Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of farming systems : A case in Chencha, South Ethiopia
Dersseh, Waga Mazengia - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Rogier Schulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436830 - 157
potatoes - solanum tuberosum - ethiopia - food security - farming systems - mixed farming - sustainability - optimization - efficiency - farm surveys - household surveys - socioeconomics - self sufficiency - profits - training - agronomic characteristics - productivity - soil fertility - rotation - animal feeding - improved varieties - inorganic fertilizers - aardappelen - ethiopië - voedselzekerheid - bedrijfssystemen - gemengde landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - optimalisatie - efficiëntie - bedrijfsonderzoeken - huishoudonderzoeken - sociale economie - zelfvoorziening - winsten - opleiding - agronomische kenmerken - productiviteit - bodemvruchtbaarheid - rotatie - diervoedering - veredelde rassen - anorganische meststoffen

Potato has multiple benefits and thus can play a vital role in ensuring food security in Ethiopia. However, for diverse reasons, its productivity is low. The farming systems in Ethiopia in which potato is grown, are predominantly mixed farming systems.

Most of the research in Ethiopia is focused on crop-specific constraints and thus there is limited research in which the interrelations between crop and livestock management practices are investigated. There is also not enough research focused on combined analysis of soil nutrient and animal feed balances and agronomic and socioeconomic efficiencies at farm level.

This study assessed production constraints and agronomic and socioeconomic sustainability of the farming systems in South Ethiopia and explored the possible synergetic options to alleviate major constraints. More specifically, the study intended to quantify the variation in input and output among farms, to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production, to evaluate the sustainability of the farming systems at farm level, to identify constraints of sustainable intensification, and to explore synergetic solutions for the major constraints. Different research approaches were used ranging from lab analysis, household surveys, group discussions, to farm surveys.

Results showed that constraints related to input and product use in potato production vary across households indicating a need for a pluriform advisory model recognizing (and building upon alleviation of) the diversity of constraints identified in this analysis. The sustainability of the farming system is constrained by low agricultural productivity, low soil fertility, poor labour efficiency and limited economic return associated with improper crop rotation, inappropriate soil fertility management practices, shortage of animal feed, labour- and economically inefficient farm practices and labour shortage. However, there is ample scope to overcome the major constraints and simultaneously to optimize farm management.

The core messages of the study can be summarized as follows:

1) the current potato production is characterized by low productivity and economic returns due to various socioeconomic, agronomic and biological factors;

2) the soil fertility is low and there is uneven distribution of nutrients over plots with relatively high fertility levels in the homestead areas;

3) the current labour shortage can be attributed to mainly inefficiency of agricultural management practices and labour migration to towns for economic reasons indicating that the farming system is not sustainable in terms of labour;

4) considering the direct return from animal production, most of the farms had very low gross margin with the current management system and this reduced the overall operating profit of farms. The low return from animal rearing was offset by the relatively high profit from crop production indicating the benefit of mixed farming system in sustaining agricultural production; and

5) each farm can have a wide range of optimized solutions mainly through introduction of improved technologies and subsequent redesigning of the farm managements.

In general, the findings of the current study indicate that it is worthwhile to assess the sustainability of agricultural production in different farming systems and agro-ecologies of Ethiopia. In addition, the combined effect of introducing improved agricultural technologies and subsequent reconfiguring the farm management is very crucial to increase and sustain agricultural production.

On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming
Hijbeek, Renske - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): Hein ten Berge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436632 - 211
soil fertility - soil fertility management - soil management - soil conservation - organic matter - soil organic matter - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - green manures - manures - straw - soil carbon sequestration - cover crops - crop yield - yields - meta-analysis - food security - europe - drivers - barriers - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - bodembeheer - bodembescherming - organische stof - organisch bodemmateriaal - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - groenbemesters - mest - stro - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - dekgewassen - gewasopbrengst - opbrengsten - meta-analyse - voedselzekerheid - europa - chauffeurs - barrières

The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral fertiliser. In addition, a farm survey was conducted to find drivers and barriers for the use of organic inputs and to assess if arable farmers in Europe perceive a deficiency of SOM.

The findings in this thesis suggest that at least on the shorter term, on average, there seems to be no immediate threat from a deficiency of SOM to crop production in arable farming in Europe. The long-term experiments showed that with sufficient use of only mineral fertilisers, on average, similar yields could be attained over multiple years as with the combined use of organic inputs and mineral fertiliser. This was reflected in the farm survey, in which a large majority of farmers indicated not to perceive a deficiency of SOM. Analysis of long-term experiments also showed that more mineral fertiliser N was saved when using farmyard manure at high N rates (with mineral fertiliser application) than at low N rates (without mineral fertiliser application), based on comparisons at equal yield.

Specific crops and environments did benefit from organic inputs and more SOM in terms of crop production. Long-term experiments showed that organic inputs give benefit to crop production in wet climates and on sandy soils. In addition, farmers perceived a higher deficiency of SOM on steep slopes, sandy soils, wet and very dry climates. The additional yield effect of organic inputs was significant for potatoes. More in general, farmers who cultivated larger shares of their land with specialized crops (including potatoes, sugar beets, onions and other vegetables) than cereals perceived a higher deficiency of SOM. It seems that while the functions of SOM can be replaced with technical means to a large extent (e.g. tillage, use of mineral fertilisers), there are limits to this technical potential when environmental conditions are more extreme and crops are more demanding.

The farm survey revealed that farmers perceive a trade-off between improved soil quality on the one hand and increased pressures from weeds, pests and diseases and financial consequences on the other hand when using organic inputs. If policies aim to stimulate the maintenance or increase of SOM, more insight is needed into the conditions that regulate the pressures of weeds, pests and diseases in response to organic inputs. Financial consequences (at least on the short term) should also be accounted for. More importantly however, benefits from SOM for crop production cannot be taken for granted. Only in specific situations such benefits will exist. If European policies on SOM aim to include benefits for crop production, focus should be on areas with more extreme environmental conditions (very dry or wet climates, steep slopes, sandy soils), or cropping systems with more specialized or horticultural crops rather than cereals.

Species mixing effects on forest productivity in the Netherlands
Lu, Huicui - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): Frank Sterck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436397 - 134
mixed forests - temperate zones - deciduous forests - soil fertility - light - yields - netherlands - gemengde bossen - gematigde klimaatzones - loofverliezende bossen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - licht - opbrengsten - nederland

Many monoculture forests (dominated by a single tree species) have been converted to mixed-species forests (dominated by more than one tree species) in Europe over the last decades. The main reason for this conversion was to increase productivity, including timber production, and enhance other ecosystem services, such as conservation of biodiversity and other nature values. In addition, it has been suggested that mixed-species forests are more resistant, resilient and stable to disturbances.

In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, inter-specific differences in crown architecture, leaf phenology, shade tolerance and root distribution may allow tree species to partition resources in mixed forests. Such mechanisms may lead to a higher productivity of mixed forests versus monoculture forests, a phenomenon often referred to as overyielding. Interestingly, the stress-gradient hypothesis and the resource-ratio hypothesis suggests that such inter-specific interactions vary along a soil fertility gradient, but in different ways. The stress-gradient hypothesis emphasizes that more efficient partitioning increases overyielding at low fertility soils, whereas the resource ratio hypothesis considers that the denser packing of crowns on fertile soils allows for partitioning of light and overyielding on high fertility soils. Several studies have been carried out about species mixing effects on forest productivity, but so far their findings are ambiguous. Probably, this ambiguity comes from the sites that they studied, which differ in species, age, management history, and/or environmental conditions.

This thesis analyses the mixing effect on productivity in relation to the combination of species, stand age and soil fertility, and discusses possible consequences of forest management, for five two-species mixtures in the Netherlands: Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)oak (Quercus robur L.), oakbeech, oakbirch (Betula pendula Roth) and pinebirch. These mixtures and their corresponding monoculture stands were studied using long-term permanent forest plots over multiple decades, but also using two inventories (around 2003 and 2013) across the entire Netherlands. These forest plots data were used together with empirical models at total stand level (chapter 2), species level (chapter 3) and tree level (chapter 4) to evaluate the mixing effect on forest productivity.

In chapter 2, four two-species mixtures and their corresponding monospecific stands were compared for productivity (volume stem wood in m3 ha-1 year-1). It was explored whether mixing species differing in leaf phenology and shade tolerance would lead to overyielding of mixed forest stands, and whether overyielding changes with stand development. In line with the niche complementarity hypothesis, the two evergreen–deciduous species mixtures (Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak) showed overyielding whereas deciduous–deciduous species mixtures (oakbeech and oakbirch) did not. The overyielding was strongest for the Douglas-fir–beech mixture than the pine–oak mixture, which can be attributed to the greater difference in shade tolerance in the former mixture. Overyielding did not significantly change with stand development. It is argued that the regular thinning maintained the ability of species to partition resources, i.e. the complementary resource use in those mixed stands over all stand ages.

In chapter 3, it was analysed which of the two species in these four mixtures contributed to overyielding, and whether this overyielding changed along a soil fertility gradient. It was discovered that both the fast-growing and the slow-growing species could contribute to overyielding. Yet, it was mainly the fast-growing Douglas-fir that contributed to higher productivity in the Douglas-fir–beech mixtures, and the slow-growing oak that did so in the pine–oak mixtures. For both mixtures, the greatest relative productivity gain was achieved by mixtures on the poorer soils. At first sight, these results seem in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis and not the resource-ratio hypothesis. Yet, it was argued that not only complementary use of soil resources, but also use of light, may contribute to the higher productivity of mixed stands on the poorer soils.

In chapter 4, it was assessed how the growth of individual trees in mixtures was influenced by inter- and intra-specific competition, and whether this competition was mainly size-symmetric for soil resources or size-asymmetric for light on soils differing in fertility. This chapter focussed on three mixtures, i.e. oak–birch, pine–oak and pine–birch, which were available at sufficient numbers in the Dutch national forest inventory data. It was concluded that intra-specific competition was not necessarily stronger than inter-specific competition and this competitive reduction was less seen at lower soil fertility and dependent on species mixtures, which is not in line with the stress-gradient hypothesis. Moreover, size-asymmetric competition for light was more associated with tree basal area growth than size-symmetric competition for soil resources, suggesting that light is the most limiting resource. Competition for light was generally much stronger at high fertility soils, supporting the resource-ratio hypothesis. These results suggest that light is the most limiting resource for tree basal area growth and that reduced competition for light can be explained to some degree by complementarity in light use to increase tree growth in mixed forests.

This thesis thus described the productivity patterns when mixing tree species and explored possible mechanisms of higher productivity in mixed stands compared with monoculture stands in the Netherlands. Complementary use of aboveground and belowground resources probably contributes to the higher productivity in mixed stands, but other factors including pathogens, nutrient cycling and litter decomposition were not addressed but cannot be excluded. Overyielding in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was maintained over time, probably owing to the intensive thinning in Dutch forests. The results shed new light on the stress-gradient and resource-ratio hypotheses. For mixtures in Dutch forest, the greatest productivity gain in Douglas-fir–beech and pine–oak mixtures was achieved on the poorer soils, and it was argued that this is at least partially driven by complementary use of light, while the role of complementarity in use of soil resources is more obscure. Overall, this thesis suggest a substantial potential of species mixing for increasing productivity, which may run in parallel with enhancing other ecosystem services such as conservation of diversity and other nature values. Yet, more experimental studies on productivity in mixed stands are required to better unravel alternative mechanisms. Such understanding is required to manage the forests effectively in a century of unpreceded human driven changes in environmental conditions.

'De plant voedt ook de bodem' : 'Inzicht in bodem-plantrelaties gunstig voor bodemvitaliteit en productkwaliteit'
Sukkel, W. - \ 2017
Ekoland 37 (2017)1. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 14 - 15.
bodem-plant relaties - biologische landbouw - groenbemesters - grondbewerking - bodemvruchtbaarheid - soil plant relationships - organic farming - green manures - tillage - soil fertility
Een belangrijk uitgangspunt van biologische landbouw is dat de bodem de plant voedt. Maar het omgekeerde is ook waar. Aandacht voor variatie in gewassen en groenbemesters kan de bodem helpen verbeteren. Het is een van de zaken waar WUR-onderzoekers tijdens de BioBeurs op inzoomen in een serie workshops over de bodem.
Wisselteelt goed voor grasopbrengst : elf procent hogere grasopbrengst op De Marke dankzij vruchtwisseling met mais
Aarts, Frans - \ 2016
grasslands - yields - rotations - maize - soil fertility - grasses - fertilizer application - agricultural research

Wissel snijmais af met minimaal drie jaar grasland. Dat advies geeft onderzoeker Frans Aarts van Wageningen UR. Verbetering van de bodemvruchtbaarheid leidt dan tot een hogere grasopbrengst, net als het gebruik van de nieuwste grassoorten.

De boon op de troon
Weele, Cor van der; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Giller, Ken ; Jager, Ilse de - \ 2016
food security - human feeding - beans - grain legumes - lentils - food consumption - protein sources - food and agriculture organization - meat alternates - soil fertility - pisum sativum

Geinterviewd voor artikel in Wageningen World Nr.3 2016 In het kader van het Internationaal jaar van de peulvruchten.

Leve(n) de bodem! : de basis onder ons bestaan
Brussaard, L. ; Govers, F.P.M. ; Buiter, R.M. - \ 2016
Den Haag : Stichting Bio-Wetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier / Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij 35e jaargang (2016) kwartaal 3) - ISBN 9789073196834 - 88
bodemkunde - bodembiologie - bodemkwaliteit - landbouwgronden - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodembeheer - bodemweerbaarheid - bodemmicrobiologie - duurzaam bodemgebruik - lesmaterialen - soil science - soil biology - soil quality - agricultural soils - soil fertility - soil management - soil suppressiveness - soil microbiology - sustainable land use - teaching materials
De bodem is niet alleen letterlijk de grond onder ons bestaan, ze is dat ook figuurlijk. Vruchtbare bodems leveren ons bijvoorbeeld voedsel, water en grondstoffen, maar ook een heel scala aan andere ecosysteemdiensten. In één theelepel zwarte grond leven meer organismen dan er mensen zijn op de hele aarde. Ze zorgen ervoor dat planten gebruik kunnen maken van de voedingsstoffen in de bodem en in een gezonde bodem krijgen ziekteverwekkers ook minder kans. Nu we steeds beter begrijpen hóe ze dat doen, kunnen wij zelfs nieuwe antibiotica vinden in de bodem! In dit cahier laten wetenschappers van naam op het gebied van het bodemonderzoek niet alleen zien welke diensten een gezonde bodem al vele eeuwen levert. Ze vertellen ook hoe de figuurlijke bodem onder ons bestaan tegelijk grond voor inspiratie is voor voedsel en technologie voor de toekomst.
Bodemverbeteraars met focus op biochar
Reuler, H. van; Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
- 15 p.
bodemverbeteraars - biochar - bodemkwaliteit - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodembiologie - soil conditioners - soil quality - soil fertility - soil biology
Biochar is een stabiele organische verbinding die hoofdzakelijk uit koolstof bestaat. Het ontstaat bij verhitting van biomassa onder zuurstofloze omstandigheden, z.g. pyrolyse. Biochar wordt geproduceerd als bodemverbeteraar. De discussie gaat om het effect van Biochar toediening op een aantal bodemfuncties, zoals b.v. het vermogen om vocht en voedingsstoffen vast te houden, biologische activiteit.
Van bodeminformatie naar bodemmaatregelen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil fertility - soil conservation - farm management - internet - information needs - soil management - teaching materials
Visie integraal bodembeheer Algemeen
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2016
arable farming - soil management - water management - soil quality - soil fertility - farm management - rotations - fertilizer application - tillage - agricultural production - biodiversity - climatic factors - ecosystem services - organic matter - teaching materials
Effecten bodem- en structuurverbeteraars : Onderzoek op klei- en zandgrond 2010-2015 eindrapportage
Balen, D.J.M. van; Topper, C.G. ; Geel, W.C.A. van; Berg, W. van den; Haas, M.J.G. de; Bussink, Wim ; Schoutsen, M.A. - \ 2016
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroenten - 121 p.
bodemkwaliteit - bodemstructuur - fysische bodemeigenschappen - chemische bodemeigenschappen - bodembiologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - zware kleigronden - zandgronden - calciummeststoffen - biochar - soil quality - soil structure - soil physical properties - soil chemical properties - soil biology - soil fertility - soil fertility management - clay soils - sandy soils - calcium fertilizers
In de praktijk lopen telers vaak tegen problemen aan van een slechte bodemkwaliteit. Intensieve bouwplannen, steeds zwaardere mechanisatie, uitloging (Ca-uitspoeling), piekneerslagen en de schaalvergroting in de landbouw leiden tot vermindering van de fysische bodemvruchtbaarheid en de structuur van de bodem. Dit veroorzaakt:  toenemende problemen bij de bewerkbaarheid van de bodem;  minder efficiënt gebruik van meststoffen;  verhoogd risico van uit- en afspoeling van nutriënten;  wateroverlast;  verlaging van de opbrengst. Om de bodemstructuur te verbeteren, worden door industrie en handel zogeheten bodemverbeteraars en kalkmeststoffen aangeboden. Er is een grote variatie in type producten, de wijze waarop ze werken en de mate waarin ze een directe dan wel indirecte invloed op de bodemvruchtbaarheid kunnen hebben. Objectieve informatie over het effect van deze producten op de gewasopbrengsten en de fysische, chemische en biologische bodemvruchtbaarheid ontbreekt. Uit eerdere proeven is bekend dat effecten van bodem verbeterende maatregelen vaak pas na enkele jaren zichtbaar worden. Om het effect van verschillende bodemverbeteraars op opbrengst en bodemeigenschappen op de langere termijn te toetsen, zijn proefvelden aangelegd op drie kleilocaties (Kollumerwaard, Lelystad en Westmaas) en twee zandlocaties (Vredepeel, Valthermond). Op deze proefvelden zijn bouwplannen toegepast die gangbaar zijn voor de betreffende regio. Eventuele positieve effecten worden sterker met het verstrijken der jaren. Bovendien zijn deze het duidelijkst te onderscheiden wanneer op alle locaties hetzelfde gewas wordt geteeld. Daarom stonden er in het laatste jaar op alle proefvelden aardappels. In de proef zijn de ontwikkeling van de gewasopbrengst, de gewaskwaliteit en de bodemeigenschappen gevolgd over een periode van zes jaar (2010-2015).
Soil fertility management in organic greenhouses in Europe
Tittatelli, Fabio ; Bath, Brigitta ; Ceglie, Francesco Giovanni ; Garcia, M.C. ; Moller, K. ; Reents, H.J. ; Vedie, Helene ; Voogt, W. - \ 2016
[Netherlands] : BioGreenhouse - ISBN 9789462575363 - 46 p.
greenhouse horticulture - soil fertility - organic farming - europe - rotation - fertilizer application - nutrient management - cropping systems - glastuinbouw - bodemvruchtbaarheid - biologische landbouw - europa - rotatie - bemesting - nutrientenbeheer - teeltsystemen
The management of soil fertility in organic greenhouse systems differs quite widely across Europe. The challenge is to identify and implement strategies which comply with the organic principles set out in (EC) Reg. 834/2007 and (EC) Reg. 889/2008 as well as supporting environmentally, socially and economically sustainable cropping systems. In this paper, written by a group of scientists of different geographical origin and with different background, the state of the art of the sector and the main characteristics of the European organic greenhouse cropping systems are described. The main bottlenecks and constraints are discussed with a particular reference to the regulatory framework in force. The most relevant issues that may influence the enforcement and future development of the sector have been identified as specific knowledge gaps. For each of them, the appropriate research needs were elaborated in a multidisciplinary perspective as forthcoming challenges for the whole sector. Although not exhaustive, given the wide heterogeneity of the implemented systems, this paper is able, for the first time, to give a structured outlook on soil fertility management in protected organic conditions on a European scale.
Kringlopen - Algemeen : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
Groenkennisnet
cycling - resource conservation - renewable resources - soil - soil fertility - biobased economy - horticulture - teaching materials - kringlopen - hulpbronnenbehoud - vervangbare hulpbronnen - bodem - bodemvruchtbaarheid - tuinbouw - lesmaterialen
Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Biobased Economy van het CIV T&U.
Vruchtbare gronden: Integrale bodemvisie & Bodembeoordeling en verbetering
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2015
arable farming - soil degradation - tillage - soil fertility - biodiversity - ecosystem management - soil-landscape relationships - soil water - fields - nematoda - soil surveys - rotations
December 2015. Projectnummer 3750313900
Stikstofbinding voor kleine boeren in Afrika
Giller, K.E. - \ 2015
Vork 2 (2015)3. - ISSN 2352-2925 - p. 16 - 21.
tuinbouw - kleine landbouwbedrijven - afrika - stikstofbindende bacteriën - rhizobium - bodemvruchtbaarheid - inkomen van landbouwers - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - peulgewassen - sojabonen - voedselproductie - projecten - teeltsystemen - horticulture - small farms - africa - nitrogen fixing bacteria - soil fertility - farmers' income - farm management - legumes - soyabeans - food production - projects - cropping systems
Het project N2Africa is onlangs de tweede fase ingegaan met als doel dat in 2020 een half miljoen kleine boeren in Afrika, ten zuiden van de Sahara, stikstofbinding hebben geïntegreerd in hun bedrijfsvoering. Op een manier die hen past, zegt Ken Giller. Stikstofbinding verbetert de bodemvruchtbaarheid, terwijl de teelt van bonen, die samen met bacteriën de stikstof vastleggen, een belangrijke aanvulling vormt op het menu en op het inkomen van de boer.
Dossier Functionele Agrobiodiversiteit
Alebeek, F.A.N. van - \ 2015
Groen Kennisnet
agrobiodiversiteit - agrarische productiesystemen - plagenbestrijding - biologische bestrijding - agrarisch natuurbeheer - gewasbescherming - bodemvruchtbaarheid - agro-biodiversity - agricultural production systems - pest control - biological control - agri-environment schemes - plant protection - soil fertility
De diversiteit aan soorten organismen als planten, dieren, micro-organismen – in een woord biodiversiteit – is een samenhangend geheel. De soorten binnen een systeem kunnen elkaar op verschillende manieren beïnvloeden. Regenwormen en micro-organismen kunnen de bodemstructuur verbeteren, bijen zorgen voor bevruchting van planten en zweefvliegen kunnen de ontwikkeling van luizen onderdrukken.
Effecten bodem- en structuurverbeteraars; onderzoek op kleigrond 2010-2014
Balen, D.J.M. van; Topper, C.G. ; Geel, W.C.A. van; Haan, J.J. de; Haas, M.J.G. de; Bussink, D.W. - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (Rapport / PPO-AGV 659) - 63
akkerbouw - bodemstructuur - structuur - lichte-matig zware kleigronden - flevoland - poldergronden - bodemvruchtbaarheid - kalkmeststoffen - bodemverbeteraars - arable farming - soil structure - structure - clay loam soils - polder soils - soil fertility - liming materials - soil conditioners
In de praktijk lopen telers steeds vaker tegen problemen aan van een slechte bodemkwaliteit. Intensieve bouwplannen, steeds zwaardere mechanisatie, uitloging (Ca-uitspoeling), piekneerslagen en de schaalvergroting in de landbouw leiden tot vermindering van de fysische bodemvruchtbaarheid en de structuur van de bodem. Om de bodemstructuur te verbeteren, worden door industrie en handel zogeheten bodemverbeteraars en kalkmeststoffen aangeboden. Er is een grote variatie in type producten, de wijze waarop ze werken en de mate waarin ze een directe dan wel indirecte invloed op de bodemvruchtbaarheid hebben. Objectieve informatie over het effect van de aanbevolen producten op gewasopbrengsten en fysische, chemische en biologische bodemvruchtbaarheid ontbreekt. Uit eerdere proeven blijkt dat de effecten binnen 1 of 2 groeiseizoenen vaak afwezig zijn. Veel fabrikanten geven aan dat pas op langere termijn effecten te verwachten zijn.
Ecologie van bosbodems : een verkennende studie naar ecologisch functioneren van bosbodems op zandgronden
Jong, J.J. de; Bloem, J. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2657) - 89
bosecologie - bodemecologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - humus - organische stof - zandgronden - forest ecology - soil ecology - soil fertility - organic matter - sandy soils
De bodem van een bos is bepalend voor het functioneren van het bos als productie- en ecosysteem. Het is het substraat waar organismen in leven en waar planten in wortelen. De bodem houdt vocht en nutriënten vast en levert deze aan planten en het bodemleven, terwijl planten organische stof aan de bodem leveren. De wijze waarop dit allemaal gebeurt, bepaalt in grote mate welke organismen er in en op voor kunnen komen en hoe die functioneren. De bodemorganismen en voedingstoestand van de bodem worden beïnvloed door beheer en externe factoren, zoals depositie. Kennis van de onderlinge relaties tussen de factoren die de bodemvruchtbaarheid bepalen of door de bodemvruchtbaarheid bepaald worden, is daarom van groot belang voor een duurzaam bosbeheer. Dit rapport bevat een verkenning van de kennis die er aanwezig is op dat gebied.
Integraal bodembeheer, wat en hoe, voorbeelden uit de PPS-bodem
Haan, Janjo de - \ 2015
arable farming - vegetable growing - field crops - fertilizer application - soil quality - organic fertilizers - soil fertility
Achtergrondinformatie Praktijkdag Suikerbieten & Cichorei 2 juli 2015, Vredepeel
PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente, - \ 2015
Vredenpeel : PPO - 17
akkerbouw - suikerbieten - cichorei - wortelgewassen - proeven op proefstations - zandgronden - organische meststoffen - bodemvruchtbaarheid - mechanische bestrijding - herbiciden - onkruidbestrijding - gewasbescherming - bladschimmels - rhizoctonia - rassenproeven - bemesting - arable farming - sugarbeet - chicory - root crops - station tests - sandy soils - organic fertilizers - soil fertility - mechanical control - herbicides - weed control - plant protection - phylloplane fungi - variety trials - fertilizer application
Deze Praktijkdag aandacht voor: Investeren in organische stof loont. Mechanische onkruidbestrijding. Bladschimmelbeheersing suikerbieten. Proefveld rhizoctoniaresistente suikerbietenrassen. Stikstof- en fosfaatbemesting in relatie tot het 5e actieprogramma. Nitraatrichtlijn. Stel de juiste diagnose van ‘zieke’ planten. Vooruitgang door nieuwe rassen bij cichorei. Onkruidbeheersing. Opbrengstverhoging. en Spuittechniek
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