Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    We will mail you new results for this query: wurpublikatie/titelbeschrijving/classificatie/trefwoord/cab/engels==botrytis cinerea
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Unraveling the genetics of Botrytis cinerea resistance in Gerbera hybrida
Fu, Yiqian - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Paul Arens; Jaap van Tuyl. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431811 - 159
gerbera - plant pathogenic fungi - botrytis cinerea - disease resistance - genetic mapping - transcriptomics - quantitative trait loci - plant breeding - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - ziekteresistentie - genetische kartering - transcriptomica - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - plantenveredeling

Gerbera hybrida is one of the top five cut flowers. It is well-known to people for its variation in flower color and patterning. Gerbera breeding at the moment is done using conventional methods which are based on a phenotypic selection. This has drawbacks in breeding speed and efficiency, especially for complex traits like disease resistance. Gerbera gray mold, promoted by high humidity during the production in greenhouses or by an accumulation of condensate during transportation, is a considerable threat to the gerbera production. Gerbera gray mold is caused by Botrytis cinerea and plant resistance to B. cinerea is considered to be a polygenic trait that needs the contribution of multiple loci, and on top of that is highly affected by the environment. Conventional breeding might be inefficient for improving Botrytis resistance in gerbera.

In this study, the transcriptomes of four parents of two gerbera populations were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Transcriptome data provides a resource for genetic dissection and an insight to explore gene functions for this ornamental crop. To identify the QTL regions leading to the phenotypic variation in Botrytis resistance, and establishing a relationship between marker genotype and phenotypic variation for marker assisted selection (MAS), genetic linkage maps were constructed with SNP markers in the two F1 segregating populations. A total of 20 QTLs were identified in the parental maps of the two populations. The number of QTLs found and the explained variance of most QTLs detected reflects the complex mechanism of Botrytis disease response. Narrowing down the QTL region and identifying the causal gene(s) underlying a QTL could maximize the effective use of MAS in breeding. Homologs of known functional genes involved in Botrytis resistance from other species were obtained in gerbera and SNP markers identified and mapped. Twenty-nine candidate genes were mapped and seven candidate genes could be mapped on both populations. Seven candidate genes were located in the vicinity of the QTLs detected. The co-localization of QTLs with CGs gives an indication that these candidate genes could probably be involved in resistance to Botrytis and provide a more precise possibility to use MAS in gerbera breeding in the future. A tobacco rattle virus (TRV) based gene silencing system which was used to inspect the function of two candidate genes. The two CGs are the homologs of the genes responsible for Botrytis resistance in tomato and both mapped in QTL regions related to Botrytis resistance in gerbera ray floret test. Silencing the two genes by VIGS, showed smaller lesion sizes upon Botrytis infection on gerbera ray florets compared with the controls.

The entire research went from the generation of four parental transcriptome data sets to development of SNP markers (Chapter 2), construction of genetic maps and to mapping QTLs for Botrytis resistance (Chapter 3). This was further on combined with candidate gene searching in other crops, querying and mapping homologous genes (Chapter 4) and characterizing the candidate genes which co-localized with QTLs (Chapter 5). The whole process not only helped us to unravel the genetics of Botrytis resistance in gerbera and develop genetic tools for gerbera improvement, but also could serve as guidance for developing marker-assisted selection for other ornamental plants from the beginning.

Plasmawater, een veelbelovend ontsmettings- en gewasbeschermingsmiddel
Quaedvlieg, William ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Lemmers, M.E.C. ; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Kolk, J.P. van der; Slootweg, G. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1 p.
tuinbouw - gewasbescherming - pectobacterium carotovorum - botrytis cinerea - fusarium - tomatenmozaïekvirus - gerbera - biociden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - fytotoxiciteit - corrosie - ontsmettingsmiddelen - glastuinbouw - horticulture - plant protection - tomato mosaic virus - biocides - agricultural research - phytotoxicity - corrosion - disinfectants - greenhouse horticulture
Voor dit onderzoek is gekeken of plasmawater onder laboratorium- en semi-praktijk condities verschillende soorten micro-organismen (bacteriën, schimmels en virussen) kan afdoden op het gewas. Tevens is gelet op de veiligheid voor het gewas (fyto-tox) en kas (corrosie). Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016.
Screening van genen, metabolieten en afweereiwitten : betrokken bij natuurlijke afweer tegen Botrytis
Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Wensveen, W. van; Stevens, L.H. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Verhoef, N. ; Balk, P. - \ 2014
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw 1328) - 66
sierteelt - schimmelziekten - botrytis cinerea - rassen (planten) - cultivars - gevoeligheid van variëteiten - verdedigingsmechanismen - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - gewaskwaliteit - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental horticulture - fungal diseases - varieties - varietal susceptibility - defence mechanisms - cultural control - crop quality - agricultural research
Botrytis leidt in snijbloemen nog steeds tot veel uitval. Resistente rassen zijn niet beschikbaar. Wel zijn er duidelijke verschillen in gevoeligheid tussen cultivars aanwezig. Eén van de manieren om planten zich beter te laten weren tegen Botrytis is om de aanmaak van natuurlijke afweerstoffen te activeren. Kennis over het primen van planten in sierteeltgewassen staat echter nog in de kinderschoenen. In dit onderzoek is onderzocht welke genen, afweereiwitten en plantfenolen een rol spelen bij de afweerprocessen tegen Botrytis.
Bemestingsadvies stamslabonen industrieteelt : tussenrapportage proefjaar 2012
Evenhuis, A. ; Verstegen, H.A.G. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Topper, C.G. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit AGV - 16
bonen - phaseolus vulgaris - industriële gewassen - vollegrondsteelt - groenteteelt - cultuurmethoden - teelt - bemesting - schimmelziekten - gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - botrytis cinerea - sclerotinia - maximum opbrengst - opbrengst - nederland - beans - industrial crops - outdoor cropping - vegetable growing - cultural methods - cultivation - fertilizer application - fungal diseases - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - maximum yield - outturn - netherlands
Vaststellen van optimale bemesting en gewasbescherming tegen Sclerotina en Botrytis voor de teelt van een sterk en gezond bonengewas op zand en klei met een maximale kwalitatieve en kwantitatieve opbrengst. Veldproeven uitgevoerd op de Proefboerderijen te Vredepeel en Lelystad van het PPO-agv.
Pectin degradation by Botrytis cinerea: recognition of endopolygalacturonases by an Arabidopsis receptor and utilization of Dgalacturonic acid
Lisha Zhang, Lisha - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pierre de Wit, co-promotor(en): Jan van Kan. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735409 - 188
botrytis cinerea - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - pectinen - degradatie - celwanden - arabidopsis - receptoren - polygalacturonase - galacturonzuur - plant pathogenic fungi - pectins - degradation - cell walls - receptors - galacturonic acid

The necrotrophic fungal plant pathogenBotrytis cinerea is able to infect over 200 host plants and cause severe damage to crops, both pre- and post-harvest. B. cinerea often penetrates host leaf tissue at the anticlinal cell wall and subsequently grows into and through the middle lamella, which consists mostly of low-methylesterified pectin. Effective pectin degradation thus is important for virulence of B. cinerea. Chapter 1 describes the chemical structures of plant cell wall polysaccharides, the cell wall-associated mechanisms that confer resistance against pathogens, and the microbial enzymes involved in cell wall decomposition. It then discusses the plant cell wall degrading enzymes of pathogenic fungi and illustrates with case studies the process of pectin decomposition by B. cinerea.

Chapter 2describes the molecular identification and functional characterization of a novel MAMP receptor RBPG1, a Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Protein (LRR-RLP), that recognizes fungal endo-polygalacturonases (endo-PGs), in particular the B. cinerea protein BcPG3. Infiltration of the BcPG3 protein into Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 induced a necrotic response. Heat-inactivated protein and a catalytically inactive mutant protein retained the ability to induce necrosis. An 11-amino acid peptide stretch was identified that is conserved among many fungal but not plant endo-PGs. A synthetic peptide comprising this sequence was unable to induce necrosis. A map-based cloning strategy, combined with comparative and functional genomics, led to the identification of the RBPG1 gene, which is required for responsiveness of A. thaliana to the BcPG3 protein. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that RBPG1 and BcPG3 form a complex inNicotiana benthamiana, which also involves the A. thaliana LRR-RLK SOBIR1. The sobir1 mutant plants no longer respond to BcPG3. Furthermore, overexpression of RBPG1 in the BcPG3-non-responsive accession Br-0 did not enhance resistance to a number of microbial pathogens.

Chapter 3describes the functional, biochemical and genetic characterization of the D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway in B. cinerea. The B. cinerea genome contains two non-homologous galacturonate reductase genes (Bcgar1 and Bcgar2), a galactonate dehydratase gene (Bclgd1), and a 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-galactonate aldolase gene (Bclga1). Targeted gene replacement of all four genes in B. cinerea, either separately or in combinations, yielded mutants that were affected in growth on D-galacturonic acid, pectate, or pectin as the sole carbon source. The extent of growth reduction of the mutants on pectic substrates was positively correlated to the proportion of D-galacturonic acid present in the pectic substrate. The virulence of these mutants on different host plants is discussed in Chapter 4. These mutants showed reduced virulence on N. benthamiana and A. thaliana leaves, but not on tomato leaves. The cell walls of N. benthamiana and A. thaliana leaves have a higher D-galacturonic acid content as compared to tomato. Additional in vitro growth assays with the knockout mutants suggested that the reduced virulence of D-galacturonic acid catabolism-deficient mutants on N. benthamiana and A. thaliana is not only due to the inability of the mutants to utilize an abundant carbon source as nutrient, but also due to the growth inhibition by catabolic intermediates.

In Chapter 5, the functional characterization of two putative D-galacturonic acid transporters is presented. Bchxt15 is highly and specifically induced by D-galacturonic acid, whereas Bchxt13 is highly expressed in the presence of all carbon sources tested except for glucose. Subcellular localization of BcHXT13-GFP and BcHXT15-GFP fusion proteins expressed under their native promoter suggests that the fusion proteins are localized in plasma membranes and intracellular vesicles. Knockout mutants in the Bchxt13 and Bchxt15 genes, respectively, were neither affected in their growth on D-galacturonic acid as the sole carbon source, nor in their virulence on tomato and N. benthamiana leaves.

Chapter 6describes the genome-wide transcriptome analysis in B. cinerea grown in media containing glucose and pectate as sole carbon sources. Genes were identified that are significantly altered in their expression during growth on these two carbon sources. Conserved sequence motifs were identified in the promoters of genes involved in pectate decomposition and D-galacturonic acid utilization. The role of these motifs in regulating D-galacturonic acid-induced expression was functionally analysed in thepromoter of the Bclga1 gene, which encodes one of the key enzymes in the D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway. The regulation by D-galacturonic acid required the presence of sequences encompassing the GAE1 motif and a binding motif for the pH-dependent transcriptional regulator PacC.

Chapter 7 provides a general discussion of the results presented in this thesis. A model of the concerted action of pectin degradation and subsequent monosaccharide consumption and co-regulation of gene expression is proposed.

Workshop Klimaat en Schimmels
Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2011
plant pathogenic fungi - air conditioning - cultural control - greenhouse horticulture - botrytis - botrytis cinerea
Bladrandjes en Ca bij tomaat: Fysiologische achtergronden van cel- en weefselstevigheid in relatie tot het ontstaan van bladrandjes en infectie met Botrytis cinerea L.
IJdo, M.L. ; Janse, J. ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Voogt, W. - \ 2011
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1116) - 48
solanum lycopersicum - botrytis cinerea - bladeren - symptomen - calcium - gebreksziekten - glastuinbouw - leaves - symptoms - deficiency diseases - greenhouse horticulture
Tip burn of tomato leaves is often seen by growers as indication for maximum crop performance, however grey mould (botrytis), can easily infect through the necrotic leaf edges. In this desk study factors that are influencing the occurrence of tip burn and calcium (Ca) deficiency were studied. Cells formed during periods of Ca shortage have weaker membranes and walls and ‘burst’ after a climatic shock resulting in plasmolysis and disintegration of the membranes. Possibly the disruption of the Ca homeostasis in the cytoplasm. Botrytis uses dead tissue as an entrance to infect the plant. The weak cell walls and solute leaking caused by disruption of the membranes facilitates the infection process of the fungus. Ca uptake and transport are affected by high fruit load, EC and K/Ca in the root environment and transpiration and root pressure. These factors sometimes interact and sometimes are independently effective, resulting in a complex situation. Thus preventing heavy fruit loads in susceptible periods and stimulating Ca uptake and distribution will alleviate the problem. This, in combination with the prevention of climate shocks will help to reduce the occurrence of tip burn in tomato.
Zoeken naar alternatieven voor het wegvallen van middelen als gevolg van herprioritering : voor de fungiciden pyrimethanil, thiofanaat-methyl en tolclofos-methyl, voor de herbicide dazomet en voor de insecticide dimethoaat zijn alternatieve middelen onderzocht op hun werking
Bulle, A.A.E. ; Dijkema, M.H.G.E. - \ 2011
Lisse : PPO Bloembollen en Bomen - 77
pesticiden - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - plantenziekten - botrytis cinerea - rhizoctonia tuliparum - onkruidbestrijding - plantenplagen - thrips - bloembollen - tulipa - lilium - iris (spermatophyta) - gladiolus - landbouwkundig onderzoek - nederland - pesticides - authorisation of pesticides - plant diseases - weed control - plant pests - ornamental bulbs - agricultural research - netherlands
Voor fungiciden pyrimenthanil, thiofanaat-methyl en tolclofos-methyl, voor de herbicide dazomet en voor de insecticide dimenthoaat zijn alternatieve middelen onderzocht op hun werking
Parapluplan Gerbera "Beheersing van botrytis door efficiënter energiegebruik": Bestrijding van Botrytis in gerbera tijdens de teelt en in de na-oogstfase: Deelproject 4 van Parapluplan Gerbera: kasklimaat, energie en botrytis bij gerbera; oorzaak, verband en maatregelen
Os, E.A. van; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Hamelink, R. ; Leeuwen, G.J.L. van - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB-1057_JV) - 35
gerbera - sierteelt - botrytis cinerea - plantenziektebestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - kwaliteit na de oogst - analyse - methodologie - bestrijdingsmethoden - ornamental horticulture - plant disease control - laboratory tests - postharvest quality - analysis - methodology - control methods
Referaat Botrytis kan veel schade geven in de na-oogstfase van gerberabloemen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het bepalen van de meest effectieve bestrijdingsmethode in de teelt of in de na-oogstfase. Hiervoor zijn eerst de huidige middelen en methodieken geïnventariseerd en vervolgens zijn de beste methoden geselecteerd en op labschaal uitgetest en daarna onder praktijkomstandigheden getoetst. Het blijkt dat een specifieke botrytis bestrijding het beste in de na-oogstfase kan worden uitgevoerd en niet in de teeltfase. UV belichting en Aquanox (verneveling van een zoutoplossing) bieden hiervoor de meeste perspectieven. Aquanox dient sterk bloemgericht te worden verneveld om >90% reductie in kleine lesies te krijgen. In een laboratoriumopstelling is een dosis effect relatie voor UV belichting vastgesteld. Om meer dan 90% reductie in lesies te krijgen is 200 - 350 mJ/cm2 UV-C licht nodig. Onder hoge intensiteiten bestaat er bij enkele cultivars kans op brandschade (>350 mJ/cm2). Testen zijn uitgevoerd met lage druk lampen. De vereiste intensiteit wordt bereikt door een juiste combinatie van afstand bloem/lamp, tijdsduur en lichtsterkte. Gebruik van UV lampen in een sorteermachine vereist een zeer hoge lichtsterkte omdat de belichtingstijd zeer kort is. Oriënterende proeven met UV middendruklampen geven wel mogelijkheden, maar de warmteontwikkeling is vooralsnog te hoog om direct ingezet te kunnen worden. Lage druk lampen hebben in de sorteemachine het nadeel dat zeer veel lampen achter elkaar nodig zijn, terwijl daar geen ruimte voor is. Voor de gerberatelers is een praktijkadvies opgesteld om UV belichting in de na-oogstfase toe te passen tegen botrytis voor inbouw in een sorteermachine en voor zelfstandige toepassing.
Hoe veroorzaakt Botrytis rot?
Kars, I. - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 245 - 247.
botrytis cinerea - pectinen - polygalacturonase - enzymen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - infecties - genen - plantenziekten - pectins - enzymes - plant pathogenic fungi - infections - genes - plant diseases
Als een spore is geland op het plantoppervlak, scheidt Botrytis cinerea enzymen en metabolieten uit waaronder pectine-afbrekende enzymen zoals de zes endopolygalacturonases (BcPGs). Elk van deze BcPGs breken pectine uit de plantencelwanden en middenlamel op hun eigen wijze af. Pectine zit verweven in de plantencelwanden en zorgt voor flexibiliteit van de cellen en de stabiliteit van de structuur van een weefsel. Op het moment dat pectine wordt afgebroken, wordt de verbinding tussen plantencellen verbroken, verliezen de celwanden hun flexibiliteit en het weefsel daarmee haar stabiliteit. Door middel van de BcPGs is Botrytis cinerea dus in staat het plantoppervlak van een gezonde plant binnen te dringen, door de middenlamel te groeien en plantenweefsel om te zetten in schimmelbiomassa en zodoende rot te veroorzaken.
Gebruik van Ulocladium atrum in een bestrijdingstrategie op basis van een BOS tegen vruchtrot in aardbeien
Evenhuis, A. ; Köhl, J. ; Molhoek, W.M.L. ; Wilms, J.A.M. - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 239 - 241.
botrytis cinerea - biologische bestrijding - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - aardbeien - fruitteelt - geïntegreerde bestrijding - fungicidenresiduen - vruchtrot - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - biological control - biological control agents - strawberries - fruit growing - integrated control - fungicide residues - fruit rots - decision support systems
Een Beslissing Ondersteunend Systeem werd succesvol geïntroduceerd om de bestrijding van Botrytis cinerea in aardbeien met de antagonist U. atrum te verbeteren. Optimalisatie van de strategie was nog wel nodig omdat bij het inzetten van alleen de antagonist het niveau van chemische bescherming doorgaans niet gehaald wordt. Door bij een hoge infectiedruk met een fungicide te spuiten en bij een matige infectiedruk de antagonist in te zetten werden goede resultaten verkregen. In het licht van de residuproblematiek zou het wenselijk zijn dat niet-chemische alternatieven commercieel verkrijgbaar zijn. U. atrum heeft op dit moment echter nog geen toelating voor toepassing tegen Botrytis in Nederland.
Bedrijfsvergelijking geeft inzicht in kansen op Botrytis bij gerbera in de na-oogstfase
Os, E.A. van; Körner, O. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Slootweg, G. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Janssen, Hans ; Tuijl, B.A.J. van - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 227 - 231.
gerbera - snijbloemen - bloementeelt - botrytis cinerea - tuinbouwbedrijven - microklimaat - vochtigheid - temperatuur - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - glastuinbouw - kwaliteit na de oogst - cut flowers - floriculture - market gardens - microclimate - humidity - temperature - farm management - greenhouse horticulture - postharvest quality
Door op twaalf bedrijven in drie meetronden van zes weken wekelijks te oogsten en de gerealiseerde klimaatdata te analyseren bleek dat het microklimaat rond de plant van grote invloed was op het ontstaan van pokken in de naoogstfase. Hoe vochtiger het is, hoe groter de snelheid van Botrytisontwikkeling. Overdag moeten de omstandigheden rond de bloem zodanig zijn dat sporen òf doodgaan (lage vochtigheid, hoge temperatuur), òf niet kunnen hechten (lage vochtigheid) of verspreid worden. ‘s Nachts moet de vochtigheid tussen de bladeren niet te hoog oplopen om groei en ontwikkeling van de schimmel te remmen.
De genetica van grauwe schimmelresistentie in tomaat
Finkers, H.J. - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 250 - 252.
tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - botrytis cinerea - genetisch bepaalde resistentie - wilde verwanten - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - genetische merkers - resistentieveredeling - tomatoes - genetic resistance - wild relatives - quantitative trait loci - genetic markers - resistance breeding
Resistentie tegen Botrytis cinerea is gevonden in wilde verwanten van tomaat en deze resistentie was meestal kwantitatief. Het doel van dit promotieonderzoek was om kwantitatieve loci (QTLs) te identificeren die bijdragen aan resistentie tegen B. cinerea. Met behulp van DNA-merkertechnologie en een populatie van introgressie-lijnen zijn tien QTLs geïdentificeerd. Geen van de afzonderlijke QTLs resulteerde in een niveau van resistentie dat overeen kwam de resistente ouder Solanum habrochaites LYC4. Dit betekent dat QTLs gecombineerd zullen moeten worden om Botrytis cinerea-resistente tomaten te verkrijgen. Dankzij de ontwikkelde DNA-merkers kunnen de geïdentificeerde chromosoomfragmenten met resistentiegenen nu gericht ingekruist worden.
Chloor blijkt wondermiddel tegen rozenziekte
Sikkema, A. - \ 2010
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 5 (2010)3. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
chloor - rozen - botrytis cinerea - schimmelbestrijding - gewasbescherming - chlorine - roses - fungus control - plant protection
Chloor blijkt een uitstekend middel te zijn tegen een belangrijke ziekteverwekker in rozen, de schimmel Botrytis cinerea. Dit is per toeval ontdekt toen wetenschappers een chlooroplossing als controlemiddel gebruikten. Het controlemiddel bleek beter te werken dan de andere middelen.
Ethylene perception and NEP-like protein production by Botrytis cinerea
Cuesta Arenas, Y. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pierre de Wit, co-promotor(en): Jan van Kan. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856344 - 101
solanum lycopersicum - botrytis cinerea - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - pathogenese - pathogenesis-gerelateerde eiwitten - ethyleen - necrose - plant-microbe interacties - plant pathogenic fungi - pathogenesis - pathogenesis-related proteins - ethylene - necrosis - plant-microbe interactions
Botrytis cinerea can infect more than 200 plant species, including a wide range of economically important crops. During pathogen infection, plants release ethylene and it has been hypothesized that ethylene may predispose host tissue for infection by inducing senescence and ripening. This thesis focused on the roles that ethylene production and perception, both by the pathogen and the plant, play in the interaction between B. cinerea and crops, using tomato as a model. Furthermore, functional analysis was performed of B. cinerea Nep1-Like Proteins (NLPs), called BcNEP1 and BcNEP2, with emphasis on their role in virulence and mode of action.
Ethylene regulates several developmental processes in plants and plays an important role in plant-pathogen interactions. We investigated possible effects of ethylene on B. cinerea during infection of tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Chapter 2). There were previous reports that ethylene released by the plant could stimulate germination of B. cinerea conidia and affect germ tube growth and infection structure differentiation. Based on growth experiments in vitro in the presence of ethylene, we conclude that ethylene does not affect hyphal development of the fungus. Also the virulence of B. cinerea on tomato genotypes with a reduced or an enhanced ethylene production level was unaltered. Neither did ethylene induce fungal gene expression as was previously reported. We studied a B. cinerea gene encoding a histidine kinase (BcHHK5) with strong structural similarity to plant ethylene receptors. Mutants in which the Bchhk5 was deleted were neither affected in growth in vitro nor in virulence. We propose that the effects of ethylene on B. cinerea disease development are not a direct consequence of an ethylene response in the pathogen, but rather a consequence of induced senescence and ripening processes in the host. These processes provoke softening and disintegration of tissues that facilitate the entry and proliferation of the pathogen.
Functional analysis was performed of two B. cinerea NLPs, named BcNEP1 and BcNEP2, produced in Pichia pastoris (Chapter 3). Infiltration of purified proteins into N. benthamiana leads to induction of ethylene in a dose-dependent manner. BcNEP1 was able to induce ethylene and necrosis at lower concentrations as compared to BcNEP2. Transcriptional studies (Chapter 3) showed that Bcnep1 is transiently expressed during early stages of infection when primary lesions develop, while Bcnep2 is expressed when the infection is established and lesions are expanding. Altogether these results suggested that BcNEP1 and BcNEP2 may have different functions or they have a similar function at different stages of the infection process. Single knock-out mutants of either Bcnep1 or Bcnep2 gene showed no reduction of virulence on tomato or N. benthamiana. Ethylene emitted by leaves inoculated with Bcnep mutants was not significantly different from leaves inoculated with the parental wild type strain B05.10. These results demonstrate that BcNEP proteins are not essential in the infection process of B. cinerea and that ethylene produced in B. cinerea-infected tissue does not result from a response to BcNEP proteins (Chapter 3).
By transiently expressing site-directed mutant BcNEP proteins in N. benthamiana and N. tabacum through Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we could study structure-function relationships (Chapter 4). The conserved hepta-peptide GHRHWDE, in the central part of the protein sequence, was shown to be essential for the necrosis-inducing activity. Also the first two cysteine residues, C68 and C94, which are predicted to form a disulfide bridge, are important for necrosis-inducing activity. The two proteins contain different post-transcriptional modification motifs, however, none of these motifs is essential for necrosis-inducing activity.
Necrosis-inducing activity of BcNEP1 was independent of light, whereas the activity of BcNEP2 was compromised when the protein was infiltrated in leaves of dark-adapted plants and the infiltrated plants were kept in darkness (Chapter 5). We studied the role of the plant in the mode of action of BcNEP proteins using genetic and pharmacological approaches (Chapter 5). In spite of several efforts, we were not able to identify any cellular process or signaling pathway in plants that is required for the necrosis-inducing activity of BcNEP proteins. The target(s) and mode(s) of action of BcNEP proteins remain unresolved.

Botrytis cinerea can infect more than 200 plant species, including a wide range of economically important crops. During pathogen infection, plants release ethylene and it has been hypothesized that ethylene may predispose host tissue for infection by inducing senescence and ripening. This thesis focused on the roles that ethylene production and perception, both by the pathogen and the plant, play in the interaction between B. cinerea and crops, using tomato as a model. Furthermore, functional analysis was performed of B. cinerea Nep1-Like Proteins (NLPs), called BcNEP1 and BcNEP2, with emphasis on their role in virulence and mode of action.
Ethylene regulates several developmental processes in plants and plays an important role in plant-pathogen interactions. We investigated possible effects of ethylene on B. cinerea during infection of tomato Solanum lycopersicum (Chapter 2). There were previous reports that ethylene released by the plant could stimulate germination of B. cinerea conidia and affect germ tube growth and infection structure differentiation. Based on growth experiments in vitro in the presence of ethylene, we conclude that ethylene does not affect hyphal development of the fungus. Also the virulence of B. cinerea on tomato genotypes with a reduced or an enhanced ethylene production level was unaltered. Neither did ethylene induce fungal gene expression as was previously reported. We studied a B. cinerea gene encoding a histidine kinase (BcHHK5) with strong structural similarity to plant ethylene receptors. Mutants in which the Bchhk5 was deleted were neither affected in growth in vitro nor in virulence. We propose that the effects of ethylene on B. cinerea disease development are not a direct consequence of an ethylene response in the pathogen, but rather a consequence of induced senescence and ripening processes in the host. These processes provoke softening and disintegration of tissues that facilitate the entry and proliferation of the pathogen.
Functional analysis was performed of two B. cinerea NLPs, named BcNEP1 and BcNEP2, produced in Pichia pastoris (Chapter 3). Infiltration of purified proteins into N. benthamiana leads to induction of ethylene in a dose-dependent manner. BcNEP1 was able to induce ethylene and necrosis at lower concentrations as compared to BcNEP2. Transcriptional studies (Chapter 3) showed that Bcnep1 is transiently expressed during early stages of infection when primary lesions develop, while Bcnep2 is expressed when the infection is established and lesions are expanding. Altogether these results suggested that BcNEP1 and BcNEP2 may have different functions or they have a similar function at different stages of the infection process. Single knock-out mutants of either Bcnep1 or Bcnep2 gene showed no reduction of virulence on tomato or N. benthamiana. Ethylene emitted by leaves inoculated with Bcnep mutants was not significantly different from leaves inoculated with the parental wild type strain B05.10. These results demonstrate that BcNEP proteins are not essential in the infection process of B. cinerea and that ethylene produced in B. cinerea-infected tissue does not result from a response to BcNEP proteins (Chapter 3).
By transiently expressing site-directed mutant BcNEP proteins in N. benthamiana and N. tabacum through Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we could study structure-function relationships (Chapter 4). The conserved hepta-peptide GHRHWDE, in the central part of the protein sequence, was shown to be essential for the necrosis-inducing activity. Also the first two cysteine residues, C68 and C94, which are predicted to form a disulfide bridge, are important for necrosis-inducing activity. The two proteins contain different post-transcriptional modification motifs, however, none of these motifs is essential for necrosis-inducing activity.
Necrosis-inducing activity of BcNEP1 was independent of light, whereas the activity of BcNEP2 was compromised when the protein was infiltrated in leaves of dark-adapted plants and the infiltrated plants were kept in darkness (Chapter 5). We studied the role of the plant in the mode of action of BcNEP proteins using genetic and pharmacological approaches (Chapter 5). In spite of several efforts, we were not able to identify any cellular process or signaling pathway in plants that is required for the necrosis-inducing activity of BcNEP proteins. The target(s) and mode(s) of action of BcNEP proteins remain unresolved.

Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance
Junming Li, - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Sjaak van Heusden. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856122 - 150
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - wilde verwanten - solanum - solanum pennellii - solanum lycopersicoides - introgressie - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - ziekteresistentie - botrytis cinerea - phytophthora infestans - zouttolerantie - tomatoes - wild relatives - introgression - quantitative trait loci - disease resistance - salt tolerance
Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived from S. habrochaites LA1777, S. pennellii LA716 and S. lycopersicoides LA2951 were employed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). For B. cinerea resistance twenty four QTLs were identified in S. habrochaites LA1777 and S. lycopersicoides LA2951. These QTLs resulted in reduced lesion size (LS) and disease incidence (DI) in leaves, stem or fruits. Five QTLs were found in S. habrochaites LA1777 for reduced LS in the interaction between tomato and P. infestans. For salt tolerance in the seedling stage ten QTLs were identified in S. pennellii LA716 and five in S. lycopersicoides LA2951. Some QTLs were semi-dominant with a non-additive or even epistatic effect. Many QTLs co-localized indicating that cross talk between coordinating pathways for abiotic and biotic stress might exist. The results provide the basis to combine QTLs with tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and for further narrowing down the size of the introgressions. The introgressions from these wild relatives which are involved in tolerance to multiple stresses are of interest for tomato breeders.
Voorkomen van botrytis in roos
Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2010
roses - botrytis cinerea - plant protection - greenhouse horticulture
Botrytis de baas
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2009
botrytis cinerea - life cycle - cultural control - plant protection - cut flowers - pot plants - cucumbers - tomatoes - microclimate - greenhouse horticulture - industrial hygiene
Detection of pathogen infection at greenhouse scale through plant emitted volatiles
Jansen, R.M.C. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Eldert van Henten; Harro Bouwmeester; J. Wildt, co-promotor(en): Jan Willem Hofstee. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854449 - 177
kasgewassen - oogstschade - vluchtige verbindingen - plantenziekteverwekkers - botrytis cinerea - gezondheid - monitoring - solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - detectie - greenhouse crops - crop damage - volatile compounds - plant pathogens - health - tomatoes - detection
Induced plant volatiles allow sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses
Jansen, R.M.C. ; Hofstee, J.W. ; Wildt, J. ; Verstappen, F.W.A. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2009
Plant Signaling & Behavior 4 (2009)9. - ISSN 1559-2316 - p. 1 - 6.
gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkers - vluchtige verbindingen - botrytis cinerea - schimmelziekten - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - glastuinbouw - overlevingsstrategieën van planten - gewasmonitoring - plant protection - plant pathogens - volatile compounds - fungal diseases - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - plant strategies - crop monitoring
This paper provides a synthesis of our research on the use of induced plant volatiles for sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses. The main research objective of this research was to investigate whether plant-emitted volatiles can be used to detect a Botrytis cinerea infection in a large-scale greenhouse. The pathogenic fungus B. cinerea and the plant species tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were selected as model organisms. Based on this choice, three main research questions were formulated: (1) What is the effect of a B. cinerea infection on the emission of volatiles from tomato? (2) Are B. cinerea induced emissions of tomato specific for the infection with this pathogen? (3) Are B. cinerea induced concentrations of volatiles detectable in large-scale greenhouses?
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