuning en Randrijen instelling
Stallinga, H. ; Velde, P. van; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Wenneker, M. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2018
Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Busines Unit Agrosystems (Rapport WPR 759) - 37
Results of spray drift experiments are presented of the Munckhof MAS 3-row orchard sprayer in comparison with a reference spray technique for fruit crop spraying in The Netherlands. The Munckhof MAS 3-row orchard sprayer was equipped with a 90% drift reducing nozzle (Albuz TVI8001; 7 bar spray pressure), low level of air assistance (400 rpm PTO) and the VARIMAS variable air system and an Edge-Row setting. During the spray drift experiments the downwind outside 24 m of an apple orchard was sprayed at the full leaf stage (BBCH 91/92) using the fluorescent tracer Acid Yellow 250. Spray drift deposition was collected downwind of the sprayed orchard on a mowed grass area up to 25 m distance from the last tree row. Airborne spray drift was measured at 7.5 m distance from the last tree row on a pole at which two lines with collectors were attached at 1 m spacing up to 10 m height. The spray drift experiments showed that spraying an apple orchard at the full leaf stage
(BBCH 91/92) with a Munckhof MAS 3-row orchard sprayer equipped with 90% drift reducing Albuz TVI8001 nozzles (7 bar), low level of air assistance (400 rpm PTO) and VARIMAS-system (last tree row sprayed from both sides) spray drift reduction at 4.5-5.5 m distance from the last tree row was 98.9% in comparison with the reference spray application. Using the VARIMAS-system with EdgeRow-setting the spray drift reduction was 99.5%. Airborne spray drift
reduction at 7.5 m distance from the last tree row averaged over 10 m height was for the Munckhof MAS 3-row orchard sprayer equipped with 90% drift reducing Albuz TVI8001 nozzles (7 bar), low level of air assistance (400 rpm PTO) and VARIMAS-system 98.8% and for the VARIMAS-system with EdgeRow
-setting 98.6%.
Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : Part 2: Sideways and upward spraying in Dutch fruit crops (interim report)
Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Wipfler, L. ; Horst, M.M.S. ter; Zande, J.C. van de; Adriaanse, P.I. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2861) - 55
A methodology is presented to assess the exposure of aquatic organisms resulting from pesticide applications by sideways and upward spraying in Dutch fruit crops. It is the intention that this methodology will be used in Dutch pesticide registration. The methodology is based on the principle that the endpoint concentration represents a 90th percentile of the statistical population of concentrations to be expected in ditches alongside fruit crops. Furthermore the methodology is founded on the principle that the user should be able to choose between different drift-reduction technology (DRT) classes and between different widths of the crop-free buffer zone. Spray drift is the only exposure route considered in the methodology. The 90th percentile concentration (PEC90) is based on a spatially distributed model that simulates the frequency distribution of the annual maximum concentration of more than 70,000 spatial units (i.e. ditches characterised by waterbody properties and their orientation with respect to the direction of the rows of the fruit trees and to the N-E-S-W direction) for 100 simulation years. This frequency distribution was calculated for different application patterns, different DRT classes and different widths of the crop-free buffer zone. Next, one of the 70,000 spatial units was selected which fulfilled the criterion that it could be used to calculate this PEC90 for all combinations of application patterns, DRT classes and widths by selecting a suitable percentile of its temporal distribution of concentrations. The TOXSWA model (coupled to the hydrological SWQN model simulating water depths and water flow rates) was parameterised for this selected spatial unit to run for 26 years. The first six years were used as a ‘warming-up’ period and the remaining 20 years for assessing the required temporal percentile. The scenario ditch was 300 m long of which only the 100 m in the middle received a drift load of pesticide. The direction of water flow may change on a daily basis and the water flowing into the 300-m ditch was assumed to be free of pesticide. The median residence time of a droplet of water in the 100-m ditch was about 1 day. The
spray drift deposition for the 99% DRT class appeared to be as low as 0.03-
0.07% for summer applications. At such low deposition levels the contribution of leaching from drain pipes and of atmospheric deposition may exceed that of the drift deposition.
Advice of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Seal Rehabilitation in the Netherlands
Zande, A.N. van der; Alphen, J.J.M. van; Goodman, S.J. ; Meijboom, F.L.B. ; Stegeman, A.J. ; Thompson, D. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Latour, J.B. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 90 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - seals - animal health - animal housing
Inter-laboratory comparison of nanoparticle size measurements using dynamic light scattering and differential centrifugal sedimentation
Langevin, D. ; Lozano, O. ; Salvati, A. ; Kestens, V. ; Monopoli, M. ; Raspaud, E. ; Mariot, S. ; Salonen, A. ; Thomas, S. ; Driessen, M. ; Haase, A. ; Nelissen, I. ; Smisdom, N. ; Pompa, P.P. ; Maiorano, G. ; Puntes, V. ; Puchowicz, D. ; Stępnik, M. ; Suárez, G. ; Riediker, M. ; Benetti, F. ; Mičetić, I. ; Venturini, M. ; Kreyling, W.G. ; Zande, M. van der; Bouwmeester, H. ; Milani, S. ; Rädler, J.O. ; Mülhopt, S. ; Lynch, I. ; Dawson, K. - \ 2018
NanoImpact 10 (2018). - ISSN 2452-0748 - p. 97 - 107.
Nanoparticle in vitro toxicity studies often report contradictory results with one main reason being insufficient material characterization. In particular the characterization of nanoparticles in biological media remains challenging. Our aim was to provide robust protocols for two of the most commonly applied techniques for particle sizing, i.e. dynamic light scattering (DLS) and differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS) that should be readily applicable also for users not specialized in nanoparticle physico-chemical characterization. A large number of participants (40, although not all participated in all rounds) were recruited for a series of inter-laboratory comparison (ILC) studies covering many different instrument types, commercial and custom-built, as another possible source of variation. ILCs were organized in a consecutive manner starting with dispersions in water employing well-characterized near-spherical silica nanoparticles (nominal 19 nm and 100 nm diameter) and two types of functionalized spherical polystyrene nanoparticles (nominal 50 nm diameter). At first each laboratory used their in-house established procedures. In particular for the 19 nm silica particles, the reproducibility of the methods was unacceptably high (reported results were between 10 nm and 50 nm). When comparing the results of the first ILC round it was observed that the DCS methods performed significantly worse than the DLS methods, thus emphasizing the need for standard operating procedures (SOPs). SOPs have been developed by four expert laboratories but were tested for robustness by a larger number of independent users in a second ILC (11 for DLS and 4 for DCS). In a similar approach another SOP for complex biological fluids, i.e. cell culture medium containing serum was developed, again confirmed via an ILC with 8 participating laboratories. Our study confirms that well-established and fit-for-purpose SOPs are indispensable for obtaining reliable and comparable particle size data. Our results also show that these SOPs must be optimized with respect to the intended measurement system (e.g. particle size technique, type of dispersant) and that they must be sufficiently detailed (e.g. avoiding ambiguity regarding measurand definition, etc.). SOPs may be developed by a small number of expert laboratories but for their widespread applicability they need to be verified by a larger number of laboratories.
Decision tree models to classify nanomaterials according to the DF4nanoGrouping scheme
Gajewicz, Agnieszka ; Puzyn, Tomasz ; Odziomek, Katarzyna ; Urbaszek, Piotr ; Haase, Andrea ; Riebeling, Christian ; Luch, Andreas ; Irfan, Muhammad A. ; Landsiedel, Robert ; Zande, Meike van der; Bouwmeester, Hans - \ 2018
Nanotoxicology 12 (2018)1. - ISSN 1743-5390 - p. 1 - 17.
(Q)SAR - categorization - Computational toxicology - grouping - nanomaterials - oxidative stress
To keep pace with its rapid development an efficient approach for the risk assessment of nanomaterials is needed. Grouping concepts as developed for chemicals are now being explored for its applicability to nanomaterials. One of the recently proposed grouping systems is DF4nanoGrouping scheme. In this study, we have developed three structure-activity relationship classification tree models to be used for supporting this system by identifying structural features of nanomaterials mainly responsible for the surface activity. We used data from 19 nanomaterials that were synthesized and characterized extensively in previous studies. Subsets of these materials have been used in other studies (short-term inhalation, protein carbonylation, and intrinsic oxidative potential), resulting in a unique data set for modeling. Out of a large set of 285 possible descriptors, we have demonstrated that only three descriptors (size, specific surface area, and the quantum-mechanical calculated property ‘lowest unoccupied molecular orbital’) need to be used to predict the endpoints investigated. The maximum number of descriptors that were finally selected by the classification trees (CT) was very low– one for intrinsic oxidative potential, two for protein carbonylation, and three for NOAEC. This suggests that the models were well-constructed and not over-fitted. The outcome of various statistical measures and the applicability domains of our models further indicate their robustness. Therefore, we conclude that CT can be a useful tool within the DF4nanoGrouping scheme that has been proposed before.
Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida
Geuverink, Elzemiek ; Verhulst, E.C. ; Leussen, M. van; Zande, L. ; Beukeboom, Leo W. - \ 2018
Insect Molecular Biology 27 (2018)1. - ISSN 0962-1075 - p. 99 - 109.
Doublesex - Hymenoptera - Maternal provision - Sex determination - Transformer - Transformer-2
In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms.
Effects of food-borne nanomaterials on gastrointestinal tissues and microbiota
Bouwmeester, Hans ; Zande, Meike van der; Jepson, Mark A. - \ 2018
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 10 (2018)1. - ISSN 1939-5116 - 12 p.

Ingestion of engineered nanomaterials is inevitable due to their addition to food and prevalence in food packaging and domestic products such as toothpaste and sun cream. In the absence of robust dosimetry and particokinetic data, it is currently challenging to accurately assess the potential toxicity of food-borne nanomaterials. Herein, we review current understanding of gastrointestinal uptake mechanisms, consider some data on the potential for toxicity of the most commonly encountered classes of food-borne nanomaterials (including TiO2 , SiO2 , ZnO, and Ag nanoparticles), and discuss the potential impact of the luminal environment on nanoparticle properties and toxicity. Much of our current understanding of gastrointestinal nanotoxicology is derived from increasingly sophisticated epithelial models that augment in vivo studies. In addition to considering the direct effects of food-borne nanomaterials on gastrointestinal tissues, including the potential role of chronic nanoparticle exposure in development of inflammatory diseases, we also discuss the potential for food-borne nanomaterials to disturb the normal balance of microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. The latter possibility warrants close attention given the increasing awareness of the critical role of microbiota in human health and the known impact of some food-borne nanomaterials on bacterial viability. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

Application of Bayesian networks for hazard ranking of nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment
Marvin, H.J.P. ; Bouzembrak, Y. ; Janssen, E.M. ; Zande, M. van der; Murphy, Finbarr ; Sheehan, Barry ; Mullins, Martin ; Bouwmeester, H. - \ 2017
Bayesian networks - metal nanomaterials - scenario studies - risk assessment - expert elicitation
In this study, a Bayesian Network (BN) was developed for the prediction of the hazard potential and biological effects with the focus on metal- and metal-oxide nanomaterials to support human health risk assessment. The developed BN captures the (inter) relationships between the exposure route, the nanomaterials physicochemical properties and the ultimate biological effects in a holistic manner and was based on international expert consultation and the scientific literature (e.g., in vitro/in vivo data). The BN was validated with independent data extracted from published studies and the accuracy of the prediction of the nanomaterials hazard potential was 72% and for the biological effect 71%, respectively. The application of the BN is shown with scenario studies for TiO2, SiO2, Ag, CeO2, ZnO nanomaterials. It is demonstrated that the BN may be used by different stakeholders at several stages in the risk assessment to predict certain properties of a nanomaterials of which little information is available or to prioritize nanomaterials for further screening.
Spray drift exposure of bystanders and residents when spraying field crops
Zande, J.C. van de; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Stallinga, H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Busines Unit Agrosystems (Report WPR 722) - 27
Spray drift can be limited using drift-reducing nozzles and spray techniques and is obligatory when applying Plant Protection Products (PPP) alongside waterways in the Netherlands. The spray drift reducing measures implemented to protect the surface water also protect spray drift exposure of bystanders and residents in the neighbourhood of sprayed field crops using boom sprayers. Spray drift is estimated at different distances from a sprayed field crop based on earlier performed spray drift field experiments. A differentiation is made to measured spray drift deposition at ground level and estimated airborne spray drift up to 50 m distance from the treated field. Airborne spray drift curves are based on measured airborne spray drift at 5.5 m distance from the last nozzle. Airborne
spray drift is further divided in exposure in the 0-3 m and 3-6 m high air layers. Results show that spray drift reducing technology (DRT) is important in reducing the exposure risk of bystanders and residents.
Characterization of the air flow and the liquid distribution of orchard sprayers
Zande, J.C. van de; Schlepers, M. ; Hofstee, J.W. ; Michielsen, J.G.P. ; Wenneker, M. - \ 2017
Improving spray deposition in orchard spraying by a Munckhof multiple row sprayer
Wenneker, M. ; Michielsen, J.G.P. ; Stallinga, H. ; Velde, P. van; Dalfsen, P. van; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2017
Spray deposition and distribution of a cross-flow fan orchard sprayer in spindle apple trees
Michielsen, J.G.P. ; Stallinga, H. ; Velde, P. van; Dalfsen, P. van; Wenneker, M. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2017
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