Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Food online : PhD thesis on food legal and civil law requirements for digital contracts regarding food purchases by consumers in the Netherlands
Veer, Lomme C. van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bernd van der Meulen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437127 - 125
food - food consumption - food costs - food marketing - food merchandising - food prices - food legislation - consumers - product liability - regulations - law - internet - netherlands - food purchasing - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - kosten voor voedsel - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - reclamecampagne van voedsel - voedselprijzen - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - consumenten - productaansprakelijkheid - regelingen - recht - nederland - voedselinkoop

In this thesis the research focuses on the legal rules and regulations in the Netherlands that apply in the context of food purchases by consumers that are concluded online. Sale of food via the Internet takes place in the area of Civil Code requirements on distance selling and public law requirements on food labelling. In four research Chapters (chapters 2-5) the relevant topics are addressed.

In Chapter 1 the legal context to the research is presented leading up to the formulation of the central problem statement and the research questions. The Chapter also provides the theoretical framework and the in this research applied methodology.

Chapter 2 ‘'Real Food from Virtual Shops: the situation before 2014’ reports on research performed before the entry into force of the national implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive and of the Food Information Regulation. This chapter provides the historical baseline to this research. The research in this chapter shows that the instruments handed to the consumers to compensate their weakened position as online buyers, cannot function as intended in case the merchandise is food. It is argued that consumers derive more bite from general provisions of contract law than from the provisions specifically addressing distance contracts.

In Chapter 3, ‘Food Online, Radical Changes to the Digital Shop Window after 2014’ the argument is continued by addressing in detail the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in the Netherlands and the entry into force of the Food Information Regulation. The differences become visible between civil law and public food legislation in the manner in which they envisage to protect the consumer. Civil law turns out to be rather scarce in requiring information provision to consumers. In his attempt to ensure that consumers are only bound to purchase contracts they actually want, the European legislator has chosen a far more draconic instrument. The consumer has been given the right to withdraw from the contract altogether after the etailer has already fulfilled his side of the agreement. The legislature has preferred this instrument over elaborate information requirements regarding the product to be purchased. The available data do not show that the legislature balanced these two instruments.

Whatever these reasons have been, they seem to have been less compelling in the case of food products. The vast majority of foods is exempted from the consumers' right to withdraw. This leaves a considerable gap in the civil law protection of consumers of food online. This gap has recently been filled by the Food Information Regulation. This regulation does put in place a considerable obligation to supply the consumer online with information prior to the purchase decision. The etailer has to provide online all the information which the producer is required to provide on the food label. In one small provision the entire and complex burden the Food Information Regulation places on the food industry, is placed with the etailer as well.

In Chapter 4 ‘Product Liability for Online Food Suppliers’ the increased risks for the etailer of foods to become product liable is addressed. Due to the wide scope of the definition of ‘producer’ in product liability law, the risk for the etailer to be considered the liable producer is rather high. Due to the Consumer Rights Directive and its implementation in national law, of all the players in the chain the etailer is easiest to identify for the consumer. Etailers have to push their claims further up the hill without any recourse to facilities regarding burden of proof or liability. Both the Consumer Rights Directive and the Food Information Regulation have been designed to reinforce the consumers’ position with a view to ensuring that consumers will no longer be the weakest link in the value chain.

In Chapter 5 'The Lucky Bag for Meals' the emerging market for food-boxes is discussed. Food-boxes embody the dream of every etailer. Not the consumers decide what they buy, but the retailers decide what they supply. Business economic advantages of this model in terms of stock management, logistics and marketing are obviously enormous. Apparently an important marketing proposition in this modern day ‘lucky bag’ is the surprise. It appears that consumers want to be surprised. Despite all requirements regarding transparency and information provision imposed by legislators upon the etailer with a view to protecting consumers, a part of the market seems to prefer to be kept uninformed. The chapter shows that a relevant group of consumers is actually willing to pay a price premium to businesses for infringing upon their legal obligations and for being kept out of their rights.

In Chapter 6 the findings of the research are presented. Besides the answers to the research questions a new series of questions emerge. These openings to further exploration show how the legal field of food online in legal development and legal scholarship is just as young as the technology that sparked its emergence.

The social dynamics of smart grids : On households, information flows & sustainable energy transitions
Naus, Joeri - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet; Hilje van der Horst. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436977 - 234
households - sustainable energy - energy consumption - supply - energy policy - netherlands - huishoudens - duurzame energie - energiegebruik - aanbod - energiebeleid - nederland

In international climate and energy policy the development of smart grids features as a critical new step in the transition towards a sustainable energy future. Smart grids enable two-way energy and information exchange between households and energy providers. Drawing on social practice theories, transition theories and informational governance, this thesis seeks to shed light on the changes that are taking place at the level of households: How do householders understand, handle and use new information flows? How can we conceptualise the interplay between households and smart energy systems? And what does this mean for householder participation in smart energy transitions? The thesis suggests that the key to understanding and governing the social dynamics of smart grids lies in the ‘Home Energy Management-practices’ (HEM-practices) that are emerging at the interface between households and wider energy systems.

Milieueffectrapportage van maatregelen zesde Actieprogramma Nitraatrichtlijn : Op planniveau
Groenendijk, P. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Schröder, J.J. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2842) - 109
nitraat - milieueffectrapportage - nederland - nitrate - environmental impact reporting - netherlands
Om aan de doelstellingen van de Nitraatrichtlijn te voldoen. wordt om de vier jaar een Actieprogramma geformuleerd waarin het rijksbeleid voor de komende vier jaar is aangegeven. In het 6e Actieprogramma wordt een aantal extra maatregelen doorgevoerd ten opzichte van het 5e Actieprogramma. In dit rapport worden de effecten van de extra maatregelen op het milieu (lucht, grondwater en oppervlaktewater) beschreven.
Ontwikkelen van een Remote Sensing monitoringssystematiek voor vegetatiestructuur : pilotstudie: detectie verruiging Grijze Duinen (H2130) voor het Natura 2000-gebied Meijendel-Berkheide
Mücher, Sander ; Kramer, Henk ; Wijngaart, Raymond van der; Huiskes, Rik - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2838) - 45
remote sensing - vegetatiemonitoring - duinen - nederland - vegetation monitoring - dunes - netherlands
Effect van mest op de biologische bodemkwaliteit in de Zeeuwse akkerbouw
Bloem, Jaap ; Koopmans, Chris ; Schils, René - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2843) - 53
dierlijke meststoffen - bodemkwaliteit - akkerbouw - zeeland - nederland - animal manures - soil quality - arable farming - netherlands
Dit rapport begint met een overzicht van de mestsamenstelling (hoofdstuk 2). Daarna volgt een beschrijving van bodemvruchtbaarheid in het algemeen en bodembiodiversiteit in het bijzonder (hoofdstuk 3). De analyse van effecten van mest is in hoofdstuk 4 beschreven.
Maatgevende afvoer en maaiveldafvoer in waterschap Vechtstromen : beschouwing over de bruikbaarheid van afvoernormen voor bepaling van veranderingen in de waterhuishouding en het optreden van maaiveldafvoer
Massop, H.Th.L. ; Bakel, P.J.T. ; Louw, P.G.B. de - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2839) - 71
drainage - waterbeheer - afvoer - oppervlakkige afvoer - klimaatverandering - nederland - water management - discharge - runoff - climatic change - netherlands
Dit rapport beschrijft (1) een evaluatie van de MA-methodiek (Maatgevende Afvoer) toegepast door harmonisatie van de legger van het waterschap Vechtstromen en brengt (2) de maaiveladafvoer voor het waterschapgebied in beeld.
Ploeg- en omzetverbod van blijvend grasland in Natura 2000-gebieden : beoordeling ecologische en milieu- effecten van eventuele opheffing in de Wieden Weerribben
Doorn, Anne ; Broekmeijer, Mirjam ; Schotman, Alex ; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Geertsema, Willemien ; Korevaar, Hein ; Melman, Dick ; Schuiling, Rini - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2832) - 59
natura 2000 - bodembeheer - permanente graslanden - milieueffect - ecologische beoordeling - nederland - soil management - permanent grasslands - environmental impact - ecological assessment - netherlands
Pionieren : De impact van innovatieve maatschappelijke initiatieven op een natuur-inclusieve samenleving
Salverda, I.E. ; Dam, R.I. van; Pleijte, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 64 p.
natuur - samenleving - participatie - stedelijke gebieden - sport - lopen - burgers - fondsgelden - weidevogels - bodem - nederland - nature - society - participation - urban areas - walking - citizens - funding - grassland birds - soil - netherlands
Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39 p.
natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
The Care Sport Connector in the Netherlands
Leenaars, Karlijn - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Maria Koelen, co-promotor(en): Annemarie Wagemakers; G.R.M. Molleman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436106 - 261
sport - sport policy - health care workers - physical activity - public health services - health promotion - primary health care - netherlands - case studies - physical education - sportbeleid - gezondheidswerkers - lichamelijke activiteit - voorzieningen ten behoeve van de volksgezondheid - gezondheidsbevordering - eerstelijnsgezondheidszorg - nederland - gevalsanalyse - lichamelijke opvoeding

Introduction
To stimulate physical activity (PA) and guide primary care patients towards local PA facilities, Care Sport Connectors (CSC) (in Dutch Buurtsportcoach), to whom a broker role has been ascribed, were introduced in 2012. This function is new, and to our knowledge no study has yet explored a broker role and its impact on improving intersectoral collaboration between both sectors. The aim of this thesis was to explore CSCs’ role and impact in connecting the primary care and the PA sector.
Method
This thesis employed a multiple case study design in which 15 CSCs from nine municipalities spread over the Netherlands were followed in their work from 2014 to the end of 2016. Different data collection methods were used (literature review, interviews, focus groups, document analysis, and questionnaires), and perspectives of different stakeholders (policymakers, professionals, CSCs) on different levels (policy and community) were taken into account (Chapter 2).

Results
The connection between the primary care and the PA sector: a chain approach
The connection between both sectors can be characterised as a chain in which CSCs guide the target group towards PA facilities after referral by primary care professionals or their own recruitment. In this connection CSCs fulfilled three roles - broker, referral, and organiser – which did not change over time (Chapter 4 and 5).

Barriers at system and sector level hinder the established connection

Barriers related to the primary care (lack of time, money and knowledge) and the PA sector (lack of suitable PA activities and adequate instructors) are currently hindering the connection between both sectors (Chapter 4 and 6). Barriers related to the collaboration between both sectors, like cultural differences and different interests as identified in our literature review (Chapter 3) were not identified.

The importance of an integral approach for CSCs and the connection between both sectors
An integral approach to structural embed CSCs (Chapter 7) seemed to influence CSCs’ work and subsequently their impact. CSCs working in municipalities who structurally embedded CSCs only at the PA sector, connected both sectors mostly by jointly organising activities. CSCs working in municipalities who adopted an integral approach connected both sectors by a variety of activities targeting different audiences, and primary care professionals fulfilled mostly a role in the referral of their patients. The structural imbedding of the CSC according an integral approach seems the most promising in reaching the desired outcomes (Chapter 8).

Conclusion
CSC’ role is promising for establishing a connection between the primary care and the PA sector. However, to make a success of the connection changes are needed at system and sector level. Further research should focus on CSCs’ impact on stimulating PA among primary care patients, and the development of CSC’ role and the connection between both sectors over time.

Species mixing effects on forest productivity in the Netherlands
Lu, Huicui - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): Frank Sterck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436397 - 134
mixed forests - temperate zones - deciduous forests - soil fertility - light - yields - netherlands - gemengde bossen - gematigde klimaatzones - loofverliezende bossen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - licht - opbrengsten - nederland

Many monoculture forests (dominated by a single tree species) have been converted to mixed-species forests (dominated by more than one tree species) in Europe over the last decades. The main reason for this conversion was to increase productivity, including timber production, and enhance other ecosystem services, such as conservation of biodiversity and other nature values. In addition, it has been suggested that mixed-species forests are more resistant, resilient and stable to disturbances.

In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, inter-specific differences in crown architecture, leaf phenology, shade tolerance and root distribution may allow tree species to partition resources in mixed forests. Such mechanisms may lead to a higher productivity of mixed forests versus monoculture forests, a phenomenon often referred to as overyielding. Interestingly, the stress-gradient hypothesis and the resource-ratio hypothesis suggests that such inter-specific interactions vary along a soil fertility gradient, but in different ways. The stress-gradient hypothesis emphasizes that more efficient partitioning increases overyielding at low fertility soils, whereas the resource ratio hypothesis considers that the denser packing of crowns on fertile soils allows for partitioning of light and overyielding on high fertility soils. Several studies have been carried out about species mixing effects on forest productivity, but so far their findings are ambiguous. Probably, this ambiguity comes from the sites that they studied, which differ in species, age, management history, and/or environmental conditions.

This thesis analyses the mixing effect on productivity in relation to the combination of species, stand age and soil fertility, and discusses possible consequences of forest management, for five two-species mixtures in the Netherlands: Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)oak (Quercus robur L.), oakbeech, oakbirch (Betula pendula Roth) and pinebirch. These mixtures and their corresponding monoculture stands were studied using long-term permanent forest plots over multiple decades, but also using two inventories (around 2003 and 2013) across the entire Netherlands. These forest plots data were used together with empirical models at total stand level (chapter 2), species level (chapter 3) and tree level (chapter 4) to evaluate the mixing effect on forest productivity.

In chapter 2, four two-species mixtures and their corresponding monospecific stands were compared for productivity (volume stem wood in m3 ha-1 year-1). It was explored whether mixing species differing in leaf phenology and shade tolerance would lead to overyielding of mixed forest stands, and whether overyielding changes with stand development. In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, the two evergreen–deciduous species mixtures (Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak) showed overyielding whereas deciduous–deciduous species mixtures (oakbeech and oakbirch) did not. The overyielding was strongest for the Douglas-fir–beech mixture than the pine–oak mixture, which can be attributed to the greater difference in shade tolerance in the former mixture. Overyielding did not significantly change with stand development. It is argued that the regular thinning maintained the ability of species to partition resources, i.e. the complementary resource use in those mixed stands over all stand ages.

In chapter 3, it was analysed which of the two species in these four mixtures contributed to overyielding, and whether this overyielding changed along a soil fertility gradient. It was discovered that both the fast-growing and the slow-growing species could contribute to overyielding. Yet, it was mainly the fast-growing Douglas-fir that contributed to higher productivity in the Douglas-fir–beech mixtures, and the slow-growing oak that did so in the pine–oak mixtures. For both mixtures, the greatest relative productivity gain was achieved by mixtures on the poorer soils. At first sight, these results seem in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis and not the resource-ratio hypothesis. Yet, it was argued that not only complementary use of soil resources, but also use of light, may contribute to the higher productivity of mixed stands on the poorer soils.

In chapter 4, it was assessed how the growth of individual trees in mixtures was influenced by inter- and intra-specific competition, and whether this competition was mainly size-symmetric for soil resources or size-asymmetric for light on soils differing in fertility. This chapter focussed on three mixtures, i.e. oak–birch, pine–oak and pine–birch, which were available at sufficient numbers in the Dutch national forest inventory data. It was concluded that intra-specific competition was not necessarily stronger than inter-specific competition and this competitive reduction was less seen at lower soil fertility and dependent on species mixtures, which is not in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis. Moreover, size-asymmetric competition for light was more associated with tree basal area growth than size-symmetric competition for soil resources, suggesting that light is the most limiting resource. Competition for light was generally much stronger at high fertility soils, supporting the resource-ratio hypothesis. These results suggest that light is the most limiting resource for tree basal area growth and that reduced competition for light can be explained to some degree by complementarity in light use to increase tree growth in mixed forests.

This thesis thus described the productivity patterns when mixing tree species and explored possible mechanisms of higher productivity in mixed stands compared with monoculture stands in the Netherlands. Complementary use of aboveground and belowground resources probably contributes to the higher productivity in mixed stands, but other factors including pathogens, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition were not addressed but cannot be excluded. Overyielding in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was maintained over time, probably owing to the intensive thinning in Dutch forests. The results shed new light on the stress-gradient and resource-ratio hypotheses. For mixtures in Dutch forest, the greatest productivity gain in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was achieved on the poorer soils, and it was argued that this is at least partially driven by complementary use of light, while the role of complementarity in use of soil resources is more obscure. Overall, this thesis suggest a substantial potential of species mixing for increasing productivity, which may run in parallel with enhancing other ecosystem services such as conservation of diversity and other nature values. Yet, more experimental studies on productivity in mixed stands are required to better unravel alternative mechanisms. Such understanding is required to manage the forests effectively in a century of unpreceded human driven changes in environmental conditions.

Weidevogelscenario’s : Mogelijkheden voor aanpak van verbetering van de weidevogelstand in Nederland
Melman, Dick ; Sierdsema, Henk - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2769) - 29
weidevogels - graslanden - populatiebiologie - landschapsbeheer - kosten - habitats - natuurbescherming - nederland - grassland birds - grasslands - population biology - landscape management - costs - nature conservation - netherlands
Seals in motion : how movements drive population development of harbour seals and grey seals in the North Sea
Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Peter Reijnders, co-promotor(en): Geert Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436120 - 176
seals - phoca vitulina - halichoerus grypus - pinnipedia - population biology - animal ecology - wadden sea - netherlands - zeehonden - populatiebiologie - dierecologie - waddenzee - nederland
The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from the Wadden Sea as a consequence of persecution. With growing hunting pressure, especially in the 20th century and concurrent habitat destruction and pollution, the harbour seals reached all time low numbers in the 1970’s. Banning the hunt in countries around the southern North Sea, limiting pollution and protection from disturbance allowed the harbour seals to slowly recover and the grey seals to return to the Wadden Sea. In this thesis the population trends and inherent dynamics of the recovery for both species is described. Also the movements of individual animals are studied to explain possible mechanisms.
Postmortaal onderzoek van bruinvissen (Phocoena phocoena) uit Nederlandse wateren, 2016
IJsseldijk, L.L. ; Kik, M.J.L. ; Solé, L. ; Gröne, A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 96) - 41
phocoena - postmortale onderzoeken - kustgebieden - phocoenidae - nederland - postmortem examinations - coastal areas - netherlands
This annual report presents the results of post-mortem examinations of porpoises stranded on the Dutchcoast. One of the main objectives of the research is to quantify human-induced causes of death. In 2016, 55dead harbour porpoises were examined: 31 males and 24 females, including 14 adults, 33 juveniles and 8neonates. Most of the harbour porpoises examined died as a result of grey seal attacks (31%), infectiousdiseases (29%) or food shortage (18%). Bycatch was the cause of death in 11% of the harbour porpoisesexamined
Beschermde gebiedenregister : technische documentatie, Status A
Schuiling, C. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Rivière, I.J. la; Smidt, R.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 93) - 55
beschermde gebieden - beschermingsgebieden - natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - nederland - geodata - reserved areas - conservation areas - nature conservation - netherlands
This report offers a description of the technical environment, tools and models that are used in managing theDutch register of protected sites (Beschermde gebiedenregister). Its purpose is to document the processesand procedures. Obtaining the ‘A’ quality status is not the immediate aim, but is the long-term goal to whichthis report contributes. The aim of the register of protected sites is to define the boundaries of natural areasand to support the process of defining legally protected sites under one of the following treaties or laws: theBirds and Habitats Directives (Natura 2000), the Ramsar Convention and the Dutch Nature Protection Act(Natuurbeschermingswet). This report describes the procedures for defining the boundaries and formanaging the historical boundaries
Doorontwikkeling van de precisielandbouw in Nederland : een 360 graden-verkenning van de stand van zaken rond informatie-intensieve landbouw en in het bijzonder de plantaardige, openluchtteelt
Wal, T. van der; Vullings, L.A.E. ; Zaneveld-Reijnders, J. ; Bink, R.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2820) - 89
precisielandbouw - landbouw - akkerbouw - drones - winsten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - wetgeving - nederland - precision agriculture - agriculture - arable farming - profits - sustainability - legislation - netherlands
Flat oysters on offshore wind farms : opportunities for the development of flat oyster populations on existing and planned wind farms in the Dutch section of the North Sea
Smaal, Aad ; Kamermans, Pauline ; Kleissen, Frank ; Duren, Luca van; Have, Tom van der - \ 2017
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research report C052/17) - 53
oyster culture - wind farms - offshore - shellfish culture - north sea - netherlands - oesterteelt - windmolenpark - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - noordzee - nederland
Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2014 : berekeningen met het model NEMA
Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 90) - 96
ammoniak - landbouw - emissie - mest - distikstofmonoxide - dierhouderij - modellen - nederland - ammonia - agriculture - emission - manures - nitrous oxide - animal husbandry - models - netherlands
Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn in Nederland een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O),methaan (CH4) en fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5). De emissies in 2014 zijn berekend met het National Emission Model for Agriculture(NEMA). Tegelijk zijn enkele cijfers in de reeks 1990-2013 aangepast op basis van nieuwe inzichten. De rekenmethodiek gaatbij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in demest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en overige bronnen in 2014 bedroeg 121 miljoen kg NH3, bijna4 miljoen kg meer dan in 2013. De stijging komt voornamelijk door uitbreiding van de melkveestapel en een hogerstikstofgehalte van het ruwvoer. De N2O-emissie nam toe van 19,1 miljoen kg in 2013 naar 19,4 miljoen kg in 2014. De NOemissienam toe van 16,9 naar 17,2 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam iets toe van 499 tot 503 miljoen kg. De emissie vanfijnstof nam licht toe van 6,3 miljoen kg PM10 tot 6,4 miljoen kg, door een toename van het aantal stuks pluimvee. De emissievan PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest mettweederde gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoediening.Emissies van lachgas en stikstofoxide daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder sterk (ca. 40%) omdat doorondergronds toedienen van mest de emissies hoger zijn geworden en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naarvaste mest bij pluimvee. Tussen 1990 en 2014 daalde de emissie van methaan met 16% door een afname in de dieraantallenen een hogere voeropname en productiviteit van melkvee---Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O),methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2014 were calculated using the National EmissionModel for Agriculture (NEMA). At the same time some figures in the time series 1990-2013 were revised. The method calculatesthe ammonia emission from livestock manure on the basis of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammoniaemissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2014 were 121 million kg, which was almost 4 million kghigher than in 2013, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd and a higher N-content of roughage. N2O emissions increasedfrom 19.1 million kg in 2013 to 19.4 million kg in 2014. NO emission increased slightly from 16.9 to 17.2 million kg. Methaneemissions increased from 499 to 503 million kg. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.3 to 6.4 million kgPM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions fromlivestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretionrates by livestock and low-emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also fell over the same period, butless steeply (by about 40%), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and to the shift from poultry housingsystems based on liquid manure to solid manure systems. Methane emissions fell by 16% between 1990 and 2014 caused by adrop in livestock numbers and increased feed uptake and productivity of dairy cattle
Greenhouse gas reporting for the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands : methodological background, update 2016
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kramer, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Schelhaas, M.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 89) - 90
greenhouse gases - methodology - emission - netherlands - broeikasgassen - methodologie - emissie - nederland
This report provides a complete methodological description and background information of the DutchNational System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector. It provides detailed description of themethodologies, activity data and emission factors that were used. Additionally it gives a table-by-tableelaboration of the choices and motivations for filling the CRF tables for KP-LULUCF
Sustaining dairy
Villarreal Herrera, Georgina - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Jan Willem van der Schans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431545 - 331
dairy farming - dairy farms - agricultural society - economic sectors - agricultural sector - sustainable agriculture - sustainability - netherlands - great britain - western europe - europe - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - agrarische samenleving - economische sectoren - landbouwsector - duurzame landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - groot-brittannië - west-europa - europa

Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability programs are a part of that.

Regime change as outlined in transition theory enhanced through a sociological approach on actors informed this research. More specifically, the notion of obligatory passage points was used to explore the mechanisms through which dominant actors make certain actions mandatory and reify their status as indispensable. The thesis consists of three case studies: the dairy sectors in the Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom. The cases trace the evolution of all sectors since the post-war era, outlining the dominant logic that has guided its development. The sustainability programs of three dairy processors—located in each of the case countries—are also part of the analysis. Data was collected through document analysis and semi-structured interviews.

The analysis shows that the post-war logic based on the increase of scale and intensification of dairying has continued to shape the development of the sector through today. While the visible impacts of intensive dairy have led to adaptations to the dominant rules and practices, these changes have not been fundamental in nature. The analysis of dairy processors and their sustainability programs revealed that these programs can be an additional tool for compliance to legal standards and the alleviation of pressing societal concerns. However, processors address social and environmentally relevant dairy-related challenges when an effective link to profit can be established. These programs have been unable to ensure that the dairy sector operates within established environmental limits and societal expectations, while providing a stable livelihood for farmers.

This research contributes to the understanding of sustainability (agri-food) transitions by identifying the mechanisms through which the regime adapts to the shifting environment and dominant actors strive for their own continuity. It also adds to the debate about the role that incumbent actors can have in sustainability transitions—their involvement is important but they are unable to guide such processes. This study advances the empirical ground in sustainability transition studies by focusing on systems in which change is less likely to be technologically driven and where social change plays a larger role. Finally, this thesis connects past development, current challenges, and present engagement in a discussion about the future development of the dairy sector; this adds to the further conceptualization of the complexity and co-evolutionary nature of sustainability transitions.

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