Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms
Rutten, C.J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen; Michel Nielen, co-promotor(en): Wilma Steeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431934 - 232
dairy cattle - dairy farms - sensors - reproduction - reproductive behaviour - animal health - calving - activity - management - dairy farming - technology - agricultural economics - melkvee - melkveebedrijven - voortplanting - voortplantingsgedrag - diergezondheid - kalven - activiteit - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - technologie - agrarische economie

Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. Some sensors like activity meters, electrical conductivity, weight floors and somatic cell count sensors are commercially available. Adoption has in general been low and mainly driven by the AMS, with a clear exception for estrus detection. In practice, the economic benefits of using sensor systems has not been proven. So, to make sensors live up to their full potential there is a need for research to shift from technical development towards practical applications and integration with operational farm management. Estrus detection sensors can have a good detection performance and are currently applied by farmers in practice, therefore this thesis focusses on sensors that support reproductive management. The main objective of this thesis is to study the utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms. This main objective was split in five sub objectives that each study a part of the main objective and were discussed in the separate chapters of this thesis.

We demonstrated that utility of sensors for reproductive management can be found in economic benefits (estrus and calving detection), reduction of labor (calving and estrus detection) and more detailed management information (prognosis of insemination success). So, automated estrus detection aids reproductive management.

From this thesis the following conclusions can be drawn:

The developed theoretical framework describes four levels of sensor development, which should all be included in proper development of sensor systems. The literature review showed that no studies developed sensor systems with regard to management and decision support.

It was possible to improve the prediction of the start of calving compared to a model that only uses the expected calving date. However, predicting the start of calving within an hour was not possible with a high sensitivity and specificity.

There was financial merit in the use of calving detection, because the sensor system enables more timely intervention by the farmer. The uncertainty about the positive effects was large, which caused a wide range in the simulated financial benefits.

Investment in a sensor for estrus detection was on average profitable with a return on investment of 11%. Profitability was influenced most by the heuristic culling rules and the expected increase of the estrus detection rate between detection by visual observation and the sensor.

Routinely collected farm data can be used to estimate a prognosis on insemination success and be used to determine whether an individual cow has a higher or lower than average likelihood of insemination success. Integration of this prognostic model with an estrus detection sensor has potential.

Currently farmers only adopt sensors for estrus detection or because they were standard with an AMS. A reason for this is that sensor systems do not produce clear information for farmers. Sensor technology should be focused on management support of applications. Labor benefits of sensors are important for adoption of sensors by farmers, farmers value flexibility, increased family time and less physical workload as benefits. However, economic evaluations of technical solutions are unable to quantify these benefits. Sensor research should consider the preference of farmers regarding labor. For the appraisal of sensor technology new methods to value labor benefits of sensor are needed. Furthermore, in sensor development societal acceptance should be an important consideration. Animal rights activists may frame the use of sensors as a form of industrialized farming. Only using technical arguments and considerations to explain the benefits of sensors will hamper the societal acceptance of modern dairy farming. Application of sensors on dairy farms should be communicated smartly to society in terms that relate the values of citizens.

Improving the limits of detection in sensor systems
Bent, J.F. van der - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Cees van Rijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430555 - 127
sensors - data processing - nanotechnology - potentiometers - detection - gegevensverwerking - nanotechnologie - detectie

Nowadays, sensors are designed to consume less power with decreased size, making them suitable for application in low-power wireless sensor networks (WSN) systems. The challenge is not to compromise on the sensor’s sensitivity and selectivity towards the target. This thesis studies various options to improve the limits of detection. Usually, sensors are limited in detection range and resolution; they are also restricted by cross sensitivity towards other target agents and other parameters. This cross sensitivity, towards humidity and temperature, for instance, reduces the sensor’s detection limit and, therefore, its usability. This work discusses three examples where the limit of detection has been investigated, localised and improved with nanotech-based sensors.

The first example is a nanowire-based hydrogen sensor. The second example was based on a potentiometric-sensor principle, capable of sensing CO2. The third example is an Inter-Digitated Electrode (IDE) sensor, capable of selective sensing through the coating of an active layer.

Refining a model-based assessment strategy to estimate the ammonia emission from floors in dairy cow houses
Snoek, Dennis J.W. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Nico Ogink; Hans Stigter. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578852 - 182
dairy cows - stalls - ammonia emission - floors - modeling - mitigation - sensors - ph - temperature - urea - melkkoeien - stallen - ammoniakemissie - vloeren - modelleren - mitigatie - temperatuur - ureum

Ammonia (NH3) emission is still high, and agriculture is still the dominant contributor. In The Netherlands, the NH3 emission from dairy cow houses is one of the most important sources. A lot of research has been conducted to understand and model NH3 emission, to measure it, and to reduce it using identified and developed reduction measures. However, our understanding of how to measure and how to reduce the NH3 emission is still limited. In addition, the set emission ceilings were lowered for 2020.

The objective of this thesis was to refine a model-based assessment strategy to estimate the ammonia emission from floors in dairy cow houses. First the most important input variables and process parameters were identified with a sensitivity analysis in currently available mechanistic NH3 emission models and theory. It was concluded that five puddle related input variables caused the largest variation in NH3 emission estimation, being the puddle pH, depth (Dp), urinary urea nitrogen concentration (UUN), surface area (Ap), and temperature (Tliq). For each input variable the available data was scarce, and it was therefore recommended to measure these five most important variables in practice. However, measurement methods were hardly available. Therefore, sensors were chosen, new measurement methods were developed, and these were combined in a protocol to measure the pH, Dp, UUN, Ap and Tliq of fresh, random and manually created urine puddles in commercial dairy cow houses.

In total 16 commercial dairy cow houses were assessed in a factorial experimental setup based on four floor-management types in two Seasons, with PREclean treatment. PREclean represented intense-floor-cleaning that was compared to on-farm manure scraping. A V-shaped asphalt floor had significantly larger values for both Ap (1.04 m2) and Dp (1.5 mm) than did the slatted and grooved floors (0.76 m2, 0.93 mm). For both Ap and Dp the variation within a farm was large, but was negligible between farms. The Dp values and variation were 3 to 6 times larger than currently assumed. With PREclean treatment the Dp resulted in about 3 times lower values compared to the on-farm scraping. In short, the potential NH3 emission reduction of good floor cleaning is large. Overall mean values were 4.27 kg m-3 for UUN, an initial pH(t=0) of 8.3, both in fresh puddles, and a pH(t=ξ) of 9.0 for random puddles at a random time. For UUN both the variation within and between farms was large, whereas the variation for pH was small. Both the mean UUN and pH showed lower values than currently assumed. In a separate 4 h time series experiment at 3 commercial farms was shown that the pH, on average, quickly increased initially, declined after 1 h and then became stable. The calculated NH3 in kg puddle-1 showed a huge range and was considerably larger than currently assumed for the reference situation.

Compared to the aforementioned sensitivity analysis outcome, the UUN range at farm level is both slightly smaller and shifts to slightly lower values, while for Dp the range and values are both larger. These two variables caused the largest variation in the estimated NH3 emissions, and not the pH. In conclusion, these two variables certainly need to be measured in individual commercial dairy cow houses to estimate the NH3 emission. For Ap, pH and Tair the measured ranges at farm level were less large. The pH turns out to be fairly stable in commercial cow houses and, related to that, it causes less variation in the estimated NH3 emission. Nevertheless, the pH still ranks as the third most important variable, and therefore needs to be measured in individual cow houses. The Ap is fairly stable between farms, but varies within farms and it still has a significant effect on the NH3 emission. The floor design clearly affects the puddle area Ap. Therefore, it is not necessary to measure Ap at each individual farm, but it is sufficient to measure the Ap in only one commercial cow house per floor design. The Tair variable is of limited importance compared to the aforementioned four variables, but it is still significant.

Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes
The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
Verkenning sensing laanboomkwekerij : toepassing van de bodemscan in de laanboomkwekerij
Baltissen, A.H.M.C. ; Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2016
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving BBF - 17 p.
aftasten - remote sensing - sensors - bos- en haagplantsoen - bomen - sensing - woody nursery stock - trees
De doelstelling van dit project is het verkennen van de mogelijkheden van nieuwe sensing technieken in de laanboomkwekerij. Gekozen is voor het uitvoeren van een sensing van de bodem. De bodem is de basis van de teelt. Het verkrijgen van inzicht in de variatie van de bodem kan helpen om teeltmaatregelen af te stemmen op die variatie. Dit rapport beschrijft een eerste verkenning naar de mogelijkheden van Proximal Soil Sensing en heeft als doel het vaststellen van de variatie van de bodem met een specifieke bodemsensor (EM38-mk2) en onderzoeken wat deze variatie betekent voor de laanboomteelt.
Smart Ziekzoeker 2015 : Detectie van virus- en bacteriezieke pootaardappelen met behulp van vision- en sensortechnologie
Kamp, J.A.L.M. ; Blok, P.M. ; Polder, G. ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Jalink, Henk - \ 2016
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (Applied Plant Research) Business Unit AGV (PPO/PRI rapport 703) - 51 p.
pootaardappelen - solanum tuberosum - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - plantenvirussen - detectie - sensors - machine vision - seed potatoes - plant pathogenic bacteria - plant viruses - detection
Alleen spuiten waar een plant staat, bespaart veel middel : mogelijk met een sensor die bladgroen ‘ziet’
Os, Erik van; Zande, Jan van de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - vegetables - pot plants - cyclamen - tomatoes - spraying equipment - sensors - chlorophyll - sustainability - botrytis - pesticides

Bij de gang naar een duurzamere tuinbouw ligt de nadruk vaak op vervangen van chemie door biologie. Maar ook bij het spuiten zelf valt nog veel te verbeteren. Als je weet te voorkomen dat grond, tafels of gevels worden meegepakt, bespaar je veel middel en beperk je de emissie. Een stap verder is alleen spuiten op aangetaste delen.

Verhoging van energie-efficiency bij intensieve glastuinbouw productiesystemen : ontwikkeling van high-tech sensorsystemen voor monitoring en besturing van energiezuinige kassen: Fibre Bragg glasvezelsensoren
Balendonck, J. ; Janssen, H.J.J. ; Zwart, H.F. de; Schriek, L. ; Toet, P. ; Bezemer, R.A. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1392) - 78 p.
teelt onder bescherming - kasgewassen - kassen - intensieve productie - energiebesparing - sensors - temperatuur - relatieve vochtigheid - protected cultivation - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - intensive production - energy saving - temperature - relative humidity
Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture and TNO conducted a study on the application of Fibre Bragg optic sensors to measure temperature and relative humidity in greenhouses at high spatial density. Sensors, incorporated in an experimental enclosure, were evaluated under practical conditions in a greenhouse at Bleiswijk (NL). Their performance appeared to be similar to that of existing wireless electronic sensors. In order to save energy when using their heating, growers may so obtain relative humidity at higher spatial density and grow at a higher average humidity level. Sensors indicate at an early stage if there is condensation and consequently a higher risk on diseases somewhere in the greenhouse. Rule of thumb is that every percent increase in the humidity will yield about 3.5% of energy or 1 m³ natural gas equivalents. In addition to energy saving, investing in a distributed monitoring network also has an economic advantage. Another advantage is that fiber-optic sensor networks can be extended to larger areas and with other sensor types at little more costs. However, little research and no practical experience is gained with fiber optic sensors in greenhouses. More research is still needed in order to arrive at a system ready for practice.
Sensor voorspelt grasopname : koeien nemen meer gras op uit het weiland dan berekend met de vem-dekking
Reenen, Kees van; Zom, Ronald ; Galama, Paul - \ 2016
dairy cows - dairy farming - sensors - grazing - grasses - feed intake - pastures - agricultural research
Nanoscale force sensors to study supramolecular systems
Cingil, E.H. - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Martien Cohen Stuart, co-promotor(en): Joris Sprakel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576971 - 136 p.
sensors - supramolecular chemistry - molecules - biopolymers - polymers - methodology - rheology - supramoleculaire chemie - moleculen - biopolymeren - polymeren - methodologie - reologie

Supramolecular systems are solutions, suspensions or solids, formed by physical and non-covalent interactions. These weak and dynamic bonds drive molecular self-assembly in nature, leading to formation of complex ordered structures in high precision. Understanding self-assembly and co-assembly is crucial to unravel and mimic many processes occurring in nature. However, the challenge cannot be easily addressed especially in biological systems as it involves many dynamic interactions which may cooperatively, noncooperatively or competitively generate a complex manifold of interaction pathways. In this thesis, we employed two techniques to understand these complex interactions in various supramolecular systems at the nanoscale 1) multiple particle tracking microrheology to study thermoreversible assembly of triple helices in a collagen-inspired recombinant polypeptide in the form of a triblock copolymer gel former; and 2) polyfluorene-based conjugated polyelctrolyte mechosensors to monitor electrostatic co-assembly dynamics of (i) a recombinant diblock copolypeptide which encapsulates the conjugated polyelectrolyte like a protein capsid and (ii) various synthetic diblock copolymers which forms complex coacervate micelles; and finally the orthogonal self-assembly dynamics of (iii) a recombinant viral coat protein which mimics natural rod-like viruses. These novel polymeric mechanosensors work as versatile, non-invasive tools to detect even low degrees of analyte binding or complex formation due to the stress applied on their conjugated backbone. This mechanical stress causes the polymeric backbone to stretch which can be detected by a shift in its fluorescence spectra.

Smart Dairy Farming : de stand van zaken
Lokhorst, Kees - \ 2015
dairy cattle - lifespan - animal welfare - sustainable animal husbandry - information technology - sensors - monitoring - animal production

De levensduur van een koe verlengen. Dat is een van de doelen waarmee Smart Dairy Farming zes jaar geleden van start ging. Nu is deel 1 voltooid en lijken de resultaten voor zowel de melkveehouders als de adviseurs veelbelovend.

Plantsensoren geschikt gemaakt voor toepassing op tuinbouwbedrijf : de pratende plant rukt op
Steppe, K. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2015
Onder Glas 12 (2015)11. - p. 20 - 21.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - sensors - fotosynthese - droogte - gewassen, groeifasen - stengels - waterbalans - koolstof - suikers - gewasmonitoring - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - photosynthesis - drought - crop growth stage - stems - water balance - carbon - sugars - crop monitoring
De ontwikkeling van geavanceerde sensoren zorgt ervoor dat er steeds meer aan de plant te meten valt. Dat leidt tot nieuwe inzichten in het functioneren, die op termijn kunnen worden vertaald in aanbevelingen voor teeltmaatregelen. Een meer directe spin-off is dat de plantsensoren geschikt worden gemaakt voor toepassing op het tuinbouwbedrijf. Als middel om snel stress te detecteren, nog voor je het met het blote oog ziet.
Plan van Aanpak voor MBO 'training en opleiding' rond Smart Dairy Farming : onderdeel van BOGO project 'Sensoren in SDF 1.0: lessen voor validatie en informatievoorziening'
Lokhorst, C. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2015
Livestock Research Wageningen UR (Livestock Research rapport 934) - 14 p.
melkveehouderij - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - sensors - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding melkveehouderij - beroepsopleiding - onderwijsprogramma's - dairy farming - data collection - data analysis - management - dairy education - vocational training - education programmes
Nauwkeurige gasanalyse-systemen voor kwaliteitsbewaking tijdens fruitopslag : Effecten van ethyleen en ethanol tijdens bewaring van appelen en peren189953 / RAPPORT
Schaik, A.C.R. van; Reuler, H. van - \ 2015
Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 39
fruitteelt - chemische bewaring - bewaarfysiologie - kwaliteitscontroles - kwaliteit na de oogst - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - ethyleen - ethanol - appels - peren - proeven op proefstations - sensors - fruit growing - chemical preservation - postharvest physiology - quality controls - postharvest quality - keeping quality - ethylene - apples - pears - station tests
Met een consortium van bedrijven en kennisinstellingen is onderzoek uitgevoerd naar grenswaarden voor de gasvormige componenten ethyleen en ethanol welke geproduceerd worden voor en tijdens de opslag van hardfruit. De ethyleen productie na de oogst kan mogelijk gebruikt worden als een rijpingsindicator voor partijen of cellen fruit. Deze componenten kunnen zich ook ophopen in de CA (controlled atmosphere) bewaring van appelen en peren en hebben ook tijdens de bewaring ook een duidelijke relatie met de kwaliteit van het product. Tevens is voor ethyleen een prototype ethyleen meter ontwikkeld.
Precisielandbouw buiten stal: GrasMais-Signaal : Gezonde Veehouderij 2023
Philipsen, Bert - \ 2015
precision agriculture - grasslands - dry matter - milk production - sensors - information technology - dairy farming
Water geven naar behoefte komt stapje dichterbij : Het mysterie van de verdwenen stikstof
Kierkels, T. ; Voogt, W. - \ 2015
Onder Glas 12 (2015)5. - p. 20 - 21.
glastuinbouw - potplanten - plantenvoeding - nutriëntenuitspoeling - stikstof - irrigatie - meting - voedingsstoffenbalans - sensors - vochtmeters - waterbehoefte - greenhouse horticulture - pot plants - plant nutrition - nutrient leaching - nitrogen - irrigation - measurement - nutrient balance - moisture meters - water requirements
De variatie in uitspoeling van mineralen is groot tussen verschillende chrysantenbedrijven. Voor een deel ligt dat aan ondernemersbeslissingen. Om goed te kunnen sturen op minimale uitspoeling en maximale productkwaliteit zijn goede tools nodig. Een betere vochtsensor is zeer welkom, geeft teler Jos Ammerlaan aan.
Beheersing emissie grondgebonden kasteelten
Voogt, W. ; Balendonck, J. ; Janse, J. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Winkel, A. van - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1363) - 38
teelt onder bescherming - snijbloemen - emissie - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - biologische landbouw - irrigatie - lysimeters - sensors - water - voedingsstoffenbalans - voedingsstoffen - optimalisatie - protected cultivation - cut flowers - emission - decision support systems - organic farming - irrigation - nutrient balance - nutrients - optimization
To make growers to be in control of the emission, a decision support system is developed for irrigation in soil grown crops. In 2013-2014 the implementation was continued and several greenhouse crops were monitored. As was found earlier, the organic greenhouse growers are able to control irrigation in a way that emission is reduced to a minimum. The results obtained at (conventional) flower growers show sometimes high emission of nitrogen. This is due at one hand to high irrigation surpluses but also to high fertilisation of nitrogen. Better tuning of the water- and nitrogen supply to the crop demand is necessary. For these stapes growers need better soil-moisture sensors.
Toepassing van NBS-aardappelsensing in de teelt van zetmeelaardappelen; IJkakker, veldproef 2014 't Kompas
Geel, W.C.A. van; Schans, D.A. van der - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO/PRI-rapport 655) - 28
akkerbouw - bemesting - fabrieksaardappelen - stikstof - veldproeven - sensors - gewasgroeimodellen - gewaskwaliteit - arable farming - fertilizer application - starch potatoes - nitrogen - field tests - crop growth models - crop quality
In het kader van IJkakker worden gewassensoren ingezet als monitor voor gewasontwikkeling. IJkakker heeft tot doel sensorgestuurde teeltmaatregelen te ontwikkelen. Het deelproject IJkakkerbemesting onderzoekt de mogelijkheden in de teelt van aardappelpootgoed en zetmeelaardappel. Uit een opname met gewassensoren kan een schatting worden gemaakt van de hoeveelheid stikstof die in een gewas zetmeelaardappel is opgenomen. Op basis van een eenvoudig groeimodel dat uit de temperatuursom de totale N-opname door het gewas berekent vanaf opkomst, kan de streefwaarde voor de N-opname op elke willekeurig tijdstip worden vastgesteld. Als de geschatte N-opname uit de sensordata lager is dan de streefopname op het tijdstip van sensing, wordt een stikstofbijmestgift berekend. Deze proef heeft als doel een stikstofbijmestsysteem voor zetmeelaardappel op basis van gewassensing te ontwikkelen en te vergelijken met een standaard praktijkbemesting en een bestaand N-bijmestsysteem gebaseerd op monstername van bodem en gewas.
Robotic harvesting of fruit vegetables
Bontsema, Jan - \ 2015
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cucumis - sweet peppers - fruit vegetables - robots - harvesting - sensors
'Productieslag' zoekt verbeterpunten binnen percelen2
Vegte, D.Z. van der; Verloop, J. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Oenema, J. - \ 2015
Nieuwsbrief Koeien & Kansen (2015)42. - p. 2 - 2.
ruwvoer (forage) - systeeminnovatie - sensors - precisielandbouw - graslanden - melkveehouderij - forage - system innovation - precision agriculture - grasslands - dairy farming
Het doel van project ‘Productieslag’ is het verbeteren van de ruwvoerproductie. Een belangrijke ambitie is het gat tussen de potentiële productie en de praktijkproductie te verkleinen en uiteindelijk te dichten. Dit gat wordt veroorzaakt door omstandigheden die niet optimaal zijn. Maar welke zijn dat?
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