Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Populatieanalyse Groninger Paard
Hoving, A.H. ; Vernooij, Kelly ; berg, Rozemarijn van den; Windig, Jack - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 40 (2015)4. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 18 - 19.
paardenrassen - nederland - fokdoelen - groninger paard - populaties - genetica - inteelt - verwantschap - genenbanken - horse breeds - netherlands - breeding aims - groningen horse - populations - genetics - inbreeding - kinship - gene banks
We prijzen Nederlandse paardenrassen zoals het Groninger paard niet alleen omdat ze onderdeel van ons cultuurhistorisch erfgoed zijn maar ook vanwege hun veelzijdigheid en betrouwbare karakter. Helaas is de populatie klein. Dan is een goed doordacht fokbeleid nodig voor het behoud van genetische diversiteit en een gezonde populatie
Selectie en genetische variatie in een fokprogramma
Oldenbroek, Kor ; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, Myrthe - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 40 (2015)4. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 14 - 17.
dierveredeling - veredelingsprogramma's - genetische variatie - selectie - zeldzame rassen - heritability - inteelt - verwantschap - groninger paard - animal breeding - breeding programmes - genetic variation - selection - rare breeds - inbreeding - kinship - groningen horse
In drie voorgaande artikelen in deze serie zijn achtereenvolgens het fokdoel, de registratie van gegevens en de basisprincipes van de erfelijkheid besproken. In dit laatste artikel wordt het belang van genetische variatie en de selectie van ouderdieren besproken. Twee belangrijke elementen in het fokprogramma van een zeldzaam ras.
Monitoring van de Nederlandse otterpopulatie
Groot, G.A. de - \ 2015
otters - populatie-ecologie - monitoring - genetische diversiteit - verwantschap - inteelt - natuurbeheer - wildbeheer - population ecology - genetic diversity - kinship - inbreeding - nature management - wildlife management
Sinds in 2002 een nieuwe populatie otters (Lutra lutra) in ons land werd uitgezet, heeft Alterra de status van deze populatie nauwgezet gevolgd. Nadat de eerste dieren waren gevolgd met behulp van zenders, werd overgestapt op non-invasive genetische monitoring via spraints (otteruitwerpselen). Op deze manier kunnen de dieren langer worden gevolgd en kunnen meer dieren tegelijk worden gevolgd met beperkte kosten. Sinds juli 2002 werden meer dan vijfduizend spraints verzameld en geanalyseerd in het lab, ter bepaling van een genetisch profiel. Op basis daarvan kon een stamboom worden gemaakt, die uitwees dat slechts een klein deel van de aanwezige mannen verantwoordelijk was voor een groot deel van het nageslacht (sterke dominantie). De verwantschap tussen dieren, en daarmee het inteelt-niveau, loopt op. Dit is een belangrijk signaal dat voor de Nederlandse populatie ‘vers bloed’ nodig is, ofwel via aanvullende introducties, of door uitwisseling tussen populaties tot stand te brengen.
Verwantschap en inteelt bij de Groninger blaarkop
Oldenbroek, K. ; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. - \ 2015
Zeldzaam huisdier 40 (2015)3. - ISSN 0929-905X - p. 18 - 19.
rundvee - melkproductie - vleesproductie - groninger blaarkop - rassen (dieren) - dubbel-doel rassen - verwantschap - inteelt - zeldzame rassen - nageslachtproductie - rundveerassen - cattle - milk production - meat production - groningen white headed - breeds - dual purpose breeds - kinship - inbreeding - rare breeds - progeny production - cattle breeds
Sinds de vorming van de rundveestamboeken in 1874 wordt de
Groninger blaarkop als een apart ras beschouwd. Van oudsher werd
het ras voornamelijk gefokt in Groningen en in Zuid- en Noord-
Holland als een echt dubbeldoelras: geschikt voor melk- en vleesproductie.
Hoe staat het ras er nu voor qua verwantschap en inteelt?
Inteelt-scanner voor rashonden
Windig, Jack - \ 2015
breeds - animal genetics - kinship - animal breeding - dogs - animal health - animal welfare - genetic disorders - pets
Inteelt en verwantschapsbeheer mogelijkheden nieuwe software
Windig, Jack - \ 2014
inbreeding - genetic disorders - dogs - kinship - animal welfare - animal breeding methods - computer software - domestic animals - pets
Roodbont Fries vee : adviezen voor opzetten fokprogramma
Haas, Y. de; Windig, J.J. ; Hoorneman, J.N. ; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR, Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN) (CGN Rapport / Centrum voor Genetische Bronnen Nederland (CGN) 20) - 26
friese roodbonte - genetische variatie - rassen (dieren) - dierveredeling - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - conservering op het bedrijf - verwantschap - inteelt - dutch red pied friesian - genetic variation - breeds - animal breeding - animal genetic resources - on-farm conservation - kinship - inbreeding
Het doel van dit onderzoek richt zich op het in kaart brengen van de demografische en genetische situatie van het Roodbont Fries Vee en het aandragen van bouwstenen voor een goed genetisch beheer. Aansluitende analyses zijn uitgevoerd om de haalbaarheid van een fundamentfokkerij in kaart te brengen. De demografische analyse gaf aan dat het aantal raszuivere Fries Roodbonten sterk is afgenomen sinds 1986. Momenteel worden er jaarlijks slechts 60 raszuivere Fries Roodbonte kalveren geboren. Dit heeft dan direct een impact op de genetische verwantschappen in de populatie. Om die goed in kaart te brengen, is het noodzakelijk dat de stamboom toch zeker minimaal 3 generaties teruggaat. Het absolute inteeltniveau van de populatie is te hoog. Door dit hoge niveau kunnen erfelijke gebreken de kop opsteken. Om het inteeltniveau in de populatie te beheersen is het belangrijk om een breed palet aan stieren in te zetten. Uit de analyses ten aanzien van de fundamentfokkerij blijkt dat er wel bedrijven aan te wijzen zijn die nauwelijks aan elkaar verwant zijn. Helaas weten wij niet welke bedrijven dat zijn, aangezien er geanonimiseerde data is geanalyseerd. Voor fundamenten is het vooral belangrijk dat de veehouders binnen dit fundament overeenstemming hebben over het eigen fokdoel. Verder moeten de onverwante dieren in verschillende fundamenten zitten om zo de diversiteit tussen de fundamenten zo veel mogelijk te behouden.
Botrytis-soorten op bloembolgewassen
Staats, M. ; Kan, J. van - \ 2010
Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 248 - 249.
plantenziekten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - botrytis - genetische merkers - bloembollen - verwantschap - waardplanten - voortplanting - genetische diversiteit - plant diseases - plant pathogenic fungi - genetic markers - ornamental bulbs - kinship - host plants - reproduction - genetic diversity
De onderlinge verwantschap en populatie-opbouw van Botrytis-soorten is onderzocht met moleculaire merkers. Er bleek geen relatie te bestaan tussen de verwantschap van de schimmels en hun waardplantsoort. Botrytis-soorten die ‘vuur’ kunnen veroorzaken in bolgewassen planten zich verschillend voort: Botrytis elliptica seksueel en Botrytis tulipae aseksueel. Twee eiwitten die in alle Botrytis-soorten voorkomen bleken in Botrytis elliptica niet essentieel te zijn voor virulentie op lelie.
Differences in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle with high and low genetic merit
Engelsma, K.A. ; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Calus, M.P.L. ; Windig, J.J. - \ 2010
zwartbont - genetische diversiteit - fokwaarde - melkproductie - afkomst - verwantschap - single nucleotide polymorphism - moleculaire merkers - holstein-friesian - genetic diversity - breeding value - milk production - ancestry - kinship - molecular markers
Evaluations of genetic diversity in Holstein cattle based on pedigree data, indicate a decrease in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle, because of a lower effective population size and a higher relatedness compared to other cattle breeds. However, pedigree based diversity reflects only the overall genetic diversity, while for specific regions on the genome the genetic diversity might be completely different. The objective in this study was to compare genetic diversity across the genome between Holstein cattle with high and low genetic merit for milk production, using pedigree information and SNP data.
Gender, AIDS and food security : culture and vulnerability in rural Côte d'Ivoire
Maiga, M.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser; Anke Niehof. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857891 - 199
acquired immune deficiency syndrome - voedselzekerheid - cultuur - plattelandsvrouwen - sociologie - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - verwantschap - relaties - ivoorkust - afrika - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - food security - culture - rural women - sociology - female labour - rural population - socioeconomics - kinship - relationships - cote d'ivoire - africa - gender - livelihood strategies
The household responsibility system and social change in rural Guizhou, China: applying a cohort approach
Yuan, J. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hester Moerbeek. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856047 - 255
sociologie - rurale sociologie - landbouwhuishoudens - sociale verandering - markteconomieën - verwantschap - china - zuidwestelijk china - guizhou - economische verandering - gedrag van huishoudens - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - sociology - rural sociology - agricultural households - social change - market economies - kinship - south western china - economic change - household behaviour - livelihood strategies
Since the introduction of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, Chinese rural households have experienced many changes. The HRS allows farming households to organize their own agricultural production on contracted lands, enabling them to work more efficiently and get more benefits compared to during the collective era. Since the market liberation, the number of enterprises that can absorb the surplus labour has increased, and many men migrate to earn cash. This entails changes in gender roles in the rural areas, leading to feminization of agriculture and women becoming de facto household heads. Household landholding, land use and livelihoods are changing and social stratification is becoming more pronounced. As a consequence, farming households’ needs for agricultural extension are increasingly diverse and can no longer be accommodated by traditional top-down extension. The changes since the implementation of the HRS provide the opportunity to study the interrelationships of household, gender, livelihood and social change in rural China.
This research aimed to identify the changes in the farming household, gender roles, and rural livelihoods since the implementation of the Household Responsibility System (HRS) in 1978, to understand the heterogeneous household land use practices in the context of diversified livelihood portfolios, and to provide policy recommendations for agricultural technology extension. This research aimed to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the changes in farming households after the HRS, in terms of household structure, composition, size, sources of income and livelihood (including land use), and gender roles?
2. What are the changes in the household, gender roles, livelihood, and land use strategies and their impacts on rural society?
3. How can agricultural extension policies better accommodate the increasing heterogeneity of farming households, particularly regarding household land use?

This research was conducted in the municipality of Kaizuo, located in the southern part of the province of Guizhou, China. The municipality has 37 villages. The field work was done from August 2007 to October 2008. The researcher could also use earlier working experience in the same area. The study used a life course approach and the livelihood framework. The main research methods were cohort analysis, key informant interviews, household survey, focus group discussions (FGDs), case study and participant observation. Secondary data collection was used to describe the research area. The major findings of this research are summarized below.
Before 1978, many rural households had food shortage problems. They only worked on the collective land and had no decision-making power about land use. Food distribution was organized according to labour contribution (work points) to the collective production. About half of the households had to borrow food from the collective. The households were rather similar in terms of physical, financial, social and environmental resources. People’s education level was low and most marriages were arranged. The houses were small and poorly built. People helped each other in many activities, e.g. house construction, in return for food. There were few products in the market and there was only one cooperative shop in the municipality that sold daily necessities. Coupons were required if you wanted to buy goods there, but these were allocated to each person according to a certain ratio and their number was very limited. There were no tap water and there were only dirt roads. Most households used firewood for fuel and did not have electricity. The main income came from agricultural production and few skilled villagers, all men, did sideline activities for the collective. Skilled persons were entitled to more food. Agricultural extension was top-down, through village leaders and extension workers. Men and women did not get equal work points, since men were involved in activities that earned more points, such as ploughing and skilled work.
Since the implementation of the HRS, the household size has become smaller and the younger people are better educated. Young couples started to go out to earn cash, leaving their children with the grandparents. Income sources have become more diversified. Migration is very common for the younger people and off-farm circulation is common among middle-aged persons. Only aged persons now depend on land only. Villagers run small shops and a small mine factory, work in the transportation business or trade, sell wild vegetables and medicinal herbs. Most of the money made is not from agriculture. More money comes from animal husbandry, migration and off-farm work. People have extra food to sell because of higher yields from the land and fewer mouths at home. Traders come to buy non-timber forest products, resources that are valuable for women, aged persons, and children. Land is rented to others to cultivate because migration causes labour shortage. More cash crops are cultivated.
Women and men are now more equal ideologically. Younger wives are active in agricultural production and have to do many activities in the field them¬selves or get help from the parents-in-law. Women prefer to cultivate more diversified crops. Men are more interested in cultivating staple food or cash crops and they prefer to get money from non-agricultural sources. It is common that who does the job, makes the decisions relating to it. The home garden is the women’s domain. Aged couples usually work together, according to a rigid division of labour that is not found among young couples anymore. Newly married couples spend more time on child care and less on agriculture. The daughter-in-law is now more power¬ful than the mother-in-law and can make her own decisions, even if the older woman works harder.
In economic terms, most households are medium-level households. House¬holds that rely only on their land and agriculture are not rich. For rich house¬holds the land is not so important anymore, although they hold on to it. For such house¬holds agriculture production is a sideline activity. Most medium-level house¬holds diversify land use and cultivate more cash crops. Poorest households are not good at land management and only cultivate a limited number of crops. Only few households that have little land want to give up the land to earn money by migration. Most people, however, want to come back to farming some day, when they are too old for migration. The households of late 1980s and 1990s cohorts have the most difficult time because they have to pay for the children’s higher education. The situation is easier for the households of the 2000s cohort, whose children are younger, and who prefer to work outside to earn cash for the children’s upbringing and future. Some households do not migrate and are engaged in intensive cultivation, trading, or transportation. For them, cash crops are important. The households of the 1970s and early 1980s cohorts are usually involved in circulation. They can use the money they earn from this, and what their children send them, for inputs in agricultural production. They can employ labourers to work for them in the busy season and are eager to increase their knowledge about land management. They prefer to cultivate more diversified food for own consumption. But they have a heavy burden, taking care of grandchildren and their children’s land.
Younger cohorts prefer to migrate or have a business of their own, and do not pay much attention to agriculture. They give the land to their parents to manage or rent it out to others. Older cohorts stick to agriculture and animal husbandry and only do circulation. They rent land to cultivate, even though it is not very profitable. They are not accepted as workers by factories, so they have to stay at home to work in agriculture. Some mentioned that they would like to work in the factory to earn more money, but most still prefer to work in the field. They use agricultural products to feed their animals and earn cash from selling animals.
Migration causes serious labour shortage in agricultural production. Nowadays, help in return for food is decreasing and money-rewarded employ¬¬ment is on the increase. It is now difficult for the village to organize community activities. Nobody wants to be a village leader, because of the time it takes. At the same time, the mutual help between neighbours, relatives and friends plays an important role in the migration process. The women left behind make decisions in many fields. The number of de facto female-headed households is increasing. Migrants bring new ideas to rural society, thereby opening it up. Cases of land being abandoned occur more frequently than in former times. Villagers now enjoy better living conditions and have more leisure time. Compared to the older generation, the younger people have more time to relax. Aged persons still work hard, because they have to look after grandchildren left with them, in addition to working on the farm. Differences in income between farming households have not become much larger in the past twenty years, but liveli¬hood strategies are more diverse and social and occupational stratification is increasing.
The channels for the transfer of new agricultural technologies are mainly relatives, friends and neighbours. Only a few people get information from the extension workers. The shop keeper is an important figure in providing the villagers with information on agricultural technologies. The older couples are the main agricultural producers, and they have a lot of experience. Younger couples put more effort into migration and their agricultural skills are limited. However, they easily adopt new technologies. The government’s extension service cannot very well meet the diversified need for agricultural technology. Labour shortages and feminization of agriculture caused by migration create a need for labour-saving technologies and appropriate technologies for women. Extension activities should pay more attention to the older cohorts who are the main agricultural producers.

Inteelt, verwantschappen en consequenties van inteelt
Windig, Jack - \ 2008
poultry - fowls - quails - sheep - inbreeding - inbreeding depression - crossing - genetics - breeds - genetic diversity - kinship - swifter sheep
Female livelihoods and agrarian changes in Indonesia
Oosterhout, D.W.J.H. van - \ 2006
social anthropology - food - social structure - kinship - relationships - society - feeding habits - behaviour - south east asia
"Entre acá y allá' : vidas transnacionales y desarrollo Peruanos entre Italia y Perú
Tamagno, C. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9058089495 - 380
sociale antropologie - rurale sociologie - migratie - migranten - levensomstandigheden - cultuur - verwantschap - gezinnen - nederzetting - peru - italië - social anthropology - rural sociology - migration - migrants - living conditions - culture - kinship - families - settlement - italy
Conservation of genetic diversity : assessing genetic variation using marker estimated kinships
Eding, H. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.W. Brascamp; T.H.E. Meuwissen. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085566 - 119
genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen van diersoorten - genetische variatie - conservering - verwantschap - merkergenen - microsatellieten - rassen (dieren) - kwantitatieve genetica - genetic diversity - animal genetic resources - genetic variation - conservation - kinship - marker genes - microsatellites - breeds - quantitative genetics
<p>This dissertation focuses on assessing genetic diversity in a quantitative way through the use of Malecots coefficients of kinship. Kinships between and within populations and individuals can be estimated using microsatellite marker genes that are assumed to be selectively neutral.</p><p>Genetic diversity is estimated from such Marker Estimated Kinships (MEK) by (1 - average (MEK)), where genetic diversity of a set of breeds is defined as the maximum genetic variation in a population that can be bred from this set of breeds. The concept of core sets is applied to livestock genetic diversity and a new measure of genetic diversity present in a set of breeds, based on the mean kinship within a core set, is developed. Log-linear (mixed) models can be used to simultaneously estimate kinships and the probability for alleles alike in state (AIS). Error variance of the kinship estimates may lead to populations that have incorrectly received a null-contribution. An analysis of a data set concerning African cattle populations, using the developed methods is described. Effects of conservation by breed type or regional versus continental conservation are examined, in terms of efficiency of conservation and changes of priorities of breeds.</p>
Kinship structures and enterprising actors: Anthropological essays on development
Andersson, J.A. ; Breusers, M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064643873 - 322
antropologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - gezinnen - verwantschap - man-vrouwrelaties - ontwikkelingslanden - platteland - landbouwontwikkeling - anthropology - development studies - families - kinship - gender relations - developing countries - rural areas - agricultural development
Het belang van een expliciet gezinsbeleid
Hoog, C. de - \ 2000
Bevolking en Gezin 29 (2000)2. - ISSN 0772-764X - p. 141 - 156.
gezinnen - beleid - verwantschap - huishoudens - gezinsleven - sociaal beleid - nederland - families - policy - kinship - households - family life - social policy - netherlands
In dit artikel wordt een beschrijving en een verklaring gegeven van het gezinsbeleid in Nederland
Ouderen, zorg en welzijn: een pleidooi voor een vergelijkende benadering. (Elderly, care and well-being: a plea for a comparative approach).
Niehof, A. - \ 1997
Medische Antropologie 9 (1997)1. - ISSN 0925-4374 - p. 7 - 22.
ouderen - geriatrie - sociaal welzijn - sociale zekerheid - sociologie - verwantschap - gezinnen - gezinsleven - gezinsstructuur - sociale antropologie - cultuur - cultuursociologie - sociale voorzieningen - welzijnsvoorzieningen - ouderdom - wereld - sociale zorg - sociale problemen - welzijn - sociaal onderzoek - vergelijkend onderzoek - sociaal werk - elderly - geriatrics - social welfare - social security - sociology - kinship - families - family life - family structure - social anthropology - culture - cultural sociology - social services - welfare services - old age - world - social care - social problems - well-being - social research - comparative research - social work
Als gevolg van bevolkingsveroudering, optredend in zowel westerse als niet~westerse samenlevingen, treden er structurele veranderingen op in de aanratsverhoudingen tussen de verschillende leeftijdsgroepen. Dit is van invloed op het welzijn en de positie van ouderen. Het mondiale karakter van dit verschijnsel nodigt uit tot het hanteren van een vergelijkende benadering bij de bestudering ervan. Hiermee wordt geenDurkheimiaanse sociale morfologie van hele maatschappijen bedoeld, maar een vergelijking op het niveau van relevante instituties. In dit geval: huishouden, familie en verwantschap. De gevarieerde sociale en culturele context waarbinnen deze instituties functioneren, vertoont enkele voor vergrijzende samenlevingen specifieke kenmerken, zoals het ontstaan van een 'derde leeftijd(-sfase)'. De vergelijkende benadering zoafs hier voorgesleid vereist her terzijde schuiven van een aantal binaire opposities, zoals traditioneel tegenover modem, wesiers regenover niet-westers, publiek tegenover privé, en antropologie tegenover sociologie, omdat deze zijn voortgekomen uit een inmiddels verouderd moderniseringsparadigma. Zij vertroebelen in plaats van verhelderen onze blik. In de uitwerking van deze vergelijkende benadering voor het thema van ouderen en welzijn wordt met name aandacht besteedt aan de rol van verwantse/tapsrelaties en aan processen en typen van zorgverlening.
De complexe verhoudingen tussen familie en bedrijf in de landbouw. Nieuwe lijnen voor toekomstig onderzoek. (The complexity between family and farm).
Klaver, L. ; Zwart, S. - \ 1996
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 134) - ISBN 9789067544825 - 82
particuliere landbouwbedrijven - familiebedrijven, landbouw - sociologie - verwantschap - gezinnen - plattelandsplanning - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale economie - economische planning - private farms - family farms - sociology - kinship - families - rural planning - rural development - socioeconomics - economic planning
Gezin terug van weggeweest. Over de noodzaak van modern gezinsbeleid.
Hoog, C. de - \ 1996
DEMOS - BULLETIN OVER BEVOLKING EN SAMENLEVING 12 (1996)9. - ISSN 0169-1473 - p. 69 - 72.
gezinnen - huishoudens - verwantschap - nederland - sociaal beleid - sociaal welzijn - sociologie - statistiek - families - households - kinship - netherlands - social policy - social welfare - sociology - statistics
Beschouwing over de ontwikkelingen in Nederland sinds de Tweede Wereldoorlog m.b.t. het gezin, en de gevolgen voor het gezinsbeleid
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