Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    We will mail you new results for this query: wurpublikatie/titelbeschrijving/classificatie/trefwoord/cab/engels==soil conservation
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On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming
Hijbeek, Renske - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Hein ten Berge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436632 - 211
soil fertility - soil fertility management - soil management - soil conservation - organic matter - soil organic matter - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - green manures - manures - straw - soil carbon sequestration - cover crops - crop yield - yields - meta-analysis - food security - europe - drivers - barriers - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - bodembeheer - bodembescherming - organische stof - organisch bodemmateriaal - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - groenbemesters - mest - stro - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - dekgewassen - gewasopbrengst - opbrengsten - meta-analyse - voedselzekerheid - europa - chauffeurs - barrières

The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral fertiliser. In addition, a farm survey was conducted to find drivers and barriers for the use of organic inputs and to assess if arable farmers in Europe perceive a deficiency of SOM.

The findings in this thesis suggest that at least on the shorter term, on average, there seems to be no immediate threat from a deficiency of SOM to crop production in arable farming in Europe. The long-term experiments showed that with sufficient use of only mineral fertilisers, on average, similar yields could be attained over multiple years as with the combined use of organic inputs and mineral fertiliser. This was reflected in the farm survey, in which a large majority of farmers indicated not to perceive a deficiency of SOM. Analysis of long-term experiments also showed that more mineral fertiliser N was saved when using farmyard manure at high N rates (with mineral fertiliser application) than at low N rates (without mineral fertiliser application), based on comparisons at equal yield.

Specific crops and environments did benefit from organic inputs and more SOM in terms of crop production. Long-term experiments showed that organic inputs give benefit to crop production in wet climates and on sandy soils. In addition, farmers perceived a higher deficiency of SOM on steep slopes, sandy soils, wet and very dry climates. The additional yield effect of organic inputs was significant for potatoes. More in general, farmers who cultivated larger shares of their land with specialized crops (including potatoes, sugar beets, onions and other vegetables) than cereals perceived a higher deficiency of SOM. It seems that while the functions of SOM can be replaced with technical means to a large extent (e.g. tillage, use of mineral fertilisers), there are limits to this technical potential when environmental conditions are more extreme and crops are more demanding.

The farm survey revealed that farmers perceive a trade-off between improved soil quality on the one hand and increased pressures from weeds, pests and diseases and financial consequences on the other hand when using organic inputs. If policies aim to stimulate the maintenance or increase of SOM, more insight is needed into the conditions that regulate the pressures of weeds, pests and diseases in response to organic inputs. Financial consequences (at least on the short term) should also be accounted for. More importantly however, benefits from SOM for crop production cannot be taken for granted. Only in specific situations such benefits will exist. If European policies on SOM aim to include benefits for crop production, focus should be on areas with more extreme environmental conditions (very dry or wet climates, steep slopes, sandy soils), or cropping systems with more specialized or horticultural crops rather than cereals.

Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia
Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra; Jantiene Baartman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579101 - 132
sediment - soil conservation - reservoirs - dams - models - ethiopia - bodembescherming - dammen - modellen - ethiopië

To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr catchment, NW Ethiopia to (1) quantify the sediment entering Koga reservoir, (2) to assess the functioning and effectiveness of the existing man-made sediment trapping (ST) measures and natural sediment sinks, and (3) to design a possible solution to tackle the problem. Results of three years (2013-2015) field data show that 38% of the transported sediment was trapped within the Minizr catchment. Although considerable efforts were made to trap the sediment within the catchment through implementing various ST measures, lack of an integrated ST approach causes the remaining 62% of the sediment load still entering Koga reservoir.

PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta : ontwikkeling vis in de Voordelta na instelling bodembeschermingsgebied ter compensatie van de aanleg Tweede Maasvlakte
Tulp, Ingrid ; Tien, Nicola ; Damme, Cindy van - \ 2016
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C089/16) - 148
vissen - monitoring - natuurcompensatie - natuurbeheer - marien milieu - bodembescherming - fishes - nature compensation - nature management - marine environment - soil conservation
In deze rapportage worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van de bemonsteringen vanaf de T0 (2005-2007) tot na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied (2009-nu), voor zover mogelijk tot en met de resultaten van voorjaar 2013.
Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification
Alliaume, F. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pablo Tittonell, co-promotor(en): Walter Rossing; Santiago Dogliotti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578487 - 163 p.
tillage - minimum tillage - mulches - vegetable growing - water use efficiency - degraded land - soil conservation - modeling - soil management - grondbewerking - minimale grondbewerking - groenteteelt - watergebruiksrendement - gedegradeerd land - bodembescherming - modelleren - bodembeheer

This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools for the integrated assessment of soil management strategies for the ecological intensification and small-scale production systems sustainability in South Uruguay.

We performed a baseline assessment of key soil properties on cropped fields, and evaluated the impact of implementing different soil management strategies after re-design of systems in a co-innovation project. We showed evidence that even under smallholder conditions, it was possible to reverse the soil degradation. However, it was not possible to reduce erosion in cases that a pasture could not be included in the rotation. We evaluated reduced tillage and cover crop management in an experiment. In-situ grown mulching increased water capture by 9.5% and reduced runoff by 37% on average, leading to less erosion risk and greater plant available water. We also collected enough data to develop a simple, generally applicable, locally parameterizable mathematical model that accounts for the effect of soil cover on soil water dynamics. Exploration with 10 years of weather data showed that reduced tillage and mulching (RTmulch) would decrease water requirements for irrigation by 37% on average.

Finally, we scaled up the results to study the impact of RTmulch on two small horticultural family farms with different resource availabilities. By combining process-based simulation models with empirical data and expert knowledge, we quantified inputs and outputs of production activities. Adoption of RTmulch was associated with improvements of the economic and/or environmental performances. It was possible to design production activities with erosion rates below the tolerable level without sacrificing the family income too much. Average water savings of 775 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (fully irrigated rotations) to 452 (irrigating only the most profitable vegetable crops) were obtained under RTmulch compared with conventional tillage.

Reduced tillage and mulching have potential for increasing water infiltration, reducing runoff and erosion, and achieving greater efficiency of water use for vegetable crops grown in raised bed systems. These aspects are especially relevant under conditions of high rainfall variability, limited access to irrigation and high soil erosion risk. For future research, we suggest combining long-term experiments with on- farm research to capture the benefits of improving soil quality on soil productivity, while adjusting the technology to solve limitations that arise in the process. This study provides ground for testing the proposed changes on pilot farms, using a co-innovation approach combining scientific insights with farmers’ knowledge of their farms.

Van bodeminformatie naar bodemmaatregelen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil fertility - soil conservation - farm management - internet - information needs - soil management - teaching materials
Het ecologisch belang van het Friese Front
Lindeboom, H.J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Witbaard, R. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C137/15A) - 24
bodembescherming - mariene gebieden - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - noordzee - nederland - soil conservation - marine areas - government policy - nature conservation - north sea - netherlands
Bodembescherming bij doorgangsdepots voor baggerspecie : Verwaarloosbaar bodemrisico met een geochemische barrière
Zoest, R. van; Harmsen, J. ; Groenenberg, B.J. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2015
Bodem 2015 (2015)4. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 15 - 17.
baggerspeciedepots - bagger - bodembescherming - landgebruik - risicoanalyse - geochemie - polychloorbifenylen - spoil banks - dredgings - soil conservation - land use - risk analysis - geochemistry - polychlorinated biphenyls
Bij het ontwateren en rijpen van nuttig toepasbare baggerspecie wordt veelvuldig gebruikt gemaakt van doorgangsdepots. Op initiatief van de waterschappen is een alternatief ontwikkeld voor de bodembescherming met behulp van een folie. Met een minerale bodembeschermingslaag kan eveneens een verwaarloosbaar bodemrisico bereikt worden. Een generieke regeling bleek vooralsnog niet haalbaar.
Flyshoot visserij in relatie met de instelling van bodem beschermende maatregelen voor het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden
Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/15) - 23
visserij - bodemecologie - onderwatergronden - vissersschepen - vismethoden - vistuig - waterbodems - mariene gebieden - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - bodembescherming - milieueffect - fisheries - soil ecology - subaqueous soils - fishing vessels - fishing methods - fishing gear - water bottoms - marine areas - adverse effects - north sea - soil conservation - environmental impact
Dit rapport geeft een samenvatting van de ‘state of the art’ kennis met betrekking tot de impact van bodemberoerende vistuigen en bespreekt de te verwachte effecten van de flyshoot methode in vergelijking met de andere vismethoden.
Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact
Akalu Teshome Firew, ; Firew, A.T. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571563 - 148
grondbeheer - landdegradatie - hooglanden - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - highlands - water conservation - soil conservation - ethiopia

Abstract

Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is because investments in LM practices are influenced by various institutional, socio-economic and bio-physical factors. The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of these different factors on investments in LM in the north-western Ethiopian highlands. It focuses on the drivers of the different stages of adoption, on profitability of LM practices, and on land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements and social capital.

We examined the drivers of the different stages of adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices using an ordered probit model. The results indicate that adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) passes through four major phases: non-adoption/dis-adoption, initial adoption, actual adoption and final adoption. Some socio-economic and institutional factors have a different effect on the respective SWC adoption phases. Final adoption depends mostly on profitability, land-related factors, social capital and perception of erosion problems.

We also investigated the effectiveness and profitability of three SWC practices (stone bunds, soil bunds and Fanya juu bunds) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The results show that SWC practices are effective in controlling soil erosion, though the profitability of these SWC methods is dependent on the site where they are used. Fanya juu and stone bunds are generally profitable under standard conditions (e.g. medium slope and average soil quality and labour costs). However, the study also shows that different underlying assumptions change the CBA results considerably and consequently also change the conclusions regarding circumstances under which SWC measures are or are not profitable.

Besides, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influence on interrelated LM (Bunds, Compost/Manure and Fertilizer) investments using a multivariate probit (MPV) model. The study shows that investments in LM practices are interdependent. For example, compost/manure and fertiliser substitute each other to a certain extent (often not used together, or used interchangeably by farmers) in the farming system of the study areas. Land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers’ investments in LM practices.

In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and investments in LM practices was explored. The results show that the different dimensions of social capital affect LM practices differently. In particular, the cooperation and trust dimensions of social capital are associated with the intensity of investment in SWC bunds and fertiliser use. The extent of participation in formal institutions has a positive effect on the use of fertiliser and compost.

Furthermore, we evaluated different SWC practices using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) to assess their ecological, economic and social impacts. The study reveals that MCA is an effective evaluation tool that can take into account non- monetary and less quantifiable effects of SWC measures, which is not possible with Cost Benefit Analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that farmers have a range of criteria to evaluate the performance of SWC measures. The relative importance of each criterion in the selection of SWC alternatives depends to a large extent on slope categories.

For enhancing the adoption and impacts of land management, there is a need to increase knowledge about location specific viable LM practices, to promote collective action at watershed level, to pay more attention to farmers’ preferences and to improve the capacity and capability of farmers.

Meerjarige effect- en productiemetingen aan MZI's in de Westelijke Waddenzee, Oosterschelde en Voordelta: samenvattend eindrapport
Kamermans, P. ; Smit, C.J. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2014
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C191/13) - 93
mossels - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - natura 2000 - bodembescherming - waddenzee - oosterschelde - voordelta - mussels - shellfish fisheries - soil conservation - wadden sea - eastern scheldt
In het kader van het duurzaam beheer van de Nederlandse kustwateren is besloten tot de transitie van bodemberoerende mosselvisserij naar het gebruik van mosselzaadinvanginstallaties (MZI’s). Deze omschakeling was nodig omdat deze economische activiteit plaatsvindt in de Natura-2000 gebieden Waddenzee, Oosterschelde en Voordelta. Het hier gepresenteerde onderzoek richt zich op het wegnemen van onzekerheden en kennislacunes die gepaard gaan met de reeds uitgevoerde plaatsing en de opschaling van zaadinvang met MZI-systemen.
Aanzet voor een adviessysteem voor oogst uit het bos : voor een evenwichtige nutriëntenbalans en een goede functievervulling van het bos
Jong, J.J. de; Briel, J. van den; Vries, W. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2494) - 52
bosexploitatie - bodembescherming - bodemchemie - houtkap - voedingsstoffen - biomassa - habitats - natuurbeheer - biobased economy - forest exploitation - soil conservation - soil chemistry - logging - nutrients - biomass - nature management
In Nederland zijn afspraken gemaakt om meer biomassa uit het bos te oogsten. Hierdoor kan de beschikbaarheid van voedingsstoffen afnemen. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht over de in andere landen bestaande systemen om uitputting van bosbodems tegen te gaan. Verder wordt een analyse gemaakt van de beschikbaarheid van gegevens om nutriëntenbalansen voor het Nederlandse bos op te stellen en worden eerste indicaties van de balanstermen en voorraden voedingsstoffen gegeven. Afsluitend wordt een aanzet gegeven voor een adviessysteem dat geschikt is voor praktisch gebruik door terreinbeheerders om eraan bij te dragen dat oogst van biomassa uit het bos kan plaatsvinden zonder dat dit tot ongewenste uitputting van nutriënten in de bodem leidt.
Bodemkwaliteit Veenkoloniën
Haan, J.J. de; Asperen, P. van; Visser, J.H.M. ; Wijnholds, K.H. - \ 2013
Lelystad : PPO AGV
bodembescherming - bodembeheer - minimale grondbewerking - bodemvruchtbaarheid - organische stof - akkerbouw - veenkolonien - soil conservation - soil management - minimum tillage - soil fertility - organic matter - arable farming
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. Doel van het project is het ontwikkelen van praktisch toepasbare maatregelen voor een duurzaam bodembeheer in de Veenkoloniën.
Natuurcompensatie op hoop van zegen (interview met Ingrid Tulp)
Wilt, H. de; Tulp, I.Y.M. - \ 2013
Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 8 (2013)29. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 19 - 23.
havens - ontwerp - grondverzet - natuurcompensatie - bodemfauna - bodembescherming - monitoring - noordzee - harbours - design - earth moving - nature compensation - soil fauna - soil conservation - north sea
Met het zand van de tweede Maasvlakte kun je de Amsterdam Arena ruim 223 keer vullen. Het illustreert wat er voor de Zuid-Hollandse kust in zee is veranderd. Om het verlies aan zeebodem te compenseren, is een deel van de Voordelta aangewezen als bodembeschermingsgebied. IMARES onderzoekt of dit werkt voor de bodemfauna.
Onzekerheid en gevoeligheid van het CUMULEO-RAM model
Vries, P. de - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C136/13) - 23
noordzee - marien milieu - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - benthos - bodembescherming - north sea - marine environment - marine areas - marine ecology - soil conservation
Slijkerman et al. (2013) onderzocht eerder welke instrumenten ingezet kunnen worden om een oordeel te vellen over effecten van ruimtelijke beschermingsmaatregelen op de zeebodemintegriteit van het Friese Front. Een van de onderzochte instrumenten is het CUMULEO-RAM model. Deze studie is bedoeld om een beter inzicht te krijgen in de gevoeligheid van verschillende typen bodemorganismen voor effecten van menselijk handelen.
Zeebodemintegriteit en visserij op het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden: Beschikbare kennis en 1e uitwerkingen
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Bos, O.G. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Tamis, J.E. ; Vries, P. de - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C078/13) - 100
marien milieu - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - benthos - bodembescherming - ecosystemen - noordzee - marine environment - marine areas - marine ecology - soil conservation - ecosystems - north sea
De implementatie van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Mariene strategie (KRM) is in Nederland in volle gang. Onderdeel van de implementatie is het definieren van ruimtelijke beschermingsmaatregelen. Hierbij worden in de Mariene Strategie als randvoorwaarden meegegeven de ambitie om 10 tot 15 procent van het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee (NCP) te vrijwaren van bodemberoering; en het tot een minimu beperken van de last voor de visserijsector.
Zaaien op dorre bodem : wereldwijde aanpak van verwoestijning
Lynden, Godert van - \ 2013
land degradation - rehabilitation - soil degradation - soil conservation - world - desertification
Geen kans voor nieuwe generatie frambozenschorsgalmug : afdekken van bodem effectief
Helsen, H.H.M. ; Klaassen, W.I.J. - \ 2012
De Fruitteelt 102 (2012)35. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 8 - 9.
kleinfruit uit de gematigde streken - frambozen - insectenplagen - cecidomyiidae - bestrijdingsmethoden - bodembescherming - afdekken - proeven - temperate small fruits - raspberries - insect pests - control methods - soil conservation - casing - trials
De frambozenschorsgalmug is een moeilijk te bestrijden plaag in de frambozenteelt. Op de open dag van het Kennis en Innovatie Centrum Kleinfruit (KICK) in Randwijk werden de nieuwste resultaten uit het onderzoek gepresenteerd. Afdekken van de bodem blijkt het verschijnen van een nieuwe generatie muggen te kunnen voorkomen.
A process for effective desertification mitigation
Schwilch, G. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; H. Hurni, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732880 - 178
woestijnvorming - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - besluitvorming - participatie - stakeholders - bodembescherming - milieueffect - mitigatie - desertification - land management - sustainability - decision making - participation - soil conservation - environmental impact - mitigation

in these ecosystems can easily result in widespread and severe land degradation and thus desertification.
Combined with global issues such as climate change, economic disparities, migration, and competing claims
on land, this often leads to a vicious cycle of aridity, land degradation, and productivity loss. In addition to
the harsh environmental conditions limiting land productivity, the socio-economic situation in drylands can
pose challenges as well, given that these regions are often characterised by remoteness, marginality, lowproductivity
farming, weak institutions, and even conflict. Managing land sustainably under such conditions
is a challenge which concerns land users and other stakeholders, policymakers, and researchers alike.
Desertification research has traditionally focused on degradation assessments, whereas prevention and
mitigation strategies have not sufficiently been emphasised, although the concept of sustainable land
management (SLM) is increasingly being acknowledged (Chapter 1).
The present research was embedded in the EU FP6 research project DESIRE (Desertification
Mitigation and Remediation of Land – a Global Approach for Local Solutions; 2007–2012). DESIRE aimed to
establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 areas affected by land
degradation and desertification around the world. Project work was based on close collaboration of
scientists with local stakeholder groups. The study sites served as a global laboratory for developing and
applying new methods of science – stakeholder collaboration and trialling traditional and innovative
approaches to combating desertification.
Chapter 2 offers a compilation and review of a number of methodological approaches to monitoring
and assessing SLM which to date have been little reported in the literature. Lessons are drawn from these
experiences, and common elements and future pathways are identified as a basis for a global approach.
The local-level methods of the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT)
framework serve to catalogue SLM technologies and approaches as case studies. This tool was included in
the local-level Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) as well as in the DESIRE project.
Complementary site-based approaches can enhance an ecological process-based understanding of SLM
variation. At national and sub-national levels, a joint WOCAT/LADA/DESIRE spatial assessment based on
land use systems can be used to identify the status and trends of degradation and SLM, including causes,
drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Expert consultation is combined with scientific evidence and,
where necessary, enhanced with secondary data and indicator databases. Key lessons learnt include the
need for a multi-scale approach, for using common indicators, and for drawing on a variety of information
sources, including scientific data and local knowledge, by means of participatory methods. Methodological
consistency allows for cross-scale analyses, and findings can be analysed and documented for use by
decision-makers at various levels. Effective monitoring and assessment of SLM (e.g. for the United Nations
Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCCD) requires a comprehensive methodological framework
agreed upon and adopted by the major players.
Although a variety of conservation measures are already applied at the local level, they are not
adequately recognised, evaluated, and shared by land users, technicians, researchers, and policymakers.
Likewise, collaboration between researchers and implementers is often insufficient. Chapter 3 presents a
new methodological framework for a participatory process of appraising and selecting desertification
mitigation strategies, and outlines first experiences from its application in the DESIRE project. The
methodology – a key product developed within this PhD study – combines a collective learning and
decision-making approach with the use of evaluated global best practices. It moves through a concise
process in three parts, starting out with the identification of land degradation and locally applied solutions
in a stakeholder workshop, followed by an assessment of local solutions using a standardised evaluation
tool, and ending with the joint selection of promising strategies for implementation with the help of a
decision support tool. A preliminary analysis of the application of the first part of the methodology showed
that the initial stakeholder workshop resulted in a good basis for stakeholder cooperation and yielded
promising land conservation practices for further assessment. Study site research teams appreciated the
results, which they considered particularly valuable because urgent issues and promising options had
emerged from joint reflection. The methodology was found to be suitable for initiating mutual learning
among different stakeholder groups, as well as for integrating local and scientific knowledge.
The thus identified SLM practices were then documented and evaluated by local researchers in
collaboration with land users and using the internationally recognised and standardised WOCAT
questionnaires. These in-depth assessments of 30 technologies and 8 approaches are analysed and
compared across the DESIRE study sites in Chapter 4, highlighting key issues of SLM in drylands. Careful
attention is paid to features which specifically characterise SLM in drylands and make SLM practices
especially useful regarding the identified threats. Among the achievements attributed to the documented
technologies, those mentioned most were diversified and enhanced production, as well as better
management of water and soil degradation, whether by means of water harvesting, by improving soil
moisture, or by reducing runoff. Demonstrating a favourable local-scale cost–benefit relationship was
found to be crucial to improving people’s livelihoods and preventing further outmigration. However, it was
also found that more research is needed to support the case study authors’ assessments of SLM impacts as
well as to provide a solid rationale for investments in SLM.
There are many and often competing options for SLM, and each must be assessed – and sometimes
negotiated – prior to implementation. This makes SLM a classic multi-stakeholder issue which concerns
individual and community land users, agricultural advisors, natural resource managers, government
authorities, civil society, and researchers alike. Selecting appropriate SLM technologies for implementation
thus requires an approach that is capable of integrating the diverse knowledge, perceptions, and
judgements of the different stakeholders involved. Time and resource constraints often impede the
development of contextualised, targeted, and sophisticated decision support systems. The DESIRE research
project provided an excellent opportunity to develop and test a generic decision support methodology,
using it to assist the study site teams in selecting, together with stakeholders in a stakeholder workshop,
the most promising SLM option(s) for subsequent test implementation in the field (Chapter 5). Special
attention was paid to the screening of local innovations, the selection and adaptation of potential SLM
technologies, and the decision-making process determining which options are to be implemented. Chapter
5 reviews the application of the DESIRE decision support methodology in a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic
contexts, finding it to be well-structured, comprehensive, and relatively easy to apply. The builtin
global database of SLM options provided knowledge from various environments, while the use of simple
software allowed for easy calculation and visualisation of results. The scoring and negotiation of each
option’s sustainability forced stakeholders to consider and acknowledge each other’s positions and
opinions, ensuring that the final choice was well-accepted. The methodology included seeking
commitments from stakeholders to implement the selected option(s). Challenges included the complexity
of the issues at hand and the need for skilled moderators. Nonetheless, positive outcomes and user
feedback confirmed that the DESIRE decision support methodology is an easy-to-use stepwise methodology
for facilitating decision-focused participatory processes.
Participatory and multi-stakeholder approaches are increasingly motivated by social learning and
empowerment goals. Yet there remains a lack of practical tools for facilitating such processes. The research
presented here aimed to close the gap between the theory and the practice of stakeholder participation
and learning in decision-making processes concerned with SLM. Chapter 6 analyses and describes how the
3-part participatory methodology for selecting SLM options contributed to multi-stakeholder learning.
Cross-site analysis and in-depth evaluation of the Moroccan and Portuguese sites were used to evaluate
how well the proposed process facilitated stakeholder learning and the selection of appropriate SLM
options for local implementation. The structured nature of the process – starting with the joint setting of
SLM goals – was found to facilitate mutual understanding and collaboration between stakeholders. The
deliberation process led to a high degree of consensus over the outcome and, although this had not been
an initial aim, in many cases also fostered social learning. This solution-oriented methodology is applicable
in a wide range of contexts and can be implemented with limited time and resources.
Chapter 7 presents insights into the field implementation of one of the selected SLM measures in
Sehoul, Morocco. The Moroccan DESIRE study site was located near the city of Rabat, in an area where
desertification poses a threat to marginal and often stony and degraded slopes. The use of marginal and
stony land by the local population had become necessary due to increased poverty and the occupation of
the best stretches of land by new owners. The land use change from grazing to cropping caused a
deterioration of the field water balance, characterised by increased water loss through runoff, drainage,
and evaporation, and resulting in less primary production. Promising experiences with no-tillage practices
elsewhere in Morocco had motivated the Moroccan government to promote Conservation Agriculture
throughout the country. This combination of crop rotation, minimal soil disturbance, and soil cover
maintenance, however, had not yet been tested on sloping degraded land. The field trial results showed
that covering the soil with crop residues neither improved yields nor increased rainwater use efficiency,
although soil water was generally enhanced. Soil moisture measurements revealed that no-tillage was
favourable mainly at soil depths of 5 cm and in connection with low-rainfall events (< 20 mm); under these
circumstances, moisture content was generally higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage.
Moreover, farmers in Sehoul were found to be primarily interested in animal husbandry, and both crop
residues and grains were used as feed. Chapter 7 concludes with lessons learnt from the on-farm trials in
Sehoul.
The synthesis (Chapter 8) offers more detailed reflection on certain key aspects of the research
findings, such as the 3-part methodology, monitoring and assessment, stakeholder collaboration and
learning, decision support, and desertification mitigation by means of SLM technologies and approaches.
This is followed by a review of challenges and limitations of the proposed methodological framework and
an assessment of its overall impact. The chapter concludes with an outlook and recommendations. One
major conclusion is that research needs to move beyond simply idealising and promoting participatory
approaches and learning processes: in addition, researchers must also advocate the provision of time and
resources and the establishment of long-term partnerships by both scientific and policymaking bodies. Indepth
and long-term field-based research remains important, but it requires sufficient resources and longterm
commitment in order to provide adequate evidence. The methodology developed within this thesis is
not limited to desertification; it is appropriate and useful for tackling land degradation anywhere in the
world and for advancing towards more sustainable decisions on SLM strategies with a higher acceptance
among stakeholders. Negotiation of, and deliberation over, ecosystem services might be the key to
boosting SLM beyond the local scale, while at the same time compensating land users for their crucial
efforts to combat desertification.

PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta. Perceel Vis: Jaarrapport 2011
Damme, C.J.G. van; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Teal, L.R. ; Tien, N.S.H. - \ 2012
IMARES : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C031.12) - 86
natuurcompensatie - mariene gebieden - benthos - natura 2000 - noordzee - visbestand - foerageren - vogels - bodembescherming - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - nature compensation - marine areas - north sea - fishery resources - foraging - birds - soil conservation
In juni 2008 is in de Voordelta een Bodembeschermingsgebied ingesteld als compensatie voor de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte. Naar verwachting zal de instelling van dit gebied leiden tot een toename van het benthos ter plaatse. De doelstelling van het onderzoek is vast te stellen welke veranderingen er in de periode 2009-2013 zullen optreden in de visgemeenschap. In deze rapportage worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van de bemonsteringen in het derde jaar na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied (2008), in het voorjaar van 2011.
PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta. Perceel Vis: Jaarrapport 2009
Damme, C.J.G. van - \ 2012
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C030.12) - 30
natuurcompensatie - mariene gebieden - benthos - natura 2000 - noordzee - visbestand - foerageren - vogels - bodembescherming - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - nature compensation - marine areas - north sea - fishery resources - foraging - birds - soil conservation
In juni 2008 is in de Voordelta een Bodembeschermingsgebied ingesteld als compensatie voor de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte. Naar verwachting zal de instelling van dit gebied leiden tot een toename van het benthos ter plaatse. De doelstelling van het onderzoek is vast te stellen welke veranderingen er in de periode 2009-2013 zullen optreden in de visgemeenschap. In deze rapportage worden bevindingen gepresenteerd van de eerste bemonsteringen na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied, in het voorjaar en late zomer van 2009.
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