Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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8 gamechangers voor een duurzame productie van gezond en veilig voedsel
Vogelezang, J.V.M. ; Angelino, Steven ; Dubbeldam, Ria - \ 2017
Topsector Agri & Food - 13 p.
animal welfare - animal production - cattle - pigs - poultry - animal ethics - animal housing
Stalboekje Vleeskalveren 2016 : handboek voor natuurlijke diergezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, Maria ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
IJmuiden : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-uitgave 2016.702) - 128
rundvee - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - diervoeding - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - cattle - animal welfare - animal health - animal nutrition - herbal drugs - animal production - organic farming
Deze uitgave van ‘Stalboekje vleeskalveren’ is bedoeld om kalverhouders te helpen bij het vinden van de juiste toepassing van kruiden en andere natuurproducten. Kruiden en andere natuurproducten kunnen ter ondersteuning van gezonde dieren bij stress en ter ondersteuning van therapeutische maatregelen worden ingezet. Grootste meerwaarde is dat problemen voorkomen worden en dieren weerbaar gemaakt worden. Deze gids geeft een leidraad welke kruiden en natuurproducten op basis van beschikbare kennis een effect kunnen hebben bij verschillende gezondheidsproblemen. De ontwikkelingen op dit gebied gaan snel en daarom zal dit boekje regelmatig herzien en aangevuld moeten worden.
Monitoring integraal duurzame stallen : peildatum 1 januari 2017
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Meer, R.W. van der; Docters van Leeuwen, H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1027) - 19
huisvesting, dieren - stallen - monitoring - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - rundvee - melkvee - pluimvee - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - animal housing - stalls - animal production - animal welfare - cattle - dairy cattle - poultry - sustainability
De overheid ambieert een integraal duurzame veehouderij in 2023. Daarom wordt jaarlijks een nieuw doel gesteld. Voor eind 2016 (peildatum 1 januari 2017) noemt het ministerie als ambitie dat minimaal 14% van de rundvee-, varkens- en pluimveestallen integraal duurzaam is. Deze studie laat zien dat op 1 januari 2017 in Nederland 13,6 % van alle stallen integraal duurzaam is.
Prospects of whole-genome sequence data in animal and plant breeding
Binsbergen, Rianne van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Roel Veerkamp; Fred van Eeuwijk, co-promotor(en): Mario Calus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431903 - 220
next generation sequencing - dna sequencing - quantitative trait loci - cattle - genomics - solanum lycopersicum - animal breeding - plant breeding - dna-sequencing - loci voor kwantitatief kenmerk - rundvee - genomica - dierveredeling - plantenveredeling

The rapid decrease in costs of DNA sequencing implies that whole-genome sequence data will be widely available in the coming few years. Whole-genome sequence data includes all base-pairs on the genome that show variation in the sequenced population. Consequently, it is assumed that the causal mutations (e.g. quantitative trait loci; QTL) are included, which allows testing a given trait directly for association with a QTL, and might lead to discovery of new QTL or higher accuracies in genomic predictions compared to currently available marker panels. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate the benefits of using whole-genome sequence data in breeding of animals and plants compared to currently available marker panels. First the potential and benefits of using whole-genome sequence data were studied in (dairy) cattle. Accuracy of genotype imputation to whole-genome sequence data was generally high, depending on the used marker panel. In contrast to the expectations, genomic prediction showed no advantage of using whole-genome sequence data compared to a high density marker panel. Thereafter, the use of whole-genome sequence data for QTL detection in tomato (S. Lycopersicum) was studied. In a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, more QTL were found when using sequence data compared to a marker panel, while increasing marker density was not expected to provide additional power to detect QTL. Next to the RIL population, also in an association panel it was shown that, even with limited imputation accuracy, the power of a genome-wide association study can be improved by using whole-genome sequence data. For successful application of whole-genome sequence data in animals or plants, genotype imputation will remain important to obtain accurate sequence data for all individuals in a cost effective way. Sequence data will increase the power of QTL detection in RIL populations, association panels or outbred populations. Added value of whole-genome sequence data in genomic prediction will be limited, unless more information is known about the biological background of traits and functional annotations of DNA. Also statistical models that incorporate this information and that can efficiently handle large datasets have to be developed.

Rekenregels rundvee voor de Landbouwtelling : verantwoording van het gebruik van het Identificatie & Registratiesysteem
Os, J. van; Bartholomeus, M.G.T.M. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 91) - 68
rundveehouderij - rundvee - landbouwtellingen - emissie - registratie - identificatie - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - nederland - cattle husbandry - cattle - agricultural censuses - emission - registration - identification - farm structure - netherlands
Om te voldoen aan statistische verplichtingen voor veehouderij en bedrijfsstructuur en voor de registratievan emissies is informatie nodig over de rundveehouderij in Nederland. Daartoe vraagt de Rijksoverheid bijveehouders op hoeveel rundvee aanwezig is, uitgesplitst in verschillende diergroepen; dit is een onderdeelvan de jaarlijkse landbouwtelling. De Rijksoverheid streeft naar beperking van administratieve lastendruk bijondernemers. Wageningen Environmental Research heeft op verzoek van het ministerie van EconomischeZaken onderzocht in welke mate het mogelijk is om de benodigde gegevens af te leiden uit het bestaandeIdentificatie & Registratiesysteem (I&R) Rundveehouderij (een systeem voor identificatie en registratie vandieren voor dier- en volksgezondheid). Dat blijkt grotendeels goed haalbaar; voor de meeste bedrijvenkunnen alle diergroepen automatisch uit I&R bepaald worden. Voor sommige bedrijven is een aanvullendeverdeling van diergroepen over productiedoelen nodig. Deze nieuwe werkwijze leidt niet alleen tot lagereadministratieve lasten, maar ook tot een kwaliteitsverbetering van de rundveegegevens.---Information on cattle farming in the Netherlands is needed for the national statistics on beef and dairy farmsand farm structure. To obtain this information the national government asks farmers to submit informationon the number of cattle on their farms, divided into the various animal classes, as part of the annualagricultural census. The government also wants to minimise the administrative burden on farmers. At therequest of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Wageningen Environmental Research has studied to what extentit would possible to derive the required information from the existing identification and registration system(I&R) for beef and dairy farms (a system for identifying and registering livestock for animal and humanhealth purposes). The results show that this is largely possible: for most farms all the animal classes can beautomatically derived from the I&R. For some farms it is necessary to make an additional division of animalclasses by product category. This new way of working will not only reduce the administrative burden, but itwill also lead to better quality data on beef and dairy cattle.
Genetic improvement of feed intake and methane emissions of cattle
Manzanilla Pech, Coralia I.V. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Roel Veerkamp, co-promotor(en): Yvette de Haas. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430692 - 199
cattle - feed intake - methane production - genetic improvement - genetic parameters - conformation - breeding value - animal genetics - rundvee - voeropname - methaanproductie - genetische verbetering - genetische parameters - bouw (dier) - fokwaarde - diergenetica

Feed costs represent half of the total costs of dairy production. One way to increase profitability of dairy production is to reduce feed costs by improving feed efficiency. As DMI is a trait that varies significantly during and across lactations, it is imperative to understand the underlying genetic architecture of DMI across lactation. Moreover, phenotypes of DMI are scarce, due to the difficulty of recording them (expensive and labor-intensive). Some predictor traits have been suggested to predict DMI. Examples of these predictor traits are those related to production (milk yield (MY) or milk content) or to the maintenance of the cow (body weight (BW) or conformation traits). The ability to determine when predictor traits ideally should be measured in order to achieve an accurate prediction of DMI throughout the whole lactation period is thus important. Recently, with the use of information of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, together with phenotypic data and pedigree, genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) of scarcely recorded traits, such as DMI, have become easier to accurately predict. This approach, combined with predictor traits, could contribute to an increased accuracy of predictions of GEBV of DMI. Methane (CH4) is the second important greenhouse gas, and enteric CH4 is the largest source of anthropogenic CH4, representing 17% of global CH4 emissions. Furthermore, methane emissions represent 2-12% of feed energy losses. Selecting for lower CH4 emitting animals and more feed-efficient animals would aid in mitigating global CH4 emissions. To identify the impact on CH4 emissions of selecting for lower DMI animals, it is important to determine the correlations between DMI and CH4 and to identify whether the same genes that control DMI affect CH4. Therefore, the general objectives of this thesis were to (1) explore the genetic architecture of DMI during lactation, (2) study the relationship of DMI to conformation, production and other related traits, (3) investigate the correlations between DMI and methane traits, and determine the SNP in common between DMI and CH4 through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), and (4) investigate the accuracy of predictions of DMI using predictor traits combined with genomic data.

Selection for pure- and crossbred performance in Charolais
Vallée-Dassonneville, Amélie - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Henk Bovenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430180 - 151
charolais - cattle - animal breeding - crossbreeding - crossbreds - selection - beef cattle - genomes - genetic parameters - rundvee - dierveredeling - kruisingsfokkerij - kruising - selectie - vleesvee - genomen - genetische parameters

Two categories of beef production exist; i.e. (i) purebred animals from a beef sire and a beef dam and (ii) crossbred animals from a beef sire and a dairy dam.

For the purebred beef production, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. Heritabilities for behavior traits, estimated using subjective data scored by farmers, range from 0.02 to 0.19. Heritabilities for type traits range from 0.02 to 0.35. Results show that there are good opportunities to implement selection for behavior traits using a simple on-farm recording system to allow collection of large data set, and for type traits in Charolais. A genome-wide association study detected 16 genomic regions with small effect on behavior and type traits. This suggests that behavior and type traits are influenced by many genes each explaining a small part of the genetic variance.

The two main dairy breeds mated to Charolais sires for crossbred beef production in France are Montbéliard and Holstein. The genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Montbéliard x Charolais and on Holstein x Charolais was 0.99 for muscular development, 0.96 for birth weight; and 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness. Thus, for these last three traits, results show evidence for re-ranking of Charolais sires depending on whether they are mated to Montbéliard or Holstein cows. When using genomic prediction, the Montbéliard x Charolais and Holstein x Charolais populations could be combined into a single reference population to increase size and accuracy of genomic prediction. Results indicate that the higher the genetic correlation is between the two crossbred populations, the higher the gain in accuracy is achieved when combining the two populations into a single reference.

The selection of Charolais sires to produce purebred or crossbred animals is made through distinct breeding programs. An alternative could be to combine selection into one breeding program. Decision for combining or keeping breeding programs separate is determined by the correlation between the breeding objectives, the selection intensity, the difference in level of genetic merit, the accuracy of selection, and the recent implementation of genomic evaluation. Considering all parameters and based on estimations for selection on birth weight, I recommend combining both breeding programs because this will lead to higher genetic gain, and might simplify operating organization and reduce associated costs.

Documentatierapport Koemodel : de werking van het koemodel samengevat
Zom, R.L.G. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1005) - 9
rundvee - melkveehouderij - voeropname - melkproductie - diermodellen - leeftijdsstructuur - melkveestapel - cattle - dairy farming - feed intake - milk production - animal models - age structure - dairy herds
Hoe meet je of een dier echt verdoofd is?
Verhoeven, Merel - \ 2016
animal welfare - animal production - pigs - cattle - sheep - poultry - animal health - slaughter

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The citizen goes shopping : a framework for the assessment and optimization of production from the perspective of society
Michalopoulos, Tassos - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579828 - 207
food production - food ethics - labelling - consumer behaviour - consumer preferences - optimization - consumer information - philosophy - political attitudes - animal production - animal ethics - cattle - dairy cattle - voedselproductie - voedselethiek - etiketteren - consumentengedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - optimalisatie - consumenteninformatie - filosofie - politieke houding - dierlijke productie - dierethiek - rundvee - melkvee

Nowadays, product labels are often used to enable consumers choose products that are friendly to the environment and to animals, natural, healthful and socially responsible. However, certain features of commonly used labels limit their usefulness. This thesis identifies a number of these limitations and presents an innovative labeling approach designed to address them.

More specifically, the following features limit the usefulness of the commonly used “endorsement” labels: they (1) offer a single certification grade, the requirements for which (2) are ‘static’ in the sense that certification standards do not depend on the evolution of the market, (3) are voluntary, and (4) are defined by stakeholders. Consequently, common labels fail to remove information asymmetry regarding the ethical performance of non-certified products; limit the opportunities for moderately –yet positively– concerned consumers to reveal ethical preferences; fail to motivate product improvement beyond certification standard; allow the emergence of a confusing variety of overlapping labels; and allow production stakeholders to resist socially desirable certification requirements when these are unfavorable to their business. In shoft, ethical labels currently fail to unleash on ethical aspects of production the inherently ‘free-market’ dynamics according to which products and firms must continuously innovate and improve, or else become obsolete and vanish.

As an alternative, this thesis proposes and works out an innovative “comparative” labeling approach that is designed to address these limitations. The proposed type of label is (1) multi-grade or continuous, (2) dynamic, (3) mandatory, and (4) society-defined. An example of this type of label is given at Figure 1.

Figure 1: Two variations of an example intuitive color-coded label format. The variations depict different sets of product attributes, and also different aggregation levels of the Environmental Impact attribute.

This type of labeling could motivate the creation of a ‘vitruous cyrcle’ or ‘race to the top’, in which the ethical performance of products moves to the direction that society at large regards as ‘positive’. This process is outlined at Figure 2.

Figure 2: Expected effects on the environmental performance of marketed product substitutes from the introduction of the proposed labeling system, in three phases. In Phase 1, the label is introduced on product substitutes available in the market (supply). In Phase 2, the supply evolves. To the standard (negative) incentives for cost minimization, are now added (positive) incentives to avoid negative reputation and to improve further the environmental frontiers of production through innovation. In Phase 3, the label is adjusted (updated) to the evolved supply. Products that failed to improve since last update might become downgraded (blue arrows).

It is argued that the proposed labeling approach has the potential to boost ethical consumerism as a force for the ethical optimization of the market. This can be directly relevant to issues about which society is concerned, and democratically elected goverments have limited ability to regulate. Among possible uses of the method developed to assess the relative performance of substitute products, are the comparative ranking of presently available labels (so as to inform consumers on the relative impact of different certified products), the justification of the allocation of incentives and discincentives in state policy, and also the ethical optimization and promotion of own production by socially responsible suppliers. Overall, the described approach aspires to transform markets into instruments that work to the direction willed by society, so as to bring market-driven and continuous improvement for production aspects of societal concern, such as environmental and socioeconomic aspects of the real economy.

Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at slaughter
Verhoeven, Merel - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Marien Gerritzen; L.J. Hellebrekers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579064 - 187
livestock - slaughter - animal welfare - stunning - electroencephalograms - animal behaviour - consciousness - animal production - animal health - pigs - cattle - sheep - vee - slacht - dierenwelzijn - bedwelmen - elektro-encefalogrammen - diergedrag - bewustzijn (consciousness) - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - varkens - rundvee - schapen

Assessing unconsciousness in livestock at different stages of the slaughter process is a legal requirement according to EU legislation. The assessment can be based on absence of readily observable indicators (behavioural indicators, physical signs and reflexes) or, under experimental conditions, by recording and subsequent assessment of brain activity as presented in an electroencephalogram (EEG). There is no consensus, however, to what extent different behavioural indicators, physical signs and reflexes accurately reflect unconsciousness. The aim of this thesis was to study the relationships between these readily observable indicators and EEG activity to provide information on 1. the exact point in time at which animals lose consciousness when subjected to different stunning and slaughter methods and 2. the validity of behavioural indicators, physical signs and reflexes used to assess unconsciousness at slaughter under commercial conditions. The results showed a large variation in time to loss of consciousness, based on EEG activity, both between stunning and slaughter procedures and amongst animals. Captive bolt stunned calves lost consciousness instantly following the stun. Loss of consciousness in pigs during CO2 stunning varied from 21 to 61 s after start of the exposure. An increased CO2 concentration decreased the time to loss of consciousness. Times to loss of consciousness in sheep slaughtered without stunning varied from 6 to 24 s. In cattle slaughtered without stunning, times to loss of consciousness varied from 14 s up to over two minutes. Following captive bolt stunning in calves, absence of reflexes indicated unconsciousness. When consciousness was lost gradually (e.g. CO2 stunning and non-stunned slaughter) none of the readily observable indicators could identify the exact point in time at which animals lost consciousness. Absence of rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex- and eyelid reflex were valid indicators of unconsciousness following CO2 stunning and non-stunned slaughter, but these indicators were quite conservative as they were initially absent long after EEG activity indicated unconsciousness. When presence of these indicators would require (re)stunning, many animals will have to be (re)stunned. The results also showed that under full commercial conditions, stunning effectiveness must be closely monitored by slaughter plant employees, since risks for stun failures are higher under commercial conditions compared to experimental conditions.

De keerzijde van precisieboeren
Bos, J.M. - \ 2016
Vork 3 (2016)2. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 48 - 53.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diergezondheid - rundvee - pluimvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal health - cattle - poultry
De inzet van nieuwe technologie in de veehouderij draagt bij aan het verhogen van opbrengsten, het verminderen van de milieubelasting en het verbeteren van dierenwelzijn. Volgens Jacqueline Bos heeft precisieboeren echter ook een keerzijde. Het kan leiden tot verdere schaalvergroting en vervreemding en verlies aan zelfstandigheid van de boer.
Leerstoelgroep Filosofie en Dier-ethiek Wageningen; '10.000 liter per koe is onethisch'
Gremmen, Bart - \ 2016
animal welfare - animal ethics - animal production - dairy cattle - cattle - animal breeding - animal health

De melkveehouderij krijgt geregeld als kritiek dat ze dieronvriendelijk en onethisch werkt. Neem de kalf-bij-de-koediscussie. Het dier wordt steeds meer vermenselijkt, met als gevolg scheve veronderstellingen over dierethiek. Wageningse professor Bart Gremmen: „Het eten van dierlijke producten gaat altijd gepaard met dierenleed.”

Gezonde vleeskalveren - Een sterk kalf: belang van een goede opfok op het melkveebedrijf : Kennisclip
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - antibiotica - vleeskalveren - rundvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - antibiotics - veal calves - cattle
Stierkalveren die op het melkveebedrijf al goed groeien en op gewicht komen presteren ook in de mestperiode beter en hebben minder medicijnen en antibiotica nodig. Bij opzet van minder vitale nuchtere kalveren op het vleeskalverbedrijf is de uitval circa 2 procent hoger, en het kost €20 tot €30 per kalf extra aan arbeid en medicijnen.

Factoren in de kalveropfok die bijdragen aan de weerstand en gezondheid van vleeskalveren zijn: een hygiënische, tochtvrije huisvesting, voldoende biest van goede kwaliteit, goede kwaliteit melk en het vrij zijn van ziektes. Deze factoren geven een sterker vleeskalf, waardoor de kans op problemen in de mestfase vermindert.

In opdracht van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Ontwikkelcentrum, project 'Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen' (BO-20-011-032). Meer informatie over diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn: www.dierenwelzijnsweb.nl
Gezonde vleeskalveren : een warm welkom: belang van een goede opvang : Kennisclip
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - antibiotica - vleeskalveren - rundvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - antibiotics - veal calves - cattle
Vleeskalveren komen van melkveebedrijven, vanaf een leeftijd van twee weken. Ze komen vaak eerst bij elkaar op een verzamelplaats en gaan van daar naar het vleeskalverbedrijf. Ongeveer de helft van de kalveren komt van Nederlandse melkveebedrijven, de rest komt uit het buitenland, vooral Duitsland en Oost-Europa.

Een optimale opvang bevordert een goede start op het vleeskalverbedrijf. Hiervoor is het van belang de kalveren rustig op te vangen in een verwarmde stal, individuele aandacht en zorg te bieden, en lauw water met elektrolytenmix te verstrekken om een tekort aan vocht en lichaamszouten aan te vullen.

In opdracht van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Ontwikkelcentrum, project 'Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen' (BO- 20-011-032). Meer informatie over diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn: www.dierenwelzijnsweb.nl
Gezonde vleeskalveren - Goede opstart: infectiedruk en weerstand in balans : Kennisclip
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - antibiotica - vleeskalveren - rundvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - antibiotics - veal calves - cattle
In de vleeskalverhouderij komen gezondheidsproblemen - met name luchtwegproblemen - vooral in de eerste 3 weken voor. In deze periode zijn de dieren individueel gehuisvest om ze goed te kunnen controleren. Er is regelmatig contact met de dierenarts.

De gezondheid van vleeskalveren wordt bepaald door de balans tussen infectiedruk en weerstand tegen ziektes. Infectiedruk in de vleeskalverhouderij wordt voor een groot deel bepaald door ziekteverwekkers die de kalveren meenemen van het melkveebedrijf. Verminderen van stress en optimaliseren van voeding en klimaat hebben een positieve invloed op de weerstand van de dieren.

In opdracht van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Ontwikkelcentrum, project 'Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen' (BO 20-011-032). Meer informatie over diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn: www.dierenwelzijnsweb.nl
Gezonde vleeskalveren : optimale groei: verbeteringen in voer : Kennisclip
Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
Dierenwelzijnsweb
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - antibiotica - vleeskalveren - rundvee - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - antibiotics - veal calves - cattle
Traditioneel werd aan vleeskalveren alleen kalvermelk gevoerd. Nu wordt vanaf opzet op het vleeskalverbedrijf naast kalvermelk ook ruw- en krachtvoer verstrekt. Rosé kalveren gaan na een week of 6-7 melkvoeding volledig over op ruw- en krachtvoer.

Voldoende ruwvoer komt tegemoet aan de natuurlijke kauwbehoefte van kalveren. Hoe vezelrijker het rantsoen, hoe meer ‘pensprik’, en hoe beter de vertering. Een blankvleeskalf van 6 maanden beschikt bij voorkeur dagelijks over 2 kg krachtvoer, 1 kg ruwvoer en 2 kg droge stof kalvermelk. Nieuw onderzoek richt zich op het verbeteren van weerstand en vitaliteit van kalveren via de voeding.
In opdracht van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Ontwikkelcentrum, project 'Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen' (BO-20-011-032). Meer informatie over diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn: www.dierenwelzijnsweb.nl
Effect van verdoven en doden van drachtige dieren op de foetus en vaststellen van de incidentie van doden van (hoog)drachtige dieren in Nederland : welzijn van de foetus bij verdoven en slachten van drachtige dieren
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Hindle, V.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research rapport ) - 17 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - schapen - rundvee - paarden - diergezondheid - slacht - animal welfare - animal production - sheep - cattle - horses - animal health - slaughter
Literature shows that unborn fetuses during the last third of gestation, are able to experience pain. It is suggested that suppressive factors cause a decreased level of consciousness during pregnancy in the fetus, and that, depending on species, the newborns become conscious after a few hours to several days or weeks after birth. About this reduced level of consciousness during gestation, opinions differ.
During slaughter and bleeding of the dam fetal oxygen level decreases resulting within a minute result in a flattening of the EEG, which is associated with unconsciousness. It is stated that, when using a proper method of killing, no discomfort can be apparent in the unborn fetus. In addition, it is recommended to leave the embryo within the uterus to prevent breathing and thereby prevent an increasing oxygen level as this would make it conscious. The newborn should then be stunned and killed separately.
There is a large variation in the number of slaughtered pregnant animals within the Netherlands. Pregnancy is not always detected and the duration of pregnancy is difficult to estimate. The uteri are left intact according to current recommendations.
On this basis, we conclude that given current knowledge and general opinion, welfare of the fetus is not at stake. New scientific experimental research should reveal the consciousness level of the fetus during slaughter and killing procedures to subscribe the current point of view.
Onafhankelijke bemonstering vaste mest : globale indicatie van de kosten en administratieve lasten
Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-050) - ISBN 9789462578494 - 35 p.
dierlijke meststoffen - rundvee - varkens - bemonsteren - kosten - methodologie - animal manures - cattle - pigs - sampling - costs - methodology
Bij invoering van de nieuwe systematiek van onafhankelijke bemonstering van de dikke fractie van rundvee- en varkensdrijfmest nemen de kosten voor de sector naar schatting toe met circa 2 mln. euro per jaar. Daarbij is aangenomen dat ondernemers kiezen voor de goedkoopste methode op basis van de gegeven inschatting van de kosten van de verschillende opties voor bemonstering en de logistieke situatie en aantallen transporten van dikke fractie van 2015. In dat geval zullen de ondernemers kiezen voor een variant waarin zo veel mogelijk met geautomatiseerde vrachtbemonstering wordt gewerkt, in combinatie met ‘handmatige bemonstering per partij vlak voor afvoer.
Monitoring integraal duurzame stallen : peildatum 1 januari 2016
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Meer, R.W. van der; Docters van Leeuwen, H. ; Wageningen-Lucardi, S.R.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 953) - 23 p.
animal welfare - animal production - animal housing - poultry - cattle - pigs - dairy cattle - sustainability - stalls - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - pluimvee - rundvee - varkens - melkvee - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - stallen - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw
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