Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Reduced calf mortality when the calf’s needs are leading : Pledge for a renewed view on calf rearing
Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T. ; Bos, A.P. ; Plomp, M. ; Gaag, M.A. van der; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 15 p.
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - calves - animal health - animal nutrition - animal housing - animal behaviour - elasticity
Hoe fokken we veerkrachtige dieren?
Mulder, H.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Livestock Stories blog, Wageningen University & Research
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal health - elasticity - selective breeding
Ontstaan ‘haanburger’ is vergelijkbaar met kalfsvlees
Heeres-van der Tol, J.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Livestock Stories blog, Wageningen University & Research
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - veal calves - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal health - animal nutrition
Van kalf tot koe, maar hoe? Wat komt daar allemaal bij kijken?
Heeres-van der Tol, J.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Livestock Stories blog, Wageningen University & Research
animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - veal calves - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal health - animal nutrition
Monitoring verduurzaming veehouderij 1.0 : een eerste proeve van een Monitorings-systematiek voor de 15 ambities van de Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij, met initiële resultaten voor drie diersectoren en een aantal keteninitiatieven
Bos, A.P. ; Puente-Rodríguez, Daniel ; Reijs, Joan W. ; Peet, G.F.V. van der; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1045) - 113
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - varkens - pluimvee - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - diergedrag - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal housing - animal health - animal behaviour
In 2013, the governance network UDV formulated fifteen ambitions towards a sustainable livestock production. In this way, the UDV’s stakeholders defined the long-term goals of an integrated and sustainable livestock production. To what extent have these 15 ambitions been achieved? And, how substantial is the contribution of supra-legal initiatives to this process? In this report, we present the first elaboration of a monitoring system that enables the visualization of the progress made. Moreover, it also enables comparing the different livestock production systems and creates the basis for a comparison between conventional animal production and supra-legal initiatives. In this concept-report the system is applied initially to the three larger livestock production sectors in the Netherlands (i.e., dairy, pigs, and poultry) and –as far as enough data is available– to four supra-legal initiatives. The system is currently under construction. Particularly because it involves interpretation and a number of value-laden choices that –notwithstanding their current support by arguments and references to the literature– should become shared and supported by (at least) the UDV stakeholders in the near future.
Evaluatie Actieplan Stalbranden 2012-2016
Bokma-Bakker, Martien ; Bokma, Sjoerd ; Ellen, Hilko ; Hagen, René ; Ruijven, Charlotte van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1035) - 80
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - varkens - melkvee - schapen - geiten - paarden - stallen - brand - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - pigs - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - horses - stalls - fire - fire prevention - safety
Maatregelen om weidegang te bevorderen : inventarisatie en analyse
Blokland, P.W. ; Pol-van Dasselaar, A. van den; Rougoor, C. ; Schans, F. van der; Sebek, L. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2017-071) - ISBN 9789463436533 - 59
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - huisvesting - weiden - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - housing - pastures
Monitoring integraal duurzame stallen : peildatum 1 januari 2017
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Meer, R.W. van der; Docters van Leeuwen, H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1027) - 19
huisvesting, dieren - stallen - monitoring - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - rundvee - melkvee - pluimvee - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - animal housing - stalls - animal production - animal welfare - cattle - dairy cattle - poultry - sustainability
De overheid ambieert een integraal duurzame veehouderij in 2023. Daarom wordt jaarlijks een nieuw doel gesteld. Voor eind 2016 (peildatum 1 januari 2017) noemt het ministerie als ambitie dat minimaal 14% van de rundvee-, varkens- en pluimveestallen integraal duurzaam is. Deze studie laat zien dat op 1 januari 2017 in Nederland 13,6 % van alle stallen integraal duurzaam is.
Maatregelen Natuurinclusieve landbouw
Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van; Doorn, Anne van; Geertsema, Willemien ; Polman, Nico - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2821) - 49
landbouw - natuur - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - maatregelen - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke productie - melkvee - agriculture - nature - farm management - measures - organic farming - animal welfare - animal housing - animal production - dairy cattle
In deze notitie wordt een overzicht gegeven van maatregelen voor natuurinclusieve landbouw. Dit is een vorm van duurzame landbouw die optimaal gebruik maakt van de natuurlijke processen en deze integreert in de bedrijfsvoering. Natuurinclusieve landbouw begint met een gezonde bodem, produceert voedsel binnen de grenzen van natuur, milieu en leefomgeving en heeft positieve effecten op de biodiversiteit en het klimaat.
Wat zijn de mogelijkheden om een leverbotinfectie van melkvee te voorkomen?
Neijenhuis, Francesca ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Verkaik, Jan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1029) - 65
leverbot - fascioliasis - melkvee - melkveehouderij - parasitosen - infectieziekten - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - liver flukes - dairy cattle - dairy farming - parasitoses - infectious diseases - animal production - animal welfare - animal health - organic farming
Infecties met leverbot zijn in toenemende mate een knelpunt in de diergezondheid van grazende (of vers gras gevoerde) herkauwers. Leverbotinfectie leidt tot ziekte met economische gevolgen en voor melkgevende dieren zijn geen anthelmintica vrij beschikbaar. In dit project is het leverbotinstrument ontwikkeld met als doel om veehouders inzicht en handelingsperspectief te geven ten aanzien van de leverbotsituatie op hun bedrijf. In dit rapport worden de resultaten weergegeven van het leverbotinstrument en een drietal preventieve maatregelen die zijn uitgeprobeerd.
The utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms
Rutten, C.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen; Michel Nielen, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431934 - 232
dairy cattle - dairy farms - sensors - reproduction - reproductive behaviour - animal health - calving - activity - management - dairy farming - technology - agricultural economics - melkvee - melkveebedrijven - voortplanting - voortplantingsgedrag - diergezondheid - kalven - activiteit - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - technologie - agrarische economie

Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. Some sensors like activity meters, electrical conductivity, weight floors and somatic cell count sensors are commercially available. Adoption has in general been low and mainly driven by the AMS, with a clear exception for estrus detection. In practice, the economic benefits of using sensor systems has not been proven. So, to make sensors live up to their full potential there is a need for research to shift from technical development towards practical applications and integration with operational farm management. Estrus detection sensors can have a good detection performance and are currently applied by farmers in practice, therefore this thesis focusses on sensors that support reproductive management. The main objective of this thesis is to study the utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms. This main objective was split in five sub objectives that each study a part of the main objective and were discussed in the separate chapters of this thesis.

We demonstrated that utility of sensors for reproductive management can be found in economic benefits (estrus and calving detection), reduction of labor (calving and estrus detection) and more detailed management information (prognosis of insemination success). So, automated estrus detection aids reproductive management.

From this thesis the following conclusions can be drawn:

The developed theoretical framework describes four levels of sensor development, which should all be included in proper development of sensor systems. The literature review showed that no studies developed sensor systems with regard to management and decision support.

It was possible to improve the prediction of the start of calving compared to a model that only uses the expected calving date. However, predicting the start of calving within an hour was not possible with a high sensitivity and specificity.

There was financial merit in the use of calving detection, because the sensor system enables more timely intervention by the farmer. The uncertainty about the positive effects was large, which caused a wide range in the simulated financial benefits.

Investment in a sensor for estrus detection was on average profitable with a return on investment of 11%. Profitability was influenced most by the heuristic culling rules and the expected increase of the estrus detection rate between detection by visual observation and the sensor.

Routinely collected farm data can be used to estimate a prognosis on insemination success and be used to determine whether an individual cow has a higher or lower than average likelihood of insemination success. Integration of this prognostic model with an estrus detection sensor has potential.

Currently farmers only adopt sensors for estrus detection or because they were standard with an AMS. A reason for this is that sensor systems do not produce clear information for farmers. Sensor technology should be focused on management support of applications. Labor benefits of sensors are important for adoption of sensors by farmers, farmers value flexibility, increased family time and less physical workload as benefits. However, economic evaluations of technical solutions are unable to quantify these benefits. Sensor research should consider the preference of farmers regarding labor. For the appraisal of sensor technology new methods to value labor benefits of sensor are needed. Furthermore, in sensor development societal acceptance should be an important consideration. Animal rights activists may frame the use of sensors as a form of industrialized farming. Only using technical arguments and considerations to explain the benefits of sensors will hamper the societal acceptance of modern dairy farming. Application of sensors on dairy farms should be communicated smartly to society in terms that relate the values of citizens.

De PerceelVerdeler: optimaal verdelen van de beschikbare mest op het melkveebedrijf
Oenema, Jouke ; Verloop, Koos ; Hilhorst, Gerjan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen 78) - 25
melkvee - melkveehouderij - rundveemest - kunstmeststoffen - ruimtelijke verdeling - dairy cattle - dairy farming - cattle manure - fertilizers - spatial distribution
Het verlagen van de TAN-excretie als maatregel om de ammoniakemissie op het melkveebedrijf te verminderen : methodiek voor het vaststellen van de TAN-excretie: module ‘Bedrijfsspecifieke Emissie Ammoniak’ (BEA) van de Kringloopwijzer
Šebek, L. ; Migchels, G. ; Dijk, C. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1020) - 33
melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - rundveemest - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - emission reduction - cattle feeding - cattle manure - farm management
Ontwikkelen beweidingsystemen bij hoge veebezetting op kleine huiskavel : beweidingsonderzoek op klei- en veengrond in 2015
Galama, P.J. ; Holshof, G. ; Reenen, K. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1016) - 51
melkvee - beweidingssystemen - zware kleigronden - veengronden - bezettingsdichtheid - melkveehouderij - nederland - dairy cattle - grazing systems - clay soils - peat soils - stocking density - dairy farming - netherlands
Breeding strategies for sustainable intensification of developing smallholder dairy cattle production systems
Kariuki, Charles Mbogo - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Hans Komen, co-promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; A.K. Kahi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430951 - 134
dairy cattle - small businesses - sustainable animal husbandry - intensification - breeding programmes - progeny testing - genetic improvement - dairy performance - developing countries - melkvee - kleine bedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - intensivering - veredelingsprogramma's - nakomelingenonderzoek - genetische verbetering - melkresultaten - ontwikkelingslanden

Smallholder dairy cattle production systems in Africa are intensifying production through importation of germplasm from breeding programs conducted in temperate regions to improve commercial cow populations. Presence of genotype by environment interaction results in unfavorable correlated responses. The aim this thesis was to develop strategies for breeding programs in developing countries that can support sustainable intensification of these systems. Specific objectives were (a) to determine desired gains for breeding objective traits, (b) compare progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS) selection strategies, (c) evaluate the economic performance of PT and GS selection strategies and (d) compare genetic gains for economic and non-economic breeding objectives; the Kenya dairy cattle sector was used as a working example. To account for the limited pedigree and performance recording, a five-trait breeding objective and small-sized breeding program were studied. Breeding objective traits, determined based on producer preferences, were milk yield (MY), production lifetime (PLT), calving interval (CI), fat yield (FY) and mature body weight (MBW). Producers were categorized into high intensive group, who placed highest preference on PLT and MY, and low intensity group that placed highest preferences on CI and PLT. MY and FY were the most important traits for processors. Consensus desired gains, based on weighted goal programming, were 2.51, 2.42, 0.22, 0.87 and 0.15% for PLT, MY, CI, FY and MBW, respectively. Comparison of breeding schemes shows that GS schemes had lower accuracies but gave higher responses per year due to shorter generation intervals. Besides genetic gains, economic performance underpins the adoption of selection strategies. GS schemes had between 3.2 and 5.2-fold higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared to PT schemes. Semen storage made PT schemes more profitable but less so than GS schemes. Functional traits can increase the sustainability of resource poor smallholder systems under harsh environments. Economic breeding objectives yielded undesirable responses in functional traits. Breeding objectives based on desired gains or non-market objectives improved response in functional traits but at a monetary cost. It is concluded that sustainable productivity of smallholder systems can be improved by implementation of local breeding program based on GS, but this requires more emphasis on functional traits, which can be achieved by use of non-economic objectives.

Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle : morphological, functional, and gene expression changes of the rumen papillae and changes of the rumen microbiota during the transition period
Dieho, Kasper - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Andre Bannink; J.Th. Schonewille. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430258 - 248
dairy cattle - rumen - rumen microorganisms - morphology - gene expression - animal nutrition - dry period - lactation - melkvee - pens - pensmicro-organismen - morfologie - genexpressie - diervoeding - gustperiode - lactatie

In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ net energy for lactation during the first weeks of lactation, compared with the dry period, whereas feed intake doubles to ~24 kg dry matter (DM)/d compared with the dry period. In addition, high quality lactation rations are fed, usually containing a sizable portion of concentrate, thereby increasing fermentable organic matter (FOM) intake to ~14 kg/d. As a result, daily volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by the rumen microbiota increases from ~60 mol/d during the dry period to ~132 mol/d during early lactation. To maintain rumen pH at levels favorable for microbial fermentation, and prevent a negative impact on production and health, clearance of the produced VFA is essential. This mainly occurs through absorption over the rumen wall. The increase in capacity of the rumen for absorption of VFA is associated with morphological and functional changes of the rumen papillae which cover the rumen wall. However, current knowledge of these changes as they occur around calving is scarce (Chapter 1). Increasing our understanding of the adaptation of the rumen can provide new insights to optimize dairy cattle nutrition and thereby health, welfare, and production.

The objective of this thesis was to study the adaptation of the rumen to ration changes during the dry period and early lactation. Changes in rumen papillae morphology, fractional absorption rate of VFA (kaVFA), and changes in the composition of the rumen microbiota were the primary targets for study. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with absorption and metabolism of VFA by the rumen epithelium were studied to better understand the relationship between functional changes and morphological changes of the papillae. Uniquely, all these aspects were studied in parallel in the same dairy cows during the dry period and early lactation using a repeated measurement setup. Two experiments were conducted. In the lactation experiment, the effect of transition from the dry period to the subsequent lactation, and the effect of early lactation concentrate build-up strategy on the adaptation of the rumen were studied. In the dry period experiment, the effect of feeding supplemental concentrate during the late dry period in order to ‘prepare’ the rumen for the lactation was studied. Treatments of both experiments were aimed at creating a difference in FOM intake (kg/d) and thereby VFA production (mol/d), as VFA production was hypothesized to affect rumen papillae development and thereby the capacity for VFA absorption.

During the lactation experiment, intake of FOM did not change during the dry period (5.7 kg/d), but increased during the subsequent lactation to 15.0 kg/d at 80 d postpartum (pp). In addition, the rapid increase in concentrate allowance resulted in a temporarily 22% greater FOM intake compared with a gradual increase at 16 d pp (Chapter 2). The total production rate of VFA, measured using an isotope dilution technique (Chapter 3), was affected by these changes in FOM intake and increased 2.3 fold to 123 mol/d after calving, compared with the dry period (53 mol/d). The temporarily greater FOM intake with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance at 16 d pp coincided with a 54% greater propionate production (34 mol/d) compared with a gradual increase in concentrate allowance, whereas acetate (66 mol/d) and butyrate (10 mol/d) production were not affected. Papillae surface area (Chapter 2) decreased by 19% between 50 d antepartum (ap) and 3 d pp to 28.0 mm2, but increased during early lactation to 63.0 mm2. Papillae surface area increased faster with the rapid increase in concentrate allowance and surface area was 38, 34 and 22% larger at 16, 30, and 44 d postpartum respectively, than with a gradual rate of increase of concentrate allowance. Histology (Chapter 2) revealed that rumen papillae and epithelium thickness decreased slightly after calving, but were not affected by the concentrate treatment. Feeding concentrate during the dry period did not affect daily FOM intake (6.0 kg/d) but did increase VFA concentration in the rumen fluid by 21 mM to 121 mM, and increased papillae surface by 29% (Chapter 4). However, the increased papillae surface area in the dry period was not maintained to the subsequent lactation period. After calving, papillae surface area increased by 50% to 58.0 mm2 at 45 d pp. The postpartum development of the rumen papillae was not affected by the treatment during the dry period. These results indicate that rumen papillae respond to changes in FOM and VFA production intake during the dry period and early lactation, and that the magnitude of this response depends on the rate of change in FOM intake.

During both experiments, kaVFA was measured using a buffer incubation technique in an empty washed rumen. During the lactation experiment (Chapter 3), in accordance with the developments in papillae surface area, the kaVFA decreased during the dry period from 0.48/h at 50 d ap to 0.34/h at 3 d pp. During the subsequent lactation, it increased rapidly to 0.56/h at 16 d pp and further to 0.72/h at 80 d pp. However, the greater papillae surface area due to the rapid increase in concentrate did not coincide with a greater kaVFA. During the dry period experiment (Chapter 4), kaVFA increased after calving by 50% to 0.48/h at 45 d pp, but the increase in papillae surface area due to supplemental concentrate during the dry period did not affect the kaVFA during the dry period (0.36/h) or the subsequent lactation. These results indicate that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for kaVFA.

Changes in the expression of genes were studied at the mRNA level in papillae tissue from both experiments (Chapter 5). The expression of apoptosis related genes was not affected by sampling day or its interaction with treatment for both experiments, suggesting papillae proliferation during the transition period was mainly the result of an increased mitosis rate. The limited changes in the expression of genes associated with rumen epithelial transport and metabolism of VFA in dairy cows during the transition period do not suggest that these capacities of the epithelium increased per unit of surface area. Thus the major response to the increase in daily VFA production after calving was tissue proliferation. In addition, papillae from the lactation experiment were used to study expression at the protein level using immunoblotting. Results showed that expression of several proteins changed during early lactation indicating modulation of intracellular pH regulation and sodium homeostasis, and VFA metabolism. Only for one gene, a significant but weak correlation between the examined mRNA and protein expression levels was observed, indicating that care must be taken when interpreting results obtained at either level.

Ration changes associated with the transition from the dry period to lactation affected the rumen microbiota during the lactation experiment (Chapter 6). The rapid increase in concentrate allowance postpartum temporarily decreased bacterial community richness by as much as 30% compared with a gradual increase in concentrate. This transient depression in bacterial community richness with a rapid, but not a gradual, rate of increase of concentrate allowance pp indicates that the rate of change in ration composition and feed intake has a greater effect than the change in ration composition and feed intake level as such. The relative abundances of most major bacterial taxa were affected by the transition to lactation, but few were affected by the rate of increase of the concentrate allowance. The relative abundances of rumen protozoal taxa changed after calving, and were affected by the concentrate treatment. However, differences between treatments groups disappeared again when concentrate intake became similar. The archaeal community was likewise affected by both the transition to lactation and the treatment. The observed changes in rumen microbiota composition, including changes in bacterial community richness, did not appear to affect the fractional degradation rate of NDF, starch, CP, and OM measured in situ using a nylon bag technique.

The results in the present thesis show that morphologically and functionally the rumen papillae can adapt rapidly to the changes in FOM intake and daily VFA production associated with the transition from the dry period into the subsequent lactation. However, the contrast in response of rumen papillae surface area development and the fractional absorption rate of VFA to the concentrate treatments indicates that papillae surface area is not the limiting factor for VFA absorption. This proposition is further supported by the limited histological changes of the rumen epithelium and limited changes in gene expression. Considering that the capacity for absorption and metabolism of VFA per unit of papillae surface area remains similar, an extra-epithelial factor, likely visceral blood flow, limits VFA absorption. The capacity of the rumen to adapt after calving and the limited beneficial effect of supplementing concentrate during the dry period indicate that dry period feeding strategies can best be optimized for the prevention of periparturient diseases.

Over koetjes en kalfjes : Scheiden van kalf en koe
Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Hopster, H. ; Deelder, Merel - \ 2017
dierenwelzijn - melkproducerende dieren - dierethiek - diergezondheid - diergedrag - melkvee - kalf verwijdering - animal welfare - milk yielding animals - animal ethics - animal health - animal behaviour - dairy cattle - calf removal
Moet je melkkoe en kalf zo snel mogelijk na de geboorte scheiden of is het beter dat ze eerst een tijd samenleven?
Effect of Comfort Slat Mats with and without valves on ammonia emission from dairy housing : case control measurements at Dairy Campus Leeuwarden
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Zonderland, J.L. ; Blanken, K. ; Bokma, S. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 1028) - 22
dairy cattle - dairy farming - cattle housing - floor type - valves - ammonia emission - emission reduction - melkvee - melkveehouderij - huisvesting van rundvee - vloertypen - kleppen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie
Vroegtijdig scheiden van melkkoe en kalf : Implicaties voor gedrag en gezondheid in het licht van de gangbare praktijk
Hopster, H. ; Bergsma, Karin - \ 2016
Leeuwarden : University of Applied Sciences Van Hall Larenstein - 95 p.
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - diergezondheid - diergedrag - huisvesting, dieren - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal health - animal behaviour - animal housing
Vroegtijdige scheiding van melkkoe en kalf roept in de samenleving in toenemende mate vragen op over de effecten daarvan op dierenwelzijn. In de visie van de Duurzame Zuivelketen (DZK) valt de zorg voor kalveren binnen de scope van zuivelkwaliteitssystemen. Ter onderbouwing van haar beleidsvisie aangaande vroegtijdig scheiden van koe en kalf heeft de DZK in 2015 onderzoek laten doen. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd door het lectoraat Welzijn van Dieren van Van Hall Larenstein. Het behelst literatuur- en survey-onderzoek waarmee de stand van zaken – wetenschappelijke kennis en gangbare praktijk – rond de kwestie in kaart is gebracht. Tenslotte is door praktijkdeskundigen, onderzoekers en melkveehouders gereflecteerd op de voorlopige resultaten.
Grazing and automation : proceedings 4th Meeting EGF Working Group "Grazing" in Wageningen
Pol-van Dasselaar, A. van den; Vlieger, A. de; Hennesy, D. ; Isselstein, J. ; Peyraud, J.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1003) - 24
dairy cattle - machine milking - grazing - dairy farming - automation - melkvee - machinaal melken - begrazing - melkveehouderij - automatisering
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