Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Exploring optimal catch crops for reducing nitrate leaching in vegetable greenhouse in North China
Zhang, Hongyuan ; Hu, Kelin ; Zhang, Lijuan ; Ji, Yanzhi ; Qin, Wei - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 273 - 282.
Catch crop - Greenhouse vegetable field - N uptake - Nitrate leaching - Soil-crop system model

Chinese intensive greenhouse vegetable systems are characterized by high input of water and nutrients, which are not sustainable. There is an urgent need to explore smart and practical strategies to convert the “high input-low output” systems to “optimal input-output” ones. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different catch crops on reducing nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouse during the summer fallow season. A two-year field experiment with three catch crops, i.e., sweet corn (SC), amaranth (A) and sweet sorghum (SG), and no catch crop (CK) were conducted in vegetable greenhouse in Dingzhou city, Hebei province, China. The measured soil water content and inorganic nitrogen (N) content in soil profile, biomass and crop N uptake were used to validate the WHCNS (Soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) model, soil water movement and nitrate leaching were simulated. The results showed that the catch crops decreased the water drainage by 18.2–29.0% and nitrate leaching by 23.3–42.3% respectively, compared with CK. The water drainage reduction ranked as SC > SG > A, while the nitrate leaching reduction was A > SC > SG. The biomass was SC > SG > A, while the crop N uptake was SC > A > SG. Sweet corn could absorb the residual nitrate in the deep soil layers due to the long root system, while amaranth could absorb most residual nitrate in the surface soil. Amaranth showed greater N-uptake capacity than sweet corn, and the nitrate was mainly accumulated in the surface soil. Planting amaranth as summer catch crop reduced nitrate leaching in the vegetable greenhouses. Our study provides a guideline for selecting effective catch crops in intensive vegetable greenhouses in North China.

Self-assembly of ellipsoidal particles at fluid-fluid interfaces with an empirical pair potential
Luo, Alan M. ; Vermant, Jan ; Ilg, Patrick ; Zhang, Zhenkun ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. - \ 2019
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 534 (2019). - ISSN 0021-9797 - p. 205 - 214.
Capillary interactions - Ellipsoidal particles - Empirical pair potential - Fluid-fluid interfaces - Self-assembly

Colloidal particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces interact via mechanisms that can be specific to the presence of interfaces, for instance, lateral capillary interactions induced by nonspherical particles. Capillary interactions are highly relevant for self-assembly and the formation of surface microstructures, however, these are very challenging to model due to the multibody nature of capillary interactions. This work pursues a direct comparison between our computational modelling approach and experimental results on surface microstructures formed by ellipsoidal particles. We begin by investigating the accuracy of using pairwise interactions to describe the multibody capillary interaction by contrasting exact two- and three-particle interaction energies and we find that the pairwise approximation appears reasonable for the experimentally relevant configurations studied. We then develop an empirical pair potential and use it in Monte-Carlo type simulations to efficiently model the structure formation process for relevant particle properties such as aspect ratio, contact angle and surface coverage, and succeed in reproducing our experimental observations where we spread sterically-stabilised ellipsoidal particles onto an oil-air interface at high surface coverage. At lower surface coverages, we find that the self-assembly process falls into the diffusion-limited colloid aggregation universality class.

Plastic film cover during the fallow season preceding sowing increases yield and water use efficiency of rain-fed spring maize in a semi-arid climate
Zhang, Zhe ; Zhang, Yanqing ; Sun, Zhanxiang ; Zheng, Jiaming ; Liu, Enke ; Feng, Liangshan ; Feng, Chen ; Si, Pengfei ; Bai, Wei ; Cai, Qian ; Yang, Ning ; Werf, Wopke van der; Zhang, Lizhen - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 212 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 203 - 210.
Film cover - Soil temperature - Water availability - Yield components

Plastic film mulch increases crop yields in rain-fed agriculture in cool semi-arid climates by warming the soil and reducing evaporative water losses. The semi-arid Khorchin area in Northeast China is an important production area for rain-fed maize. Drought stress occurs frequently, even if plastic film mulch is applied at sowing. We hypothesized that the yield and water capture of maize could be increased by reducing evaporative loss of water by use of plastic film cover during the autumn and winter preceding sowing. In this study, we compared maize growth, water uptake and yield in three film cover treatments: (1) film cover from the autumn before maize sowing until maize harvest (autumn mulching: AM), (2) film cover from maize sowing till harvest (conventional practice) (spring mulching: SM), (3) no film cover (no mulch: NM). Field experiments were conducted in Fuxin city, Khorchin region, Liaoning province, China in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Autumn mulching increased grain yield on average by 18% when compared to spring mulching and by 36% when compared to no mulching. The 1000-kernel weight in AM was 7% higher than in SM, and 12% higher than in NM. Soil water content in the root zone before sowing was 35 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water uptake during the growing season was 34 mm greater in AM than in SM and NM. Water use efficiency for grain yield (yield per unit water uptake) in AM was on average 2.5% higher than in conventional mulching (SM) and 27% higher than in NM. Autumn mulching advanced development, with an advance of 5 days in tasseling time as compared to SM and 10 days when compared to NM. These results show that film cover during the fallow period before maize sowing can increase crop yield and water use efficiency, and reduce climate risks in rain-fed agriculture under semi-arid conditions.

Legacy of land use history determines reprogramming of plant physiology by soil microbiome
Li, Xiaogang ; Jousset, Alexandre ; Boer, Wietse de; Carrión, Víctor J. ; Zhang, Taolin ; Wang, Xingxiang ; Kuramae, Eiko E. - \ 2018
ISME Journal (2018). - ISSN 1751-7362

Microorganisms associated with roots are thought to be part of the so-called extended plant phenotypes with roles in the acquisition of nutrients, production of growth hormones, and defense against diseases. Since the crops selectively enrich most rhizosphere microbes out of the bulk soil, we hypothesized that changes in the composition of bulk soil communities caused by agricultural management affect the extended plant phenotype. In the current study, we performed shotgun metagenome sequencing of the rhizosphere microbiome of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and metatranscriptome analysis of the roots of peanut plants grown in the soil with different management histories, peanut monocropping and crop rotation. We found that the past planting record had a significant effect on the assembly of the microbial community in the peanut rhizosphere, indicating a soil memory effect. Monocropping resulted in a reduction of the rhizosphere microbial diversity, an enrichment of several rare species, and a reduced representation of traits related to plant performance, such as nutrients metabolism and phytohormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, peanut plants in monocropped soil exhibited a significant reduction in growth coinciding with a down-regulation of genes related to hormone production, mainly auxin and cytokinin, and up-regulation of genes related to the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene pathways. These findings suggest that land use history affects crop rhizosphere microbiomes and plant physiology.

Biological control of an invasive pest eases pressures on global commodity markets
Wyckhuys, K.A.G. ; Zhang, W. ; Prager, S.D. ; Kramer, D.B. ; Delaquis, E. ; Gonzalez, C.E. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1748-9318
biological control - ecosystem services - invasion biology - social-ecological systems - sustainable intensification - tele-coupling

In an increasingly globalized world, invasive species cause major human, financial, and environmental costs. A cosmopolitan pest of great concern is the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which invaded Asia in 2008. Following its arrival, P. manihoti inflicted measurable yield losses and a 27% drop in aggregate cassava production in Thailand. As Thailand is a vital exporter of cassava-derived commodities to China and supplies 36% of the world's internationally-traded starch, yield shocks triggered price surges and structural changes in global starch trade. In 2009 a biological control agent was introduced in Asia-the host-specific parasitoid, Anagyrus lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). This parasitoid had previously controlled the cassava mealybug in Africa, and its introduction in Asia restored yield levels at a continent-wide scale. Trade network and price time-series analyses reveal how both mealybug-induced production loss and subsequent parasitoid-mediated yield recovery coincided with price fluctuations in futures and spot markets, with important cascading effects on globe-spanning trade networks of (cassava) starch and commodity substitutes. While our analyses may not imply causality, especially given the concurrent 2007-2011 food crises, our results do illuminate the important interconnections among subcomponents of the global commodity system. Our work underlines how ecologically-based tactics support resilience and safeguard primary productivity in (tropical) agro-ecosystems, which in turn help stabilize commodity markets in a similar way as pesticide-centered approaches. Yet, more importantly, (judiciously-implemented) biological control can deliver ample 'hidden' environmental and human-health benefits that are not captured by the prices of globally-traded commodities.

3D printing of foods with added functionality – Examples of cheese-like products and probiotic cookies
Zhang, Lu - \ 2018
Extrusion-based 3D printing offers more flexibility in achieving food structures with controlled composition, geometric complexity and added functionality compared to conventional manufacturing methods. Research in our laboratory of Food Process Engineering aims at generation of knowledge required to stimulate the development of this technology and explores 3D-food printed concepts with added functionality.
In a first project we investigated 3D printing of sodium caseinate dispersions, exhibiting reversible gelation behaviour 1. These formulations can be considered as a model system for cheese products. Gelation and dispensing behaviour of sodium caseinate formulations were investigated by rheological analysis. Subsequently, 3D printing of sodium caseinate dispersions was evaluated by printing products with multiple layers at varying protein concentrations. An enzymatic cross-linking procedure was established to enable printing of caseinate dispersions at lower protein content.
In a second project we investigated printing of cookies with probiotic bacteria and assessed their survival during baking as influenced by the geometric design of the structure and the baking conditions. Firstly, a cookie dough formulation was developed to allow printing of more detailed cookie designs. Secondly, designs were printed to make highly-porous and filled baked food structures. Results showed that survival of probiotics in a ‘honeycomb’ structure was 1-log higher than that in a ‘concentric’ structure, when a similar degree of starch gelatinization was reached. This result is consistent with our hypothesis that bacteria survive better in a structure with higher surface/volume ratio, because the time needed for the baking of such a porous structure can be shortened.
Other research on 3D food printing that will be briefly discussed is development of printed fruit juice products by addition of polysaccharides and development of printed pea cookies from dry-enriched pea ingredients.
3D printing of food structures containing probiotics
Zhang, Lu - \ 2018
3D printing of food structures containing Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1
Zhang, Lu - \ 2018
Institutional Changes and Changing Political Consumerism in China
Lei, Zhang ; Liu, Wenling ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / Boström, Magnus, Micheletti, Michele, Oosterveer, Peter, Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780190629038
consumerism - institutional changes - behavioral change - consumption transitions - food - energy
The growth of consumption is one of the most impressive social changes in contemporary China. This transformation is driven and shaped by the forces of globalization, economic growth, political modernization, the emerging middle class, industrialization/urbanization, advances in information and communication technologies, and sustainability challenges. Given China’s unique historical, cultural, and institutional context, it is highly interesting to assess the relevance of the concept of political consumerism in China. This chapter analyzes how institutional changes are shaping consumer politics and how political consumerism affects the development of governance in China. Two important consumption domains, food and energy, are used to explore what occurred in the particular context of rapidly transforming China. The conclusion discusses the question of whether the increased buying power of Chinese consumers will actually be used to address environmental and safety concerns.
Kinetic study of the thermal inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum during bread baking
Zhang, Lu ; Schutyser, Maarten A.I. ; Boom, Remko M. ; Chen, Xiao Dong - \ 2018
Drying Technology (2018). - ISSN 0737-3937 - 14 p.
bread baking - functional ingredient - inactivation kinetic - Lactobacillus plantarum - Predictive microbiology

Live probiotics can be supplemented to bread as functional ingredients. The viability of probiotics in bread needs to be sufficient to exert a beneficial effect on human health. To maximize the viability, a kinetic study on the inactivation of probiotics during baking was carried out. The thermal inactivation of Lactobacillus plantarum P8 during bread baking was evaluated with rate-dependent kinetic models. The influences of temperature, moisture content, drying rate, and temperature variation rate on the inactivation kinetics were studied explicitly. A kinetic model (Formula presented.), which included temperature (T), moisture content (X), and temperature variation rate (dT/dt) as variables, was found to best describe the concave and sigmoidal survival curves of probiotics in bread crust and in crumb during baking, respectively. The drying rate (dX/dt) was of little influence on the kinetics. The application of the proposed model is limited to baking processes, but could be used to maximize the survival of probiotics in bread products.

Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants
Ezzati, Majid ; Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara di; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Sorić, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (2018)3. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 872 - 883i.
Blood pressure - Global health - Hypertension - Non-communicable disease - Population health

Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; DeClerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; Zhang, W. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Werf, W. van der - \ 2018
agroecology - biological control - natural enemies - pest control - pest - ecosystem services - landscape
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
Nitrate improves ammonia incorporation into rumen microbial protein in lactating dairy cows fed a low-protein diet
Wang, Rong ; Wang, Min ; Ungerfeld, Emilio M. ; Zhang, Xiu Min ; Long, Dong Lei ; Mao, Hong Xiang ; Deng, Jin Ping ; Bannink, André ; Tan, Zhi Liang - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 9789 - 9799.
dissolved hydrogen - microbial protein - nitrate - rumen fermentation

Generation of ammonia from nitrate reduction is slower compared with urea hydrolysis and may be more efficiently incorporated into ruminal microbial protein. We hypothesized that nitrate supplementation could increase ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen compared with urea supplementation of a low-protein diet fed to lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows were used in a crossover design to investigate the effect of nitrate or an isonitrogenous urea inclusion in the basal low-protein diet on rumen fermentation, milk yield, and ruminal microbial community in dairy cows fed a low-protein diet in comparison with an isonitrogenous urea control. Eight lactating cows were blocked in 4 pairs according to days in milk, parity, and milk yield and allocated to urea (7.0 g urea/kg of dry matter of basal diet) or nitrate (14.6 g of NO3 /kg of dry matter of basal diet, supplemented as sodium nitrate) treatments, which were formulated on 75% of metabolizable protein requirements. Nitrate supplementation decreased ammonia concentration in the rumen liquids (−33.1%) and plasma (−30.6%) as well as methane emissions (−15.0%) and increased dissolved hydrogen concentration (102%), microbial N (22.8%), propionate molar percentage, milk yield, and 16S rRNA gene copies of Selenomonas ruminantium. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated with the molar proportion of propionate (r = 0.57), and negatively correlated with acetate-to-propionate ratio (r = −0.57) and estimated net metabolic hydrogen production relative to total VFA produced (r = −0.58). Nitrate reduction to ammonia redirected metabolic hydrogen away from methanogenesis, enhanced ammonia incorporation into rumen microbial protein, and shifted fermentation from acetate to propionate, along with increasing S. ruminantium 16S rRNA gene copies, likely leading to the increased milk yield.

Children’s Reflection-in-action during Collaborative Design-Based Learning
Zhang, Z. ; Bekker, T. ; Markopoulos, P. ; Brok, Perry den - \ 2018
Zwitterionic polymer modified porous carbon for high performance and antifouling capacitive desalination
Zhang, Penghui ; Fritz, P.A. ; Schroen, C.G.P.H. ; Duan, Hongwei ; Boom, R.M. ; Chan-Park, M.B. - \ 2018
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 10 (2018)39. - ISSN 1944-8244 - p. 33564 - 33573.
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging technology for effective brackish water desalination to address fresh water scarcity. It is of great interest due to its high energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and low-cost operation, compared with traditional desalination technologies. However, electrode fouling, caused by dissolved organic matter and resulting in reduction of electrode electrosorption capacity and device lifespan, is an impediment to practical application of CDI. Herein, we report a novel salty water desalination electrode with excellent antifouling properties. The antifouling electrode is prepared by coating zwitterionic polymer brushes, i.e., poly (sulfobetaine methacrylate) (SBMA), on porous carbon (PC) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The successful coating of zwitterionic polymer on PC surface is confirmed by TEM, SEM, XPS, TGA, and other characterizations. Coating with polySBMA did not affect the electrosorption capacity of PC electrodes and imparted antifouling properties (versus fouling by model foulant bovine serum albumin (BSA)) during long-term salt removal tests (100 desalination/regeneration cycles). This is an important step toward practical application of capacitive deionization technology for brackish water desalination.
Forced gifts : The burden of being a friend
Bulte, Erwin ; Wang, Ruixin ; Zhang, Xiaobo - \ 2018
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 155 (2018). - ISSN 0167-2681 - p. 79 - 98.
Gift Competition - Inequality - Reciprocity - Subjective well-being

In many developing countries, gift expenses escalate with income growth and account for a substantial share of household expenditure. We develop a theoretical model to demonstrate how (unequal) income growth may trigger “gift competition” and drive up the financial burden associated with gift exchange. We use unique census-type panel data from rural China to test our model predictions and demonstrate that (1) the value of gifts responds to the average gift in the community, (2) the escalation of gift giving may have adverse welfare implications (especially for the poor), and (3) escalating gift expenses crowd out expenditures on other consumption items.

Waterbird Communities in Subsidence Wetlands Created by Underground Coal Mining in China : Effects of Multi-Scale Environmental and Anthropogenic Variables
Li, Chunlin ; Yang, Sen ; Zha, Daode ; Zhang, Yong ; Boer, Willem F. de - \ 2018
Environmental Conservation (2018). - ISSN 0376-8929 - 9 p.
Habitat loss - subsidence wetland - waterbird - wetland degradation

SummaryUnderground coal mining in the North China Plain has created large-scale subsidence wetlands that may attract waterbirds that use them as complementary habitats. However, no study has been conducted to understand avian use of these created wetlands, inhibiting the formulation of effective management plans. Here, we carried out 12 semi-monthly surveys in 55 subsidence wetlands during the 2016-2017 migration and wintering period and performed direct multivariate analyses, combined with variance partitioning, to test the effects of multi-scale habitat variables on the waterbird assemblages. A total of 89 349 waterbirds representing 60 species were recorded, with seasonal fluctuations in species richness and bird abundance. Waterbird community structures were shaped by four groups of variables at local, landscape and human levels with different effects among seasons. Anthropogenic disturbance was the most important factor group, negatively affecting most guilds. Waterbirds in this human-dominated environment are under a variety of potential threats that should be further studied. The subsidence wetlands are still expanding, and if managed effectively, may provide important complementary habitats for a wide array of waterbird species, particularly for those migrating along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Our study provides key baseline data regarding the waterbird communities and may help with the designing of effective management and conservation plans.

Chimeric O1K foot-and-mouth disease virus with SAT2 outer capsid as an FMD vaccine candidate
Kotecha, Abhay ; Perez-Martin, Eva ; Harvey, Yongjie ; Zhang, Fuquan ; Ilca, Serban L. ; Fry, Elizabeth E. ; Jackson, Ben ; Maree, Francois ; Scott, Katherine ; Hecksel, Corey W. ; Harmsen, Michiel M. ; Mioulet, Valérie ; Wood, Britta ; Juleff, Nick ; Stuart, David I. ; Charleston, Bryan ; Seago, Julian - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no changes from SAT2 were present elsewhere in the capsid as a consequence of the VP4 changes. Following exposure to an elevated temperature the thermostable SAT2-O1K chimera induced higher neutralizing-antibody titres in comparison to wild type SAT2 virus.

Recent developments in functional bakery products and the impact of baking on active ingredients
Zhang, L. ; Boom, R.M. ; Chen, Xiao Dong ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2018
The role of metabolism in direct and indirect defense towards two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in Capsicum spp
Zhang, Yuanyuan - \ 2018
University. Promotor(en): Harro Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): Iris Kappers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433402 - 230
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