Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Foundation species enhance food web complexity through non-trophic facilitation
Borst, Annieke C.W. ; Verberk, Wilco C.E.P. ; Angelini, Christine ; Schotanus, Jildou ; Wolters, Jan Willem ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Zee, Els M. van der; Derksen-Hooijberg, Marlous ; Heide, Tjisse van der - \ 2018
PLoS One 13 (2018)8. - ISSN 1932-6203

Food webs are an integral part of every ecosystem on the planet, yet understanding the mechanisms shaping these complex networks remains a major challenge. Recently, several studies suggested that non-trophic species interactions such as habitat modification and mutualisms can be important determinants of food web structure. However, it remains unclear whether these findings generalize across ecosystems, and whether non-trophic interactions affect food webs randomly, or affect specific trophic levels or functional groups. Here, we combine analyses of 58 food webs from seven terrestrial, freshwater and coastal systems to test (1) the general hypothesis that non-trophic facilitation by habitat-forming foundation species enhances food web complexity, and (2) whether these enhancements have either random or targeted effects on particular trophic levels, functional groups, and linkages throughout the food web. Our empirical results demonstrate that foundation species consistently enhance food web complexity in all seven ecosystems. Further analyses reveal that 15 out of 19 food web properties can be well-approximated by assuming that foundation species randomly facilitate species throughout the trophic network. However, basal species are less strongly, and carnivores are more strongly facilitated in foundation species’ food webs than predicted based on random facilitation, resulting in a higher mean trophic level and a longer average chain length. Overall, we conclude that foundation species strongly enhance food web complexity through non-trophic facilitation of species across the entire trophic network. We therefore suggest that the structure and stability of food webs often depends critically on non-trophic facilitation by foundation species.

Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Waarom onderzoek met leefbakken en niet met het terugzetten van gemerkte vis in zee?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Marine Research - 4 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Het gebruik van leefbakken is hiervoor de beste methode. Waarom is dat zo?
Joint Knowledge Creation : Towards sustainable agriculture in a changing climate
Heselmans, Marianne ; Kuzniar-van der Zee, Brenda - \ 2018
Wageningen : FACCE-JPI - ISBN 9789463433365 - 15
European flat oysters on offshore wind farms: additional locations : opportunities for the development of European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) populations on planned wind farms and additional locations in the Dutch section of the North Sea
Kamermans, Pauline ; Duren, Luca van; Kleissen, Frank - \ 2018
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/18) - 33
To determine the relative suitability for development of self-sustaining European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) beds, potential areas for offshore wind farms in the Dutch Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) were analysed following Smaal et al (2017). The studied locations are the new wind farm zones “Hollandse Kust (“noordwest”, “west” and “zuidwest”)”, “IJmuiden Ver” and the remaining lot of the North of the Frysian Islands Wind Farm Zone, but also 13 additional potential locations on the EEZ (i.e. CP4-CP6 and CP9-17) and, in addition, the nature area location Borkum Reef Ground (Borkumse Stenen). This research is performed within EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek (BO).
Biotic and abiotic factors of importance for flat oyster survival, growth, reproduction and recruitment, were compared for the 8 wind farm locations of Smaal et al. (2017) and the 18 new locations. For the locations on the Dutch EEZ the following habitat factors are important for flat oyster beds: shear stress, suspended sediment, larval retention, temperature, sediment composition and food availability. Presence in historic distribution area was used as a verification. Average shear stress, suspended sediment and temperature are within the range considered suitable for the development of an oyster bed at all locations. Thus, these factors do not discriminate between locations. Maximum shear stress is too high at one location and the sediment is too silty at 7 locations. However, habitat restoration efforts may make the environment more suitable, e.g. by placing shell material or 3D structures which elevate the oysters from the bottom.
Based on the analysis described in this report we recommend to select the following locations that are suitable for flat oyster restoration.
1. Best: Borssele Wind Farm Zone, Buitengaats (part of the Gemini wind park) and CP9 (within historic distribution and high larval retention);
2. Very good: Hollandse Kust (zuidwest) Wind Farm Zone (high larval retention);
3. Good: Offshore Windpark Egmond aan Zee, Prinses Amalia Windpark, Windpark Eneco Luchterduinen, Hollandse Kust (zuid) Wind Farm Zone, Hollandse Kust (noord) Wind Farm Zone (medium larval retention);
4. Suitable: the remaining lot of the North of the Frysian Islands Wind Farm Zone, Zee-energie (part of the Gemini wind park), Borkum Reef Ground (Borkumse Stenen) (within historic distribution, medium or high larval retention, but locally too high maximum shear stress or too silty);
5. Suitable with introduction of substrate: CP5, CP6 (medium or high larval retention, but too silty without introduction of substrate).
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: wat zijn de overlevingskansen in de pulsvisserij?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - seals - animal health
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Welke conclusies kunnen uit het onderzoek worden getrokken over de overlevingskansen?
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Hoe gaat dit in zijn werk?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Hoe gaat het onderzoek naar de overlevingskansen van vis in zijn werk?
Disciplining private standards under the SPS and TBT agreement : A plea for market-state procedural guidelines
Zee, Eva Van Der - \ 2018
Journal of World Trade 52 (2018)3. - ISSN 1011-6702 - p. 393 - 414.

This article shows that, although private standards could fall within the scope of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary(SPS) or Technical Barriers to Trade(TBT) Agreement, the responsibility of WTO Members to effectively ensure that private standard-setters are not more trade-restrictive than necessary is limited under the respective frameworks. Other mechanisms, rooted in a commercial disguise, would be more effective as they could incentivize private standard-setters to comply with the WTO legal system. It is argued that WTO Members worried about the trade-restrictive nature of private standards should draft procedural guidelines in collaboration with intergovernmental organizations(IGOs) and private multi-stakeholder standard-setting bodies. Such procedural guidelines should be aimed at simplifying the certification process and making it easier for farmers and producers to comply with the private standard.

Kwetsbare soorten voor energie-infrastructuur in Nederland : overzicht van effecten van hernieuwbare energie-infrastructuur en hoogspanningslijnen op de kwetsbare soorten vogels, vleermuizen, zeezoogdieren en vissen, en oplossingsrichtingen voor een natuurinclusieve energietransitie
Buij, Ralph ; Jongbloed, Ruud ; Geelhoed, Steve ; Jeugd, Henk van der; Klop, Eric ; Lagerveld, Sander ; Limpens, Herman ; Meeuwsen, Henk ; Ottburg, Fabrice ; Schippers, Peter ; Tamis, Jacqueline ; Verboom, Jana ; Wal, Jan Tjalling van der; Wegman, Ruut ; Winter, Erwin ; Schotman, Alex - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2883) - 231
De cumulatieve impact van energie-infrastructuur kan een belangrijke rol spelen bij de populatieontwikkeling van kwetsbare soorten door sterfte en habitatverlies als gevolg van aanvaringen met die energie-infrastructuur of het verstorende effect van dergelijke infrastructuur. In dit rapport wordt een zo actueel en volledig mogelijk overzicht gegeven van de staat van kennis en de relatieve kwetsbaarheid van vogels, vleermuizen, zeezoogdieren en vissen in relatie tot de impact van windturbines, hoogspanningslijn
en, waterkrachtcentrales en zonnepaneelvelden. Voor deze soortgroepen en energie-infrastructuur worden de kwetsbare soorten gerangschikt op basis van hun kwetsbaarheid en wordt inzichtelijk gemaakt waar de verspreiding van de kwetsbaarste soorten overlapt met de energie-infrastructuur. We evalueren hoe de cumulatieve impact van energie-infrastructuur op de soortgroepen gekwantificeerd kan worden nu en in de toekomst, en hoe die impact zich verhoudt tot andere antropogene drukfactoren voor de kwetsbaarste soorten. We bespreken mitigatie- en compensatiemaatregelen die in potentie kunnen voorkomen dat Nederlandse populaties van soorten afnemen als gevolg van de huidige en toekomstige energie-infrastructuur op zee en op land. Tot slot worden suggesties gedaan voor het opvullen van de belangrijkste kennishiaten en oplossingsrichtingen die het mogelijk maken de effecten op kwetsbare soorten bij de verdere groei van energie-infrastructuur op land en op zee te minimaliseren.
Delfstofwinning en natuur
Vliegenthart, Albert ; Zee, Friso van der - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2873) - 95
Development of a conceptual groundwater flow model using a combined hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic approach : A case study from southern Benin
Kpegli, Kodjo Apelete Raoul ; Alassane, Abdoukarim ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der; Boukari, Moussa ; Mama, Daouda - \ 2018
Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 18 (2018). - ISSN 2214-5818 - p. 50 - 67.
Hydrochemistry - Isotope - Ouémé - Piezometry - Turonian-Coniacian aquifer

Study region: The Turonian-Coniacian aquifer system in the North of the Coastal Sedimentary Basin, southern Benin, West Africa. Study focus: The Turonian-Coniacian aquifer is the major aquifer in southern Benin and is the main source of water supply for the population. The pressure on groundwater resources from the Turonian-Coniacian aquifer is increasing since few artesian wells tapping into this aquifer already show decrease in their yields. Preventing extinction of the artesian outflows requires as a first step a thorough understanding of the groundwater flow system: groundwater recharge areas, downstream areas, and flow directions. In this study, a combined hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic approach was applied to understand the groundwater flow within this aquifer and to develop a coherent conceptual groundwater flow model. New hydrological insights for the region: The piezometric results indicated three main groundwater flow directions. Stable isotopes results confirmed the piezometry as the most depleted and enriched values in Oxygen-18 and deuterium were found respectively in downstream areas (southern region) and in the recharge areas (northern region) indicated by the piezometry. Similarly, higher tritium contents (up to 3.5 Tritium Unit) characterize recharge areas and low tritium contents (<0.12 Tritium Unit) were found in downstream areas. The combination of these results with the geologic and topographic data led to a coherent conceptual groundwater flow model shown in this paper.

Platvis in beeld : Stimulans voor netinnovatie in de tongvisserij
Molenaar, P. ; Dammers, M. ; Rijn, J. van - \ 2018
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C026/18) - 20
Het project ‘Platvis in Beeld’ heeft als doel visserij sector voorzien van fundamentele kennis van visgedrag in netten door het maken van onderwater opnamen in een Pulsnet. Met deze opnamen kan men het gedrag van de verschillende vissoorten in een net bestuderen en nieuwe ideeën opdoen voor het gericht ontwikkelen van een selectiever visnet voor de tongvisserij. Er is een stapsgewijze methode toegepast om gericht naar helder beeldmateriaal van visgedrag toe te werken. De ideeën zijn eerst getest in een schaalmodel om op basis van deze ervaringen het in de praktijk op zee uit te voeren. Vervolgens zijn met behulp van deze netaanpassingen onder de juiste omstandigheden onderwater video opnamen gemaakt in het net aan boord van twee puls kotters. De beelden zijn geselecteerd, bewerkt en online beschikbaar gemaakt voor de het bredere publiek. De verzamelde videobeelden van vis in het pulsnet zijn visueel geanalyseerd om de verschillen in gedragingen de gevangen soorten te beschrijven. Hieruit blijkt dat dat de waterstroom een aanzienlijke invloed heeft op het gedrag van de vissen in het net. De meeste gevangen platvissen hebben te weinig zwemcapaciteit om actief te zoeken naar een ontsnappingspaneel voordat ze in de kuil van het net komen. Uit de gemaakte beelden blijkt dat tong sterker is en een grotere zwemcapaciteit heeft. Hierdoor is tong in staat om tegen de stroming in te zwemmen. Waarschijnlijk kunnen toekomstige ontwikkelingen van selectieve netten voor deze visserij zich daarom beter richten op het scheiden en opvangen van tong
Onzekere tijden voor de vissector: Visserij in Cijfers 2017
Molenaar, P. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2018
Vis 35 (2018)4. - p. 10 - 11.
Tegenstrijdige berichten vorige maand bij het jaarlijkse Visserij in Cijfers van Wageningen Economic Research in Den Haag. Na de topjaren 2016 en 2017 zijn de vooruitzichten somber. Er zit genoeg vis in zee, daar ligt het niet aan, maar externe factoren gooien roet in het eten
Degree of phosphate saturation in highly weathered tropical soils
Campos, M. de; Antonangelo, Joao Arthur ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Alleoni, L.R.F. - \ 2018
Agricultural Water Management 206 (2018). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 135 - 146.
The degree of phosphate saturation (DPS) is an indicator for P-saturation, which is of assistance to the prediction of P losses and potential eutrophication of surface water. The scaling factor (α) estimates the adsorption capacity of the soil and is used to calculate the DPS. In soils from temperate regions, the value of α = 0.5 is widely used. However, using just a single value for α may fail to estimate the adsorption capacity correctly for all soils. In this study, the aims were (i) to calculate the scaling factor α and the DPS of highly weathered tropical soils with different chemical, physical and mineralogical properties in order to predict P losses; and (ii) to identify which soil properties are related to P adsorption. The scaling factor α and the DPS were calculated at 1, 3, 7, 21, 42 and 84 days (d), the highest one in recognition of the long-term kinetics of sorption. The values ​​of α increased as the contact period increased. Lower DPS values were obtained in soils with high P adsorption capacity whereas the highest DPS values were obtained in soils with a lower adsorption capacity. Out of ten Oxisols studied, six of them had an α higher than 1. Contents of clay, organic carbon (C) and poorly crystalline (Alox) and crystalline (“free”) Al oxides were the properties that best correlated with P adsorption. For the Oxisols, the clay content, poorly crystalline together with crystalline Fe and Al oxides represented the main components related to P adsorption. The highest DPS (31%) was found in Typic Udorthent. The content of poorly crystalline oxides was not suitable for the scaling factor α for most Oxisols, and only the Typic Udorthent exceeded the critical threshold of 23%, and is thus more susceptible to loss of P.
Achteruitgang insectenpopulaties in Nederland: trends, oorzaken en kennislacunes
Kleijn, David ; Bink, Ruud J. ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Grunsven, Roy van; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Roessink, Ivo ; Scheper, Jeroen A. ; Schmidt, Anne M. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel F. ; Wegman, Ruut ; Zee, Friso F. van der; Zeegers, Th. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2871) - 85
Large time behaviour of oscillatory nonlinear solute transport in porous media
Duijn, C.J. van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2018
Chemical Engineering Science 183 (2018). - ISSN 0009-2509 - p. 86 - 94.
Oscillations in flow occur under many different situations in natural porous media, due to tidal, daily or seasonal patterns. In this paper, we investigate how such oscillations in flow affect the transport of an initially sharp solute front, if the solute undergoes nonlinear sorption and, disregarding molecular diffusion, mechanical dispersion. By homogenization, we show that after many cycles, the transport converges to a zero convection, pure nonlinear diffusion problem. The impact of the oscillatory flow requires an adjustment of the dispersion coefficient, where instead of the modulus of the particle velocity, we have to use its time averaged value. Physically, this agrees with a velocity defined by the distance travelled by particles in solution, divided by the time needed for that displacement. The nonlinearity of the sorption reaction is retained in the concentration distribution of the mixing zone, because in the large time limit, this distribution is not Gaussian but asymmetric. With numerical simulations, we show that this convergence may occur relatively fast (say 10 cycles). The implication of the diffusion like large time behaviour is that the transition zone continues to spread beyond the zone of convective oscillation.
Sustainability standard-setting in the shadow of the law
Zee, Eva van der - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer, co-promotor(en): Kai Purnhagen; Arnout Fischer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437387 - 217

Voluntary sustainability standards (VSSs) are increasingly regulating sustainable consumption and production, thereby operating as a regulatory authority to promote sustainable development. As VSSs regulate economic activities they may be subject to legal provisions framed by international and EU economic law. The extent to which VSSs are subject to these legal provisions depends on the interpretation and application of international and EU economic law to VSSs. This interpretation and application determines the regulatory space within which VSSs can promote sustainable development. The regulatory space for VSS-setters to promote sustainable development that follows from the interaction between the application and interpretation of international and EU economic law and VSSs remains unclear. From the perspective of promoting sustainable development, this is problematic as this lack of clarity may allow for an interpretation and application of international and EU economic law that inhibits the potential of VSSs to promote sustainable development. As such, this inhibitive effect may conflict with the overarching objective of international and EU economic law to promote sustainable development. To remedy this conflict, more clarity is provided in this dissertation regarding the interaction between the interpretation and application of international and EU economic law and the regulatory space of VSSs. When investigating this interaction the normative assumptions underlying legal interpretation and application were examined by using critical legal analysis as a theoretical framework. This dissertation, first elaborated upon the regulatory structure of VSSs in Chapter 2. Subsequently, this dissertations used a case study analysis of EU consumer law (Chapter 3), EU fundamental rights law (Chapter 4), WTO law (Chapter 5) and EU competition law (Chapter 6), to describe and examine how the interpretation and application of international and EU economic law interacts with the regulatory space of VSSs to promote sustainable development.

Flat oysters in the Eierlandse Gat, Wadden Sea : Results of a survey in 2017
Have, T.M. van der; Kamermans, P. ; Zee, E.M. van der - \ 2018
Culemborg : Bureau Waardenburg (Report / Bureau Waardenburg 17-231) - 33 p.
This report presents the results of a short survey of flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Western Wadden Sea. Ten sites were visited and flat oysters were found on nine locations in the Eijerlandse gat. Empty cockleshells and live and dead Pacific oysters provided the main settlement substrate. The presence of larvae was detected in water samples by microscopic inspection and DNA analysis at several locations in the Eijerlandse gat. The results show that flat oysters have returned to the Wadden Sea after its extinction in the last century, but still occurs at low densities.
Green Pictograms on EU Foods: A Legal Study informed by Behavioural Science
Zee, E.L. van der; Fischer, A.R.H. - \ 2018
Journal of European Consumer and Market Law 7 (2018)1. - ISSN 2364-4710 - p. 15 - 22.
Axial compressive bearing capacity of piles in oil-contaminated sandy soil using FCV
Mohammadi, Amirhossein ; Ebadi, Taghi ; Eslami, Abolfazl ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der - \ 2018
Marine Georesources & Geotechnology (2018). - ISSN 1064-119X
Oil and its derivatives contaminate many soils and not only affect their chemical and biological properties but also their geotechnical properties. As oil contamination may deteriorate the functioning of piles, this paper addresses the effects of oil contamination on soil–pile interactions. Axial compressive bearing capacities of two close-ended, instrumented piles were investigated in different oil-contaminated sand using frustum confining vessel. Three different oils (gasoil, crude oil, and used motor oil) at different contamination levels were considered and using some strain gauges, the toe, shaft, and the net total bearing capacity of piles, as well as load distributions along the pile length, were derived. The results show that the presence of oil between soil particles has considerable adverse effects on bearing capacities of model piles, especially the shaft bearing capacity. The oil viscosity and percentage, as well as the contaminated sand bed thickness around the piles, are the most influential parameters. The higher the oil viscosity and oil content, the lower the values of the piles’ bearing capacities in comparison to the uncontaminated sand. With some modifications on the bearing capacity parameters of CFEM method, a good agreement was observed between measured and calculated bearing capacity values.
Fractionation and leaching of heavy metals in soils amended with a new biochar nanocomposite
Arabyarmohammadi, Hoda ; Darban, Ahmad Khodadadi ; Zee, Sjoerd E.A.T.M. van der; Abdollahy, Mahmoud ; Ayati, Bita - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 25 (2018)7. - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 6826 - 6837.
Adsorption - Biochar - Fractionation - Leaching - Mine - Mobility - Pollution - Soil - Toxic metals
In this study, surface soils of the Bama Pb-Zn mine-impacted area were sampled for an area surrounding the mineral processing plant. After collecting 65 samples and analyzing them for initial Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd metal contents, the area was zonated based on the concentration distribution using ordinary kriging in R. A single homogenous sample was prepared by mixing equal weights of each sample as being representative of the whole impacted area (ST). Next, a synthetic model soil (SM) was prepared according to the mean ST texture (SM), divided into two portions, where one portion was amended with a biochar composite (10% w/w) (SMA), both portions were artificially contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd (SMAC and SMC). The mixed soil ST, and the model soils SMC and SMAC, were subjected to soil sequential extraction procedure to determine the variations in fractionation of heavy metals. Results showed that the fractionation in the unamended model soil (SMC) was very close to the original real soil (ST). Moreover, in both amended and unamended soils, Cd and Pb had the highest and the lowest mobility, respectively. Zn and Cu showed intermediate mobilities. The performance of the amendment was evaluated using a 150-day column leaching test taking leachate samples at designated time intervals, and Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd concentrations were analyzed. Results of column leaching were in good agreement with the soil fractionation as Cd and Pb showed the highest and the lowest mobilities, respectively. Leaching through the soil column was also simulated by HP1 model. Results of simulation found in acceptable proximity to the experimental data despite remarkable differences due to limitations in defining soil to the simulation system.
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