Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
Methodology for the case studies
Smits, M.J.W. ; Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2017
EU (Circular impacts ) - 19 p.
economics - cycling - projects - renewable energy - recycling - sustainability - durability - politics - policy - environment - economie - kringlopen - projecten - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheid (durability) - politiek - beleid - milieu
This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact assessments of circular economy policies or specific circular economy projects. The methodology was developed to ensure that the case studies focus on the overall im pacts of the circular economy. The frame of the methodology is a s tep - by - step approach, which will be described in section s 3 and 4 of this document. In section 2 we describe the selection of the case studies.
The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior
Duchoslav, Jan - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Francesco Cecchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431477 - 190
environment - behaviour - economic development - social behaviour - stress conditions - environmental temperature - physical properties - social environment - milieu - gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - sociaal gedrag - stress omstandigheden - omgevingstemperatuur - fysische eigenschappen - sociaal milieu

All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the benefit of the group rather than just one's own has evolved over many generations, and is – to some extent – innate to any healthy human being. At the same time, individual prosocial preferences are – also to a certain extent – endogenous to the physical and social environment within which we operate. This thesis identifies several ways in which environmental changes affect intrinsic prosocial preferences, and outlines a possible direction for fixing any such negative effects.

In Chapter 1, I introduce the topic of prosocial preferences. I briefly describe how prosociality has been viewed over the course of scientific history, and summarize the current state of knowledge about the formation of social preferences. I further outline how extrinsic incentives can influence prosocial behavior without affecting the preferences which underpin it. Finally, the chapter contains an overview of the methodologies used throughout this thesis.

In Chapter 2, I focus on an early formative factor of prosocial preferences—their fetal origins. I study how temperature shocks faced by pregnant women affect their children's later-life prosocial preferences. I find that exposure to higher than usual ambient temperatures during gestation reduces a child's probability of contribution to the public good, with the negative effect lasting into adulthood.

Chapter 3 continues in the same vein as Chapter 2, looking at the fetal origins of prosocial preferences. In this chapter, I investigate how prenatal stress induced by random violence affects the preferences for cooperation among children born during an armed conflict. To do so, I exploit variations in the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers—a marker of in utero hormone exposure negatively associated with high maternal distress during early fetal development. I show that prenatal stress reduces the probability that children contribute to the public good.

In Chapter 4, I move away from the physical aspects of human environment, focusing instead on the social ones. I study the effects of a sudden introduction of a formal institution on individual cooperative behavior within informal arrangements. In particular, I look at how an NGO intervention which helped create a mutual health insurance affected cooperative behavior in a public goods game. I find that the introduction of formal insurance reduces contributions to the public good. This reduction in cooperation levels is, however, not due to the adopters of the formal insurance who may now have less need for informal reciprocal networks, and who therefore (partially) withdraw from them. It is instead the non-adopters who become less cooperative towards the adopters.

To outline a possible direction for remedying the negative environmental effects on prosocial behavior described in the previous three chapters, I illustrate one of the ways in which prosocial behavior can be incentivized with a relatively simple and easily implementable policy. In Chapter 5, I evaluate the impact of introducing performance-based financial incentives on staff effort and, consequently, on allocative efficiency and output in healthcare provision. I show that in the case under investigation, financial incentives conditioned on output and worth roughly 5% of total expenditures increased staff effort to the extent that output rose by over 25%, without any detectable drop in the quality of the provided services. This not only shows the potential of incentive-compatible financing to improve the performance of underfunded healthcare systems in developing countries, but also that extrinsic motivation can be used to foster behavior which benefits the society rather than just the individual.

Finally, I combine the main findings from the core chapters of the thesis in Chapter 6. I discuss their policy implications, and point out the some of the outstanding questions, outlining the directions for future research.

Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment
Tamou, Charles - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Simon Oosting; Raimon Ripoll Bosch; I. Youssao Aboudou Karim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431552 - 154
pastoralism - livestock - grazing - crop production - nature conservation - cattle breeds - environment - nature reserves - benin - pastoralisme - vee - begrazing - gewasproductie - natuurbescherming - rundveerassen - milieu - natuurreservaten

The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to understand the relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment. In terms of land use change, cropland area around WBR expanded, whereas grazing area reduced. Population growth and rising demand for food crops and cash crops were the indirect causes of this loss of grazing lands. Competing claims over land existed between crop farmers and pastoralists, among crop farmers, and among crop farmers, pastoralists, and the WBR authority due to past expropriation, unfair and incomplete implementation of the WBR regulations and the increasing shift of pastoral lifestyle to crop farming. In terms of effects of grazing on plant communities, highly grazed sites had more species diversity than lowly grazed sites. This suggests that the current level of grazing was not damaging plant communities’ diversity. Annual species dominated the surveyed vegetation, suggesting that restoration of grazing lands with perennials requires human intervention. Herding involves taking decisions and moving of livestock in search for feed. Herding decisions are based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of soil, forage and livestock. Pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Perennial grasses were perceived of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana had high perceived quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest perceived quality for meat production, health and strength. In decision making for herding, pastoralists used a holistic approach, combining TEK about soil, vegetation and livestock, in a structured and prioritised reasoning. Changes in the pastoral system can lead to changes in desired livestock traits, which may lead to loss of indigenous breeds. Keteeji was valued for its endurance and tolerance to trypanosomiasis, Bodeeji was highly valued for endurance and Gudali was perceived of high value for meat and milk production, but of low value for endurance. To deal with the changing and unfavourable conditions of their environment, pastoralists preferred cattle breeds performing well on adaptive traits i.e. withstanding hunger, intelligence, and withstanding disease. Our results suggest that pastoralism is under pressure and that its survival depends on policies. In the pessimistic scenario, i.e. without any change, pastoralists will use, likely, the stepping-out strategy in the future. In the optimistic scenario, two possible institutional interventions could help maintaining pastoralism in the region: payments for ecosystem services provided by pastoralism, and association of pastoralism with nature conservation. In practice, however, the implementation of these two interventions is very challenging, which implies an increasing vulnerability of pastoralists and pastoral lifestyle.

Rivierenland leeft! Verbinden door samenwerking : Quickscan naar trends, kansen en opgaven met betrekking tot de leefbaarheid in Regio Rivierenland
Gies, T.J.A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, W. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2777) - ISBN 9789463430791 - 41
levensomstandigheden - perceptie - omgevingspsychologie - milieu - rivierengebied - living conditions - perception - environmental psychology - environment
Leefbaarheid gaat over prettig wonen, werken en leven en is daarom is een belangrijk thema voor Regio Rivierenland, een samenwerkingsverband van tien gemeenten, te weten Buren, Culemborg, Geldermalsen, Lingewaal, Maasdriel, Neder-Betuwe, Neerrijnen, Tiel, Zaltbommel en West Maas en Waal. In deze quickscan brengen we de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen m.b.t. de leefbaarheid in beeld. We geven inzicht in de kansen en bedreigingen waarin naast de huidige situatie ook de verwachte ontwikkelingen en trends voor Regio Rivierenland geschetst worden. Daarmee concretiseren we de belangrijkste opgaven en uitdagingen voor de komende jaren in regio Rivierenland.
The politics of environmental knowledge
Turnhout, E. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573796 - 20
milieuwetenschappen - milieu - kennis - biodiversiteit - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurbescherming - politiek - environmental sciences - environment - knowledge - biodiversity - ecosystem services - nature conservation - politics
Pionieren : jaarmagazine over het samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Duinhoven, Geert van; Salverda, Irini ; Kruit, Jeroen ; Kuijper, Florien ; Janmaat, Rob - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 48
participatie - milieu - participation - environment
Afstand tussen veehouderij en woningen : een onderzoek naar aantallen veehouderijen en woningen op minder dan 250 meter van elkaar
Os, J. van; Smidt, R.A. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2658) - 51
veehouderij - landbouwbedrijven - woningen - milieu - milieufactoren - nederland - livestock farming - farms - dwellings - environment - environmental factors - netherlands
Ter voorbereiding op een debat in de Tweede Kamer op 15 september 2014 heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken aan Alterra gevraagd om te bepalen hoeveel veehouderijen er liggen op een afstand van 250 m of minder van burgerwoningen, niet zijnde agrarische bedrijfswoningen. Achtergrond van deze vraag is de mogelijke negatieve beïnvloeding van de omgevingskwaliteit van woningen door veehouderijen. Naar aanleiding van het debat en het eerste gepubliceerde document heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken Alterra gevraagd om een actualisatie en nadere detaillering te maken van de eerste resultaten. Met behulp van GIS heeft Alterra daarop zowel voor de jaren 2011 en 2013 bepaald dat ca. 70-90% van de veehouderijen op minder dan 250 m van een woning ligt. Andersom geredeneerd ligt ca. 30-40% van de woningen in het buitengebied op minder dan 250 m van een veehouderij; voor woningen in bevolkingskernen is dat 3%. Binnen Nederland zijn er aanzienlijke verschillen tussen regio’s, vooral veroorzaakt door verschillen in dichtheid van veehouderijen en woningen.
Antibiotic residues and resistance in the environment
Pikkemaat, M.G. ; Yassin, H. ; Fels-Klerkx, H.J. ; Berendsen, B.J.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-report 2016.009) - 31
antibiotic residues - antibiotic resistance - antibiotics - environment - antibioticumresiduen - antibioticaresistentie - antibiotica - milieu
Antibiotic usage has benefited the animal industry and helped providing affordable animal proteins to the growing human population. However, since extensive use of antibiotics results in the inhibition of susceptible organisms while selecting for the resistant ones, agricultural use is contributing substantially to the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. So far, scientific focus has predominantly been on the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria and genes into the environment as a result of veterinary treatment, in particular through manure but also through food products and direct animal contact. However, environmental contamination with antibiotic residues could also be an important factor in the selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The persistence of antibiotics in the environment depends on factors like soil type and climate, but also on physical-chemical characteristics of the different types of antibiotics. Monitoring studies showed that substantial concentrations of antibiotic residues can occur in soil and water, in particular at locations close to intensive animal farming. Little is known about the concentrations that will exert selective pressure on environmental microorganisms and promote persistence or even enrichment of the environmental resistance gene pool. Traditionally, it was assumed that resistance is only induced at concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). However, recently, evidence is accumulating that selective environments may occur at concentrations down to several hundred-folds below the MIC. However, for most of the antibiotics and environmental conditions, the minimal threshold concentrations that will induce or support propagation of antibiotic resistance in environmental microbes are still undefined. Therefore, more research is needed into the relationship between the concentrations of antibiotic residues in the environment and the prevalence and persistency of environmental antibiotic resistance. First, additional research is needed to determine what antibiotic concentrations still exert pressure on bacteria and can cause persistence or enrichment of resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the fate of antibiotics in the main reservoirs (manure, soil, water) should be studied, including antimicrobially active metabolites and their bioavailability. Finally, transmission of antibiotic compounds between reservoirs should be studied to identify the main reservoirs of interest and define intervening measures.
A new Global Agro-Environmental Stratification (GAES)
Mücher, Sander ; Simone, Lorenzo De; Kramer, Henk ; Wit, Allard de; Roupioz, Laure ; Hazeu, Gerard ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Schuiling, Rini ; Fritz, Steffen ; Latham, John ; Cormont, Anouk - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2761) - 69
stratification - agriculture - environment - monitoring - agricultural production - sustainable agriculture - observation - stratificatie (zaden) - landbouw - milieu - landbouwproductie - duurzame landbouw - observatie
The GAES database (Version 01a) is a newly developed Global Agro-Environmental Stratification within the EU SIGMA (Stimulating Innovation for Global Monitoring of Agriculture) project. GAES will serve as a new agro-environmental stratification for better global monitoring of the agricultural production on the basis of Earth Observation data and crop growth models. It is anticipated that GAES will be exploited for a wider range of applications, some within SIGMA, towards data gap analysis that identifies agro-environmental strata with limited capacity and monitoring data on agricultural production. GAES was produced by applying segmentation techniques to newly available global agroenvironmental data with a high spatial resolution re-sampled to 1 km spatial resolution. The datasets were able to stratify the agricultural production zones according to the region’s agro-environmental characteristics, including climatic regimes, soil, terrain, elevation conditions, water availability and land cover proprieties. The GAES strata obtained by segmentation at four different spatial levels (with Level 4 as the most detailed) have been further characterised and described in terms of phenology (e.g. start and peak of the growing season), agricultural (water) management practices, field size, biotic constraints, national and sub-national crop production statistics, GDP, transport infrastructure conditions or market accessibility. The GAES database has four hierarchical layers, with 92 attributes. GAES Level 1 has 194 agro-environmental (AE) types (818 strata); GAES Level 2 has 300 AE types (1,688 strata); GAES Level 3 has 374 AE types (2,087 strata); GAES Level 4 has 516 AE types (3,208 strata). GAES typology is a combination of temperature, altitude, parent material and land cover characteristics. GAES Version 01 has become freely available.
An uncertain climate : the value of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment of food
Groen, E.A. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; R. Heijungs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577558 - 239 p.
environment - environmental impact - climatic change - uncertainty analysis - screening - sensitivity analysis - modeling - greenhouse gases - farms - dairy farms - food production - correlation analysis - milieu - milieueffect - klimaatverandering - onzekerheidsanalyse - screenen - gevoeligheidsanalyse - modelleren - broeikasgassen - landbouwbedrijven - melkveebedrijven - voedselproductie - correlatieanalyse

ABSTRACT

Production of food contributes to climate change and other forms of environmental impact. Input data used in environmental impact assessment models, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and nutrient balance (NB) analysis, may vary due to seasonal changes, geographical conditions or socio-economic factors (i.e. natural variability). Moreover, input data may be uncertain, due to measurement errors and observational errors that exist around modelling of emissions and technical parameters (i.e. epistemic uncertainty). Although agricultural activities required for food production are prone to natural variability and epistemic uncertainty, very few case studies in LCA and NB analysis made a thorough examination of the effects of variability and uncertainty. This thesis aimed to enhance understanding the effects of variability and uncertainty on the results, by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Uncertainty analysis refers to the estimation of the uncertainty attribute of a model output using the uncertainty attributes of the model in- puts. There are three types of sensitivity analyses: (I) a local sensitivity analysis addresses what happens to the output when input parameters are changed, i.e. the intrinsic model behaviour of a parameter; (II) a screening analysis addresses what happens to the output based on the un- certainty range of the different input parameters; and (III) a global sensitivity analysis addresses how much the uncertainty around each input parameter contributes to the output variance. Both the screening analysis and the global sensitivity analysis combine the intrinsic model behaviour with the information of uncertainty around input parameters. Applying uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis can help to reduce the efforts for data collection, support the development of mitigation strategies and improve overall reliability, leading to more informed decision making in environmental impact assessment models. Including uncertainty in environmental impact assessment models showed that: (1) the type of uncertainty analysis or sensitivity analysis applied depends on the question to be addressed and the available information; (2) in some cases it is no longer possible to benchmark environmental performance if epistemic uncertainty is included; (3) including correlations between input parameters during uncertainty propagation will either increase or decrease output variance, which can be predicted beforehand; (4) under specific characteristics of the input parameters, ignoring correlation has a minimal effect on the model outcome. Systematically combining a local and global sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment models: (1) resulted in more parameters than found previously in similar studies (for the case studies discussed in this thesis); (2) allowed finding mitigation options, either based on innovations (derived from the local sensitivity analysis) or on management strategies (derived from the global sensitivity analysis); (3) showed for which parameters reliability should be improved by increasing data quality; (4) showed that reducing the (epistemic) uncertainty of the most important parameters can affect the comparison of the environmental performance.

Water Delight: Kleurrijk debat over thema’s heen
Moors, E.J. ; Block, D. de; Bruin, K. de; Liebrand, J. - \ 2015
WageningenWorld (2015)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 50 - 51.
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economie - positie van de vrouw - geslacht (gender) - vrouwenemancipatie - milieu - waterbeheer - sustainability - economics - woman - gender - emancipation of women - environment - water management

Hebben we meer vrouwen nodig in watermanagement, of gewoon meer diversiteit aan (sociale) competenties? En hoe brengen we mooie Nederlandse plannen naar implementatie elders? Techniek, milieu, genderproblematiek, economische duurzaamheid: alle kanten van internationaal watermanagement werden belicht tijdens het eerste grote interdisciplinaire debat van KLV op 20 oktober.
Meer groen, minder ADHD maar alleen in arme buurten
Vries, S. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2672) - 2
aandachtstekort hyperactiviteitstoornis - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - milieu - openbaar groen - buurten - stadsomgeving - lagere klassen - sociaal-economische positie - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - children - child health - environment - public green areas - neighbourhoods - urban environment - lower classes - socioeconomic status
Er zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen dat groen in de woonomgeving goed is voor de gezondheid. Vooral het rustgevende en herstellende vermogen van contact met groen lijkt daarbij van belang. Voorbeelden uit onderzoek zijn: sneller herstel van een stressvolle gebeurtenis, beter concentratievermogen en meer zelfbeheersing. Het meeste onderzoek kijkt echter alleen naar volwassenen; onderzoek onder kinderen is relatief schaars. Een nieuwe studie heeftving gekeken naar de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeen het gebruik van ADHD-medicatie door kinderen.
Groen en gebruik ADHD-medicatie door kinderen : de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en de prevalentie van AD(H)D-medicatiegebruik bij 5- tot 12-jarigen
Vries, S. de; Verheij, R. ; Smeets, H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra 2672) - 23
kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - aandachtstekort hyperactiviteitstoornis - natuur - omgevingspsychologie - milieu - lichamelijke activiteit - welzijn - gezondheid - beweging - children - child health - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - nature - environmental psychology - environment - physical activity - well-being - health - movement
In deze studie is gekeken naar de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en het gebruik van ADHD-medicatie door kinderen. De gegevens over het medicijngebruik zijn afkomstig uit de Achmea Health Database. Uit deze database zijn kinderen die in 2011 tussen de 5 en 12 jaar waren, geselecteerd, ongeacht of ze ADHD-medicatie gebruikten of niet. Hieraan zijn middels de 6-positie postcode van het woonadres gegevens over het groen in de woonomgeving (250 m en 500 m) gekoppeld alsmede enkele buurtkenmerken. Van de 274.698 kinderen in de database waren voor 248.270 kinderen alle gegevens beschikbaar. De uitval werd voornamelijk veroorzaakt door tussentijdse verhuizingen. Middels multilevel logistische regressieanalyse is de relatie tussen de hoeveelheid groen in de woonomgeving en het al dan niet gebruiken van een ADHD-medicijn geanalyseerd.
Informatiedocument leefoppervlakte : relatie tussen welzijns- en milieuregelgeving
Ellen, H.H. ; Buisonje, F.E. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 849) - 27
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundvee - schapen - geiten - varkens - pluimvee - nerts - konijnen - huisvesting, dieren - milieu - wetgeving - biologische landbouw - milieuwetgeving - emissie - bodemoppervlak - animal welfare - animal production - cattle - sheep - goats - pigs - poultry - mink - rabbits - animal housing - environment - legislation - organic farming - environmental legislation - emission - floor area
Er is een nauwe relatie tussen het leefoppervlak per dier en de emissie van ammoniak. Over het algemeen geeft meer oppervlak een hogere emissie. Vanuit welzijnsregelgeving zijn veelal minimale oppervlaktes voorgeschreven. In de stalbeschrijvingen van de Rav worden ook eisen gesteld aan de oppervlakte per dier. In dit rapport worden voor de diverse diercategorieën de eisen voor leefoppervlakte vanuit de welzijnsregelgeving vergeleken met die in de stalbeschrijvingen. Een belangrijk aspect is daarbij de definitie van het begrip leefoppervlakte.
Kwaliteit van modellen voor wettelijke onderzoekstaken
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu - Wageningen UR (WOt-paper 38) - 4
kwaliteitsnormen - modellen - recht - natuur - milieu - landbouwwetenschappen - landschap - evaluatie - quality standards - models - law - nature - environment - agricultural sciences - landscape - evaluation
De unit Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu van Wageningen UR (WOT N&M) zet modellen, (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden en graadmeters in bij het beleidsgericht onderzoek voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Het gaat daarbij bijvoorbeeld om onderzoek voor de Natuurverkenningen, de Herijking van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur of de Evaluatie van het Mest- en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid. Om de kwaliteit van deze modellen en (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden te verbeteren en te borgen maakt de WOT N&M gebruik van een kwaliteitssysteem. In deze WOtpaper wordt dit kwaliteitssysteem toegelicht.
LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
NPK balans, N-verlies en beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Hoogland in 2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 886) - 24
rundvee - huisvesting van koeien - loopstallen - dierenwelzijn - stikstofkringloop - stikstof - vervluchtiging - bemesting - vergelijkingen - landbouw en milieu - stikstofverliezen - dierlijke productie - melkvee - milieu - cattle - cow housing - loose housing - animal welfare - nitrogen cycle - nitrogen - volatilization - fertilizer application - comparisons - agriculture and environment - nitrogen losses - animal production - dairy cattle - environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal zonder boxen en met een organische bedding. Een belangrijke reden voor deze overstap is het realiseren van een beter dierenwelzijn in de stal. Naast een beter dierenwelzijn heeft de overstap ook andere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het bedrijf. Stikstof (N) verdwijnt uit deze kringloop onder andere door vervluchtiging uit de stal, uit de mestopslag en na het uitrijden van mest op het land. N kan vervluchtigen in de vorm van ammoniak (NH3), lachgas (N2O), stikstofgas (N2) en overige stikstofoxiden (NOx). De vervluchtiging van ammoniak kan bijdragen aan verzuring en eutrofiëring van de natuur en vervluchtiging van lachgas aan opwarming van de aarde. De vervluchtiging van stikstofgas heeft geen directe negatieve effecten op de omgeving. Echter, door het verdwijnen van N uit de bedrijfskringloop moet er wel meer N op het bedrijf aangevoerd worden om de productiviteit van de bodem, de gewassen en de koeien op niveau te houden. Gebeurt dit met dierlijke mest of kunstmest, dan leidt dit alsnog tot een hogere milieubelasting. Gezien de bovenstaande consequenties is het wenselijk om de N-vervluchtiging op het melkveebedrijf zo laag mogelijk te houden. Om inzicht te krijgen in milieu- en productiviteitseffecten van de omschakeling van een ligboxenstal naar een vrijloopstal is het dus nodig om inzicht te krijgen in de hoeveelheid N die vervluchtigt uit de vrijloopstal en deze te vergelijken met de ligboxenstal. N vervluchtigt niet alleen uit de stal maar ook na het uitrijden van mest uit de stal op het land. Een stalsysteem met een relatief lage Nvervluchtiging direct uit de stal kan een relatief hoge N-vervluchtiging na mesttoediening hebben, en omgekeerd. Bij de ligboxenstal met productie van drijfmest wordt bijna de helft van de totale Nvervluchtiging (stal + land) na het emissiearm uitrijden van de mest op het land gerealiseerd (zie paragraaf 2.4). Om een meer volledig en betrouwbaar beeld te hebben van de N-vervluchtiging van een stalsysteem is het daarom gewenst om de N-vervluchtiging direct uit de stal en na mestaanwending gezamenlijk te beoordelen.
Institutional Arrangements for Conservation, Development and Tourism in Eastern and Southern Africa : A Dynamic Perspective
Duim, V.R. van der; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Wijk, J.J. van - \ 2015
Dordrecht : Springer Science - ISBN 9789401795296 - 265
geografie - milieu - sociale wetenschappen - recht - toerisme - geography - environment - social sciences - law - tourism
This book describes and analyzes six novel conservation arrangements in eastern and southern Africa, illustrating how tourism is increasingly used and promoted as a key mechanism for achieving conservation and development objectives outside state-protected areas.
Environmental Aesthetics. Crossing Divides and Breaking Ground
Drenthen, M. ; Keulartz, J. - \ 2014
New York : Fordham University Press (Groundworks : ecological issues in philosophy and theology ) - ISBN 9780823254507 - 272
milieufilosofie - esthetische waarde - ethiek - milieu - natuur - kunst - filosofie - environmental philosophy - aesthetic value - ethics - environment - nature - arts - philosophy
Environmental aesthetics crosses several commonly recognized divides: between analytic and continental philosophy, Eastern and Western traditions, universalizing and historicizing approaches, and theoretical and practical concerns. This volume sets out to show how these,perspectives can be brought into conversation with one another. The first part surveys the development of the field and discusses some important future directions. The second part explains how widening the scope of environmental aesthetics demands a continual rethinking of the relationship between aesthetics and other fields. How does environmental aesthetics relate to ethics? Does aesthetic appreciation of the environment entail an attitude of respect? What is the relationship between the theory and practice? The third part is devoted to the relationship between the aesthetics of nature and the aesthetics of art. Can art help “save the Earth”? The final part illustrates the emergence of practical applications from theoretical studies by focusing on concrete case studies.
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