Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America
Pashaei Kamali, F. - \ 2015
University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Miranda Meuwissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576087 - 219
bedrijfseconomie - rundvleesproductie - sojabonen - economische productie - agro-industriële ketens - veehouderijbedrijven - economie van de veehouderij - brazilië - latijns-amerika - business economics - beef production - soyabeans - economic production - agro-industrial chains - livestock enterprises - livestock economics - brazil - latin america

Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America

The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef production chains in a LA-EU context was carried out. Sustainability issues were found to vary across stakeholders’ interests. Next, the environmental and economic performance of four feeding strategies for beef production in southern Brazil were evaluated. Results showed that improved pasture is a promising system as it results in the best environmental and economic performance. Furthermore, the environmental, economic, and social performance of genetically modified (GM), non-genetically modified (non-GM), and organic soybean production was evaluated by capturing the uncertainty of key parameters. Results revealed that none of these systems performed best for all sustainability issues evaluated. Multi-criteria assessment (MCA) has the capability of giving a single overall score per system by aggregating sustainability scores using relative importance weights provided by stakeholders. The results showed that there is potential to use expert elicitation as an alternative to extensive data rich methods. The simulation results showed a higher variation for the organic soybean production system compared to GM and non-GM.

Beter benutten van eigen gewas maakt import soja overbodig
Sanders, Johan - \ 2014
protein plants - protein foods - protein sources - soyabean oilmeal - soya protein - regional specialty products - grasses - biorefinery - sustainability - imports - european union countries - netherlands - usa - latin america

In de jaren vijftig gold de boer nog als een ‘achterlijke lomperik’, die via speciale streekverbeteringsprogramma’s de twintigste eeuw ingeloodst moest worden. Nu boeren agrarische ondernemers zijn geworden, overheerst de nostalgie naar het landleven in de jaren vijftig.

Global asessment of manure management policies and practices
Teenstra, E.D. ; Vellinga, Th.V. ; Aktasaeng, N. ; Amatayaku, W. ; Ndambi, A. ; Pelster, D. ; Germer, L. ; Jenet, A. ; Opio, C. ; Andeweg, K. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 844) - 33
mestbeleid - dierlijke meststoffen - veehouderij - best management practices - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - azië - afrika - latijns-amerika - manure policy - animal manures - livestock farming - integrated farming systems - asia - africa - latin america
The Livestock and Manure Management Component (LMMC) of the CCAC Agriculture Initiative supports integrated manure management practices by increasing knowledge and awareness, removing barriers to action and enhancing practice change. This Global Assessment report provides an overview of manure policies and an in-depth assessment of on-farm manure management practices in three regions: Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Dignity for the Voiceless; Willem Assies's Anthropological Work in Context
Salman, T. ; Martí i Puig, S. ; Haar, G. van der - \ 2014
New York/Oxford : Berghahn (Cedla Latin America studies vol. 103) - ISBN 9781782382928
politieke bewegingen - sociale structuur - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - etniciteit - politiek - overheidsbeleid - regering - beleid - andes - landbouw - inheemse volkeren - bolivia - peru - latijns-amerika - political movements - social structure - social anthropology - ethnic groups - ethnicity - politics - government policy - government - policy - agriculture - indigenous people - latin america
In 2010, Willem Assies, an astute and prolific Latin Americanist and political anthropologist, died unexpectedly, at the age of 55. This book brings together some of his writings. Assies would always gave central stage to the collective and multi-layered actor and not the system — but he would constantly do so within the context of restrictions, pressures, conditioning factors and contradictions, to provide the actor with a real setting of operation.
Aguas Robadas: despojo hídrico y movilización social
Arroyo, A. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2013
Quito : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP) (Agua y sociedad : Sección justicia hídrica 19) - ISBN 9789942091543 - 391
waterbeheer - waterbeleid - recht - waterrechten - politieke bewegingen - duurzame ontwikkeling - justitie - wetgeving - latijns-amerika - ontwikkelingslanden - wereld - water management - water policy - law - water rights - political movements - sustainable development - justice - legislation - latin america - developing countries - world
Essays on microfinance in Latin America
Servin Juarez, R. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Marrit van den Berg. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734082 - 196
microfinanciering - ontwikkelingseconomie - instellingen - banken - rurale welzijnszorg - armoede - huishoudens - latijns-amerika - microfinance - development economics - institutions - banks - rural welfare - poverty - households - latin america

In the early 1970s, microfinance came to public attention as a promising tool to reduce poverty. However, some people began to claim that microcredit is unsuitable for sustainable development. Nevertheless, the lack of scientific support for both viewpoints has created a need for empirical studies to disentangle whether microfinance interventions should be implemented, and if so, how. The objective of this thesis is to provide evidence on the role of microfinance in Latin America, with a particular emphasis on Mexico. The main innovation of this study is the focus on four topics that have thus far received relatively little attention. Firstly, the relationship between efficiency and the ownership structure of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Latin America is investigated. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Cooperative/Credit Unions are found to be less technically efficient and have an inferior technology relative to Banks and Non-Banks Financial Intermediaries (NBFIs). Secondly, this study assesses five different microfinance programs on household welfare in Mexico. The findings reveal that savings-oriented microfinance programs outperform programs that primarily offer microcredit, in reducing poverty. Thirdly, the impact of microfinance on vulnerability to poverty is analyzed. The results of this analysis show that membership in a savings and credit society in Mexico improves the well-being of households and reduces their vulnerability. Finally, the impact of the loan officer’s characteristics on determining repayment rates in microfinance is examined. The main outcome suggests that the gender of the loan officer and his/her professional experience are important determinants of repayment rates. Further conclusions are that loan officers who work longer in Pro Mujer have higher default probabilities and that peer monitoring of group members is not a significant determinant of loan default.

Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba
Curry Machado, J.M. - \ 2011
New York : Palgrave Macmillan - ISBN 9780230111394 - 278
cuba - latijns-amerika - geschiedenis - agrarische geschiedenis - suikerindustrie - suiker - beplantingen - migranten - migrantenarbeid - interraciale relaties - immigranten - ontwikkeling - technologie - innovatie adoptie - industrialisatie - stoommachines - slavernij - agrarische handel - latin america - history - agricultural history - sugar industry - sugar - plantations - migrants - migrant labour - race relations - immigrants - development - technology - innovation adoption - industrialization - steam engines - slavery - agricultural trade
Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's growing economic dependency, privileged scapegoats unconsciously caught up in the island's political insecurities. This book tells the story of a group of forgotten migrant workers who anonymously contributed to Cuba's development and whose experience helps illuminate both the advance of the Cuban sugar industry and the processes by which the island was bound into global commodity-driven networks of control, dependency, and resistance.
Justicia Hídrica: acumulación, conflicto y acción social
Boelens, R.A. ; Cremers, L. ; Zwarteveen, M.Z. - \ 2011
Impreso en Perú : Justicia Hídrica, IEP Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Fondo Editorial PUCP (Serie Agua y sociedad : Sección justicia hidrica ) - ISBN 9789972513121 - 476
watervoorraden - toegangsrecht - water - conflict - sociologie - waterbeheer - overheidsbeleid - liberalisatie - justitie - maatschappelijk middenveld - latijns-amerika - water resources - right of access - sociology - water management - government policy - liberalization - justice - civil society - latin america
'Acompañarnos contentos con la familia' : unidad, diferencia y conflicto entre los Nükak (Amazonia colombiana)
Franky Calvo, C.E. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): Pieter de Vries; Gerard Verschoor. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859475 - 283
etnografie - jagers en verzamelaars - inheemse volkeren - amazonia - colombia - latijns-amerika - conflict - uitsterven - sociale structuur - ethnography - hunters and gatherers - indigenous people - latin america - extinction - social structure
The Nükak are a people of hunters and gatherers in the Colombian Amazon who call themselves Nükak baka', which can be translated as ‘the true people’. More than a name, this denomination designates a shared moral and political project that enables this people to reproduce themselves materially and socially, to guide their individual conduct, to perpetuate and fertilize the cosmos and to steer their relationships with the other peoples of the universe. In this sense this project constitutes a biopolitics, or to put it differently, it is a politics oriented toward the creation and defense of life. This thesis, therefore, is an ethnographic research about what it means for the Nükak to live as a ‘true people’. It shows that such a common project constitutes above all a set of practices that is continuously being actualized, both in terms of individual conduct as well as in terms of collective interactions and activities. These become materialized in aspects such as the preservation of the environment and the construction, and care, of the body. For that reason living as ‘true people’ is neither a given condition nor a status that once attained can be maintained until death. Being an incomplete process, for the Nükak the constitution of ‘true people’ is continuously under threat. This means that their reproduction and the continuity of the universe is always at risk. These threats originate in actions, emotions and amoral attitudes of the Nükak themselves, or of other beings in the cosmos, which express themselves in situations such as illness or inter-personal conflicts. As a result the everyday life of this group unfolds within a continuous tension between the actualization of the project of constituting ‘true people’ and the threat of biological and social extinction, even the destruction of the cosmos. From a different perspective, this thesis is concerned with practices of ‘living together’, of accompanying each other, of sharing, of establishing kin relations in order to strengthen the common, and of finding out what they have in common. It is also about how to deal with possible sources of division. Finally, the thesis sets out to show how this group actualizes a sense of unity and diversity that enables them to create Nükak baka, i.e. ‘true people’, thus articulating differences without denying them. In order to develop these topics, the thesis explores the major features of the project of creating, and living as, ‘true people’, as well as a number of strategies and mechanisms (or social dispositifs) that the Nükak have generated for its actualization. It also examines the ontological and mythical bearings, going back to the times of the creation of the cosmos, which enables us to understand, from the perspective of the Nükak, with what peoples and beings they are interacting. In this sense the thesis contributes to the actualization of basic ethnographic information and elaborates on Nükak’s theories and practices concerning social life, the body, notions of the person, relations between kin, relations with other peoples and beings in the cosmos, shamanism, and narratives about the experiences of the ancestors who form part of their historical memory. This thesis also contributes to the documentation of the impact of the armed conflict in Colombia on the Nükak, clarifying the heterogeneity and complexity of the circumstances that have led to the forced displacement of different groups of Nükak, as well as the institutional and media attention that these groups have received.
Sustainability indicators, alternative strategies and trade-offs in peasant agroecosystems : analysing 15 case studies from Latin America
Astier, M. ; Speelman, E.N. ; López-Ridaura, S. ; Masera, O.R. ; Gonzalez-Esquivel, C.E. - \ 2011
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9 (2011)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 409 - 422.
agro-ecosystemen - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - alternatieve landbouw - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gevalsanalyse - latijns-amerika - agroecosystems - peasant farming - alternative farming - sustainability indicators - sustainability - case studies - latin america - agricultural sustainability - developing-countries - framework - systems - biodiversity - methodology - landscapes - poverty - lessons
In view of the urgent need to improve agroecosystem sustainability, several efforts have been made to evaluate the effect of alternative strategies on key environmental and socioeconomic variables at the farm, community and regional levels. Most peasant farmers manage complex and diverse agroecosystems, and constantly adapt management strategies with multiple aims. A sustainability evaluation framework for peasant systems has been applied in over 40 case studies in Latin America, from which 15 were analysed, focusing on the choice of indicators, the effect of alternative strategies on agroecosystem sustainability and the trade-offs involved. Common indicators include yields, income, agrodiversity and external input dependence. Alternative strategies include crop/product diversification and soil conservation practices. Yields, income and agrodiversity improved in most cases, but in some cases the establishment costs increased external input use. Trade-offs observed include improved performance of a subsystem (i.e. crops) vs. decreased one in others (livestock, forestry) and increases in productivity vs. decreases in stability, resilience and reliability. The difficulty of assessing systems in transition towards alternative management was acknowledged by some evaluation teams. Applying the framework to such a vartiety of cases allowed making the sustainability concept operational, promoted alternatieve strategies and generated knowledge on agroecosystem processes among stakeholders.
Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity
Boelens, R.A. ; Getches, D. ; Guevara-Gil, A. - \ 2010
London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844076765 - 366
watervoorziening - watervoorraden - ontwikkeling van hulpbronnen - politiek - cultuur - gevalsanalyse - eigendomsrechten - latijns-amerika - andesgroep - waterrechten - identiteit - staat - inheemse volkeren - geslacht (gender) - water supply - water resources - resource development - politics - culture - case studies - property rights - latin america - andean group - water rights - identity - state - indigenous people - gender
Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current normative frameworks. These issues become even more challenging when law and policy-makers and dominant power groups try to grasp, contain and handle them in multicultural societies. The struggles over the uses, meanings and appropriation of water are especially well-illustrated in Andean communities and local water systems of Peru, Chile, Ecuador, and Bolivia, as well as in Native American communities in south-western USA. The problem is that throughout history, these nation-states have attempted to 'civilize' and bring into the mainstream the different cultures and peoples within their borders instead of understanding 'context' and harnessing the strengths and potentials of diversity. This book examines the multi-scale struggles for cultural justice and socio-economic re-distribution that arise as Latin American communities and user federations seek access to water resources and decision-making power regarding their control and management. It is set in the dynamic context of unequal, globalizing power relations, politics of scale and identity, environmental encroachment and the increasing presence of extractive industries that are creating additional pressures on local livelihoods. While much of the focus of the book is on the Andean Region, a number of comparative chapters are also included. These address issues such as water rights and defence strategies in neighboring countries and those of Native American people in the southern USA, as well as state reform and multi-culturalism across Latin and Native America and the use of international standards in struggles for indigenous water rights. This book shows that, against all odds, people are actively contesting neoliberal globalization and water power plays. In doing so, they construct new, hybrid water rights systems, livelihoods, cultures and hydro-political networks, and dynamically challenge the mainstream powers and politics.
Learning from Carchi: agricultural modernisation and the production of decline
Sherwood, S.G. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling; Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): D.C. Cole. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853169 - 286
landbouwontwikkeling - boeren - boerenorganisaties - leren - innovatie adoptie - innovaties - landbouwhervorming - aardappelen - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecuador - latijns-amerika - landbouwvoorlichting - kennis van boeren - sociaal leren - agricultural development - farmers - farmers' associations - learning - innovation adoption - innovations - agrarian reform - potatoes - integrated pest management - sustainability - latin america - agricultural extension - farmers' knowledge - social learning
Provided its natural endowments, generally educated rural population, infrastructure and market access to two countries, the Province of Carchi, located in the northernmost highlands of Ecuador, is potentially one of the most productive agriculture regions in the Andes. In the 1960s development experts and the government targeted the region as a model for agricultural modernisation. Following land reform and rapid organisation around industrial era technologies, potato farming in Carchi boomed during the 1970s, evolving to dominate the landscape and become the major source of livelihoods in the province. By the early 1980s, Carchi came to produce nearly half the national potato harvest on less than a quarter of the country’s area dedicated to the crop. In the early1990s, however, production and productivity began to fall off, leading a growing number of rural families in Carchi to fall into debt and abandon potato farming. The research reported here is the outcome of the author’s ten years of research and development practice in Carchi with the International Potato Center, the FAO’s Global IPM Facility, and World Neighbors. It reflects unfolding experience with different phases of hope, discovery, and ambition. Many aspects of the experience have been published elsewhere (see Appendix A). The resulting dissertation is not a case study in the sense of a case that tests a hypothesis. It is a monograph that attempts to produce a single coherent story over seemingly unrelated events, focusing on a second-generation problem: despite a decade of highly rigorous, scientific research on the pathologies of Carchi and multiple public demonstrations of feasible alternatives, little significant change was achieved.
In fear of abandonment : slum life, community leaders and politics in Recife, Brazil
Koster, M. - \ 2009
University. Promotor(en): Th. Blom Hansen, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten; Pieter de Vries. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852971 - 356
sociologie - sociale antropologie - steden - stedelijke gebieden - armoede - economisch achtergestelden - buurten - sociale structuur - stedelijke samenleving - stedelijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - leiderschap - politiek - stadsontwikkeling - brazilië - latijns-amerika - sociology - social anthropology - towns - urban areas - poverty - economically disadvantaged - neighbourhoods - social structure - urban society - urban population - communities - leadership - politics - urban development - brazil - latin america
This book sets out to contribute to the pursuit of ‘making nonpersons full human beings’
(Boff & Boff:1987:8). It provides insights in the lives of residents of the slum of “Chão de
Estrelas” in Recife, Brazil. I argue that slum dwellers should not be mystified and
misrecognised as “the other”, as different from “normal” citizens, because of their
marginalised position. I show that the slum is, in fact, an eminently knowable world.
This book presents how slum dwellers, directed by local lideres comunitarios, community
leaders, strive for material and intangible resources and engage in utopian projects. I
argue that the needs and aspirations of these people, who are at constant risk of being
ignored, disconnected, and abandoned, emerge from their yearnings for recognition and
connectivity, and a fear of abandonment. To understand this life in the slum, I focus on
the ways slum dwellers attempt to realise their needs and aspirations, modes of
operating which I call “slum politics”.
Chapter 1 defines slum politics as grounded in the needs and aspirations of those
who live in the margins. Drawing on the work of Oscar Lewis (1959, 1965), it analyses
how life in the slum, through stigmatisation and a long history of marginalisation, is
reproduced in ways that are fundamentally different from middle- and upper-class
people. This difference, expressed in particular needs and aspirations, is not generated
because slum dwellers are a different kind of people, but because have they been
structurally segregated in the dominant political and economic order. This chapter
documents how these particular needs and aspirations, although not solely held by
slum dwellers, are more emphatically and urgently present in their lives in the margins
of the political and economic order, and have material, intangible and utopian
dimensions. Material needs exist, for instance, for money, food, and employment.
Intangible, or social, needs can be viewed in attempts to establish connections to all
kinds of people and to gain prestige. Utopian aspirations find their expression in slum
dwellers’ cravings for solidarity, a better environment, and a desire to be connected to
the world instead of being ignored by it.
This chapter coins the concept of slum politics as the ongoing and never finished
endeavour of slum dwellers of creating connections and possibilities which break off all
the time. Slum politics, driven by attempts to be connected to the political and economic
order, centres on the notion of connectivity, the intricate face-to-face relations between
persons which need to be constantly maintained, and a fear abandonment, which means
being forsaken and excluded by everybody. It includes practices in the realms of family
life, making a living, and dreaming about the future.
Chapter 2 provides a portrait of community leadership. It shows how community
leaders are the main facilitators of slum politics, as they articulate and consolidate needs
and aspirations of their fellow slum dwellers, which they, being slum dwellers
340
themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
those of their fellow slum dwellers.
Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
and making money.
Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
give shape to slum politics in their projects.
Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
electoral and themselves, know well. Community leaders distinguish themselves from other slum
dwellers by their talent to establish and maintain myriad connections, both to other
slum dwellers and people outside the slum. Through these connections they attempt to
create access to resources, to gain prestige, and arrive at recognition of their needs and
those of their fellow slum dwellers.
Community leaders also need their connections in order to make a living. They
engage in the realm of electoral politics, looking for resources and prestige. Yet, their
practices inevitably implicate them in particular tensions between opposing dimensions.
They are confronted with the diverging expectations of fellow slum dwellers. This
results in tensions of love for the community versus self-interest, and between the
expectation that community leaders derive prestige and resources through electoral
politics and the accusation that they are contaminated by electoral political interests.
Slum dwellers are attracted by electoral politics’ image of opulence and possibilities
beyond compare. Meanwhile, they distrust involvement in it, as it seemingly
marginalises community issues in favour of assuming and maintaining public positions
and making money.
Chapter 3 introduces the community leaders Ovídio, Creuza, and Zezinho, their
personalities, their projects, their operational styles, and their competition. It pays
attention to how they articulate and consolidate needs and aspirations of their fellow
slum dwellers, and operate between the tensions introduced in chapter 2. Each leader’s
trajectory towards becoming a leader is presented, including their historical record of
achievements and their thematic interests, comprising issues in which they specialise,
which allow them to establish connections with people around specific topics. Three
case studies are presented, one on each community leader, closely examining how they
give shape to slum politics in their projects.
Chapter 4 discusses how ordinary life in the slum is lived, through narrating
histories of how four families in the slum organise their lives. These stories shed light on
the way the economy is lived in a site where unemployment is high, self-employment
often the only way to make a living, and allowances form a great part of the money
coming in. I show a particular economic dynamic, where much of the money remains
circulating within the slum, with a specific gendered labour division, an emphasis on
connections, gift-giving, and a social use of money.
In Chapter 5, I analyse how slum politics is intertwined with, but different from,
electoral and governmental politics. I follow Partha Chatterjee’s theorising on popular
politics, conceptualised as those ‘contrary mobilisations’ that may have ‘transformative
effects … among the supposedly unenlightened sections of the population’ (2004:49).
Chatterjee distinguishes the politics of marginalised people from the politics of the state
apparatus and the government, and argues that the former should not be understood as
“pre-political” and backward, but as a politics with its own parameters and logics,
‘different from that of the elite’ (idem:39). My reservation to Chatterjee’s theorisations is that he presents popular politics as a residual category, derived from governmental
politics. I argue instead that slum politics is not primarily reactive to or derived from
governmental politics, but co-exists with it as it is constituted in the needs and
aspirations of slum dwellers.
Chapter 6, zeroing in on the 2004 municipal elections, shows the overlap between
slum politics and electoral politics. It documents how electoral politics penetrates into
the slum and contaminates slum politics. Community leaders employ the moment of the
elections to negotiate with candidates to garner resources for the community and
themselves. However, electoral politics entails the possible risk of steering away from
community interests into issues of self-interested yearnings for power and money. Two
case studies show attempts of community leaders, as political canvassers, to manoeuvre
in the realm of electoral politics in such ways as to also make money, cater to needs and
aspirations of fellow slum dwellers, and steer clear of accusations of being selfinterested.
Chapter 7 presents a case study of encounters between slum politics and
governmental politics. Parts of Chão de Estrelas were planned to be regenerated by a
large World Bank funded slum upgrading programme. I analyse the preamble of the
programme, how it affected the population of the slum, and how community leaders
dealt with it. With reference to Bruno Latour’s work, I argue that the ambiguity which
existed around the programme actually called it into existence. I contend that a project
creates a context in which it becomes real, through rumours and ‘little solidities’ (Latour
1996:45), like meetings, surveys, maps, aerial photographs, offices, brochures, registers,
maps, surveyors and their reports, and census stickers.
I also argue that the programme affected slum dwellers in their most vulnerable
places: their homes, neighbourhoods, and possibilities for work. As a consequence,
feelings of despair, evoking fears of being ignored as a person with specific needs and
aspirations, hit hard in the lives of slum dwellers.
Chapter 8 analyses how life in the slum is framed by violence. Next to the symbolic
and structural violence of discrimination, slum dwellers face acts of violence on a daily
basis, like fights, assaults and shoot-outs, often related to drug trade. Community
leaders and drug traders maintain a tacit balance by which they steer clear of contact
with each other. Slum dwellers, I show, perceive of violence as extraordinary through
acts of mentioning it, reflecting upon it, avoiding it, and expressing aspirations for a life
without it. In contrast, they also see violence as normal, as it is an everyday life
experience.
Furthermore, this chapter argues that, whereas actual violence occurs at random,
potential violence is structured and structuring. Dealing with potential violence, slum
dwellers ban violence discursively from their personal lives by depicting it as related to
‘the other’ and ‘elsewhere’. In addition, they adhere to moral categories which define
those who die from violence as evil, as such seeing their death as a good thing which rids the community of wrong-doers.
Turning again to the intersection between slum politics and governmental politics,
the chapter argues that the concept of citizenship does not resonate with the lives of
slum dwellers who reside in sites where citizenship rights per definition do not hold.
Part of the violence slum dwellers face is related to the intrusive workings of the statedesigned
project of registered citizenship, which centres on the compulsory carrying of
identity cards. Slum dwellers, instead of being recognised as citizens through their
identity cards, are discriminated and approached in violent ways by the police who
consider them as criminals.
Chapter 9, as a conclusion, argues once more against the mystification and
“othering” of slum dwellers, and distances them from the philosopher Giorgio
Agamben’s notion of homo sacer (1998, 2005). Slum dwellers do not coincide with homo
sacer, as they are not officially abandoned by law and maintain personal connections
with people outside the slum. Further, the dominant image of the slum dweller as a
dangerous criminal separates him from homo sacer, who is harmless. Moreover, slum
politics assigns a political quality to life in the slum, which makes it a politically
qualified life (bios) instead of the bare life (zoē) of homo sacer. Slum dwellers’ position in
the political and economic order, although marginalised, is different from the position of
homo sacer, who exists outside of the order. Finally, in contrast to homo sacer, slum
dwellers are not a minority, but a fast growing social class which will soon exist of more
than half of the world’s population. I incite anthropologists to study not only the general
exclusionary workings of political systems, but also the mundane practices and utopian
aspirations of people living in the margins, as an analysis of these may help to imagine
novel political possibilities.
Políticas públicas como objecto social: Imaginando el bien público en el desarollo rural latinoamericano
Arce, A.M.G. ; Blanco, G. ; Hurtado Paz y Paz, K.M. - \ 2008
Guatemala : Flacso - ISBN 9789993972570 - 300
plattelandsontwikkeling - politiek - regering - overheidsbeleid - ontwikkelingsbeleid - markteconomie - sociale ontwikkeling - latijns-amerika - rural development - politics - government - government policy - development policy - market economics - social development - latin america
Towards sustainable soy : an assessment of opportunities and risks for soybean production based on a case study Brazil
Berkum, S. van; Bindraban, P.S. - \ 2008
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area 1, International policy ) - ISBN 9789086152742 - 99
agrarische economie - sojabonen - landbouwproductie - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - latijns-amerika - brazilië - landgebruik - ontwikkelingslanden - geïntegreerde bedrijfssystemen - agricultural economics - soyabeans - agricultural production - resource management - natural resources - sustainability - latin america - brazil - land use - developing countries - integrated farming systems
This study investigates opportunities for and implications of expanding soybean production in developing countries. Increasing soybean production is expected to take place mainly in Latin America. However the international community is increasingly concerned about managing the natural resources in this region. Within the Round Table of Responsible Soy (RTRS) an international dialogue has started to secure that current soybean production and its future expansion is carried out within a sustainable framework. Within the context of this RTRS the study evaluates the compliance of current soybean production in Latin American countries to the sustainability aspects based on the Brazilian case. The research shows that soybean cultivation is embedded in a complex land use system that hampers quick fixes to evolve towards more sustainable production, but also inherit interesting opportunities for the development of integrated soybased production systems
Soil quality and farm profitability: A win-win situation
Pulleman, M.M. ; Hellin, J. ; Flores Velázquez, D. ; López Báez, W. - \ 2008
LEISA : ILEIA newsletter for low-external-input and sustainable agriculture 24 (2008)2. - ISSN 1569-8424 - p. 6 - 8.
grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - bodembescherming - maïs - cimmyt - mexico - latijns-amerika - conservation tillage - soil conservation - maize - latin america
Farmers are more likely to adopt and adapt improved soil management strategies if their efforts lead to an immediate economic benefit. An encouraging policy environment, as well as farmer organisation also stimulates the adoption of conservation practices. In Mexico, farmers are adapting their maize-based cropping systems to conservation agriculture, leading to both higher profits and soil conservation.
Carbon sequestration in tropical grassland ecosystems
Mannetje, L. t; Amézquita, M.C. ; Buurman, P. ; Ibrahim, M.A. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086860265 - 300
tropische graslanden - ecosystemen - koolstofsekwestratie - opwarming van de aarde - bodem - vegetatie - milieubeleid - latijns-amerika - costa rica - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - tropical grasslands - ecosystems - carbon sequestration - global warming - soil - vegetation - environmental policy - latin america - soil carbon sequestration
The increasing scientific consensus on global warming, together with the precautionary principle and the fear of non-linear climate transitions is leading to increasing action to mitigate global warming. To help mitigate global warming, carbon storage by forests is often mentioned as the only or the best way to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This book presents evidence that tropical grasslands, which cover 50% of the earth’s surface, are as important as forests for the sequestration of carbon. Results are reported of a large five year on-farm research project carried out in Latin America (Colombia, Costa Rica). Soil and vegetation carbon stocks of long-established pasture, fodder bank and silvopastoral systems on commercial farms were compared with those of adjacent forest and degraded land. The objective was to identify production systems that both increase livestock productivity and farm income and, at the same time, contribute to a reduction of carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. The project was carried out in four ecosystems: the Andean hillsides of the semi-evergreen forest in Colombia; the Colombian humid Amazonian tropical forest ecosystem; the sub-humid tropical forest ecosystem on the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica; and the humid tropical forest ecosystem on the Atlantic Coast of Costa Rica.
Rural innovation and smallholders' livelihoods: modes of intervention in hillside communities of Latin America
Gottret, M.V. - \ 2007
Inistute of Social Studies. Promotor(en): A. Saidh; C. Kay; Kees Jansen. - Den Haag : International Institute of Social Studies - ISBN 9789042303317
ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - plattelandsgemeenschappen - armoede - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - latijns-amerika - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - development studies - rural development - innovations - innovation adoption - small farms - rural communities - poverty - sustainability - latin america - livelihood strategies
Agua y Derecho. Políticas Hídricas, Derechos Consuetudinarios e Identidades Locales
Boelens, R.A. ; Getches, D. ; Guevara Gil, A. - \ 2006
Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir / Water Law and Indigenous Rights ) - ISBN 9972511529 - 436
water - waterbeleid - wettelijke rechten - eigendomsrechten - toegangsrecht - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - peru - latijns-amerika - waterrechten - water policy - legal rights - property rights - right of access - local government - local population - latin america - water rights
No peace, no war: the anthropology of contemporary armed conflicts
Richards, P. - \ 2005
Oxford : James Currey - ISBN 0852559356 - 288
oorlog - conflict - strijdkrachten - politiek - boeren - sociale antropologie - etnische groepen - afrika - azië - europa - latijns-amerika - war - armed forces - politics - farmers - social anthropology - ethnic groups - africa - asia - europe - latin america
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