Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Recognition of Verticillium effector Ave1 by tomato immune receptor Ve1 mediates Verticillium resistance in diverse plant species
Song, Yin - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Bart Thomma; Pierre de Wit. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437950 - 231
disease resistance - defence mechanisms - immunity - plant-microbe interactions - plant pathogens - verticillium dahliae - verticillium - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - receptors - genes - tobacco - nicotiana glutinosa - potatoes - solanum tuberosum - solanum torvum - humulus lupulus - cotton - gossypium hirsutum - transgenic plants - arabidopsis thaliana - ziekteresistentie - verdedigingsmechanismen - immuniteit - plant-microbe interacties - plantenziekteverwekkers - tomaten - receptoren - genen - tabak - aardappelen - katoen - transgene planten

Plant-pathogenic microbes secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, whereas plants in turn employ immune receptors to try and intercept such effectors in order to prevent pathogen colonization. Based on structure and subcellular location, immune receptors fall into two major classes; cell surface-localized receptors that comprise receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that monitor the extracellular space, and cytoplasm-localized nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) that survey the intracellular environment. Race-specific resistance to Verticillium wilt in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is governed by the tomato extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR)-containing RLP-type cell surface receptor Ve1 upon recognition of the effector protein Ave1 that is secreted by race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt Verticillium dahliae. Homologues of V. dahliae Ave1 (VdAve1) are found in plants and in a number of plant pathogenic microbes, and some of these VdAve1 homologues are recognized by tomato Ve1. The research presented in this thesis aims to characterize the role of the tomato cell surface-localized immune receptor Ve1, and its homologues in other diverse plant species, in Verticillium wilt resistance.

Identification of metabolites involved in heat stress response in different tomato genotypes
Paupière, Marine J. - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Arnaud Bovy; Yury Tikunov. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431842 - 168
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - genotypes - heat stress - heat tolerance - pollen - metabolomes - metabolites - metabolomics - tomaten - genotypen - warmtestress - hittetolerantie - stuifmeel - metabolomen - metabolieten - metabolomica

Tomato production is threatened by climate change. High temperatures lead to a decrease of fruit set which correlates with a decrease of pollen fertility. The low viability of tomato pollen under heat stress was previously shown to be associated with alterations in specific metabolites. In this thesis, we used untargeted metabolomics approaches to broaden the identification of metabolites affected by heat stress. We assessed the suitability of pollen isolation methods for metabolomics analysis and considered the pitfalls for our further analysis. We explored the developmental metabolomes of pollen and anthers of different tomato genotypes under control and high temperature conditions and identified that microsporogenesis is a critical developmental stage for the production of mature and fertile pollen grain under heat stress. Several metabolites were putatively associated with tolerance to high temperature such as specific flavonoids, polyamines and alkaloids. These metabolites can be further used as markers in breeding programs to develop new genotypes tolerant to high temperatures.

Susceptibility genes : an additional source for improved resistance
Sun, Kaile - \ 2017
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Evert Jacobsen; Yuling Bai. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431415 - 174
solanum tuberosum - potatoes - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - genes - susceptibility - plant pathogenic fungi - phytophthora infestans - disease resistance - plant breeding - aardappelen - tomaten - genen - vatbaarheid - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - ziekteresistentie - plantenveredeling

Potato is affected by several diseases. Although, resistance can be obtained by introgression of major resistance genes from wild species, this has rarely been durable. Hence, other sources of resistance are highly needed. New research with a focus on loss of function mutations has led to the identification of disease susceptibility (S) genes in plants. The research in this thesis was aimed at the identification and characterization of potato S genes involved in the interaction with Phytophthora infestans and Botrytis cinerea. We selected 11 Arabidopsis thaliana S genes and silenced their potato orthologs by RNAi in the potato cultivar Desiree. The silencing of six genes resulted in resistance to P. infestans. Moreover, silencing of StDND1 reduced the infection of B. cinerea. Microscopic analysis showed that spore attachment and/or germination of P. infestans and B. cinerea was hampered on the leaf surface of StDND1-silenced potato plants. On StDMR1- and StDMR6-silenced potato plants, hyphal growth of P. infestans was arrested by the hypersensitive response-like cell death. Our results demonstrate that impairment of plant S genes may open a new way for breeding potatoes with resistance to pathogens like P. infestans and B. cinerea.

Steering with high EC improves taste and quality of fruits : search for less water, fertilisers and discharge
Beerling, Ellen - \ 2017
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - tomatoes - water use - water use efficiency - fertilizers - emission reduction - drainage - rockwool - irrigation systems - crop quality - cultural methods
With a little more effort you can improve even more. This is the approach behind new trials aimed at optimizing water and fertiliser use with the specific aim of reducing fertiliser emission to the environment. It sounds rather demanding until you realise that the quality of the end product can also improve, while maintaining or even increasing yield. Excess drain as an insurance policy for the cultivation is an out-dated idea.
Noord-Europa biedt kansen voor ‘local for local’ tomatenteelt: rekening houden met lagere productie en hogere kosten
Velden, Nico van der - \ 2016
tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - northern europe - greenhouse vegetables - cropping systems - farm management

Een groeiende groep consumenten geeft de voorkeur aan lokaal geteelde groenten en fruit en wil daar ook wat meer voor betalen. In samenwerking met telersverenigingen en met steun van de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmateriaal voerde Wageningen Economic Research (voorheen: LEI Wageningen UR) een studie uit naar de lokale teelt en afzet van tomaten in Noord-Europa. De kansen liggen niet voor het oprapen, maar zijn er wel degelijk, stelt onderzoeker Nico van der Velden vast.

CO2 uit buitenlucht
Weel, P.A. van; Vanthoor, B.H.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1423) - 32 p.
glastuinbouw - kooldioxide - ventilatie - freesia - tomaten - greenhouse horticulture - carbon dioxide - ventilation - tomatoes
The supply of additional CO2 in a greenhouse will be restricted in the future. The concentration in outside air has risen above 400 ppm. This may open the possibility to blow this air through the canopy to increase growth. In this project, the vertical CO2 concentration was measured in a vertical plane within to the canopy under different combinations of window opening, the activation of vertical fans and with or without dosing of additional CO2. For a Freesia and a tomato crop the result was that without CO2 dosing it was possible to maintain a concentration of over 350 ppm in the canopy at 5-10 cm distance from the leaf surface when the ventilation windows were open. Since, this is below outside concentration, additional supply of outside air may be an advantage. When extra CO2 was supplied, a reduction in window opening and the use of a screen increased the concentration between the canopy. The vertical distribution of CO2 within the canopy was never a problem. It can be concluded that the crop resistance to take up CO2 for a tomato and freesia crop is small and with respect to the other CO2 resistances, the crop resistance can be neglected. A positive effect of the use of vertical fans or the use of high pressure misting in the tomato greenhouse was not found, due to the strategy to keep the ventilation windows wide open. The concentration at 5-10 cm distance from the leaf is not necessarily the same concentration around the stomata because of boundary layer resistance. The effect of the boundary layer resitance on CO2 uptake is described in the report of Plant Dynamics called “Effecten van grenslaagweerstand op de fotosynthese bij tomaat en Freesia”.
Vochtbeheersing in kassen en terugwinning van latente energie : Een verkenning naar vochtbeheersing in kassen en de mogelijkheden van het terugwinnen van de energie die opgesloten zit in de gewasverdamping
Weel, P.A. van; Zwart, H.F. de; Voogt, J.O. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Gastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1421) - 76 p.
kassen - kastechniek - tomaten - glastuinbouw - ontvochtiging - energiegebruik - energiebesparing - ventilatie - greenhouses - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - greenhouse horticulture - dehumidification - energy consumption - energy saving - ventilation
Dehumidification of a greenhouse by ventilation increases the energy input with 8-10 m3/m2.year of natural gas to compensate the heat losses. This study shows different methods to reduce those energy losses. A 25% reduction in ventilation is obtained by using heat exchangers connected to plastic distribution ducts or by using the Ventilationjet system. The sensible heat from the exhaust air can be used to heat the incoming outside air to greenhouse temperature. Heat exchangers with 100% efficiency to do that are available. The latent heat included in the water vapour leaving the greenhouse can be recovered by means of a condensating wall. A good working priciple is the Dewpoint Heat Exchanger in which outside air is wettened to reach the lowest possible temperature and then used to cool down the greenhouse air far below the temperature where condensation begins. The recovered latent heat must be stored in a water tank to use it in the heating pipes. Another approach is to skip ventilation and use a set of a cold and warm heat exchanger connected to a heat pump or to use a salt water absorber. The absorber opens the possibility to use solar or wind energy to dehumidify the greenhouse and collect 100% of the sensible and latent heat.
Stress speelt een belangrijke rol : inzicht in koploosheid groeit door gezamenlijk onderzoek
Groot, S.P.C. ; Kierkels, T. ; Heuvelink, E. - \ 2016
Onder Glas 13 (2016)8. - p. 30 - 31.
tuinbouw - groenten - landbouwkundig onderzoek - groeistoornis - plantenontwikkeling - verlichting - tomaten - capsicum - brassica - gypsophila - stresstolerantie - temperatuur - horticulture - vegetables - agricultural research - failure to thrive - plant development - lighting - tomatoes - stress tolerance - temperature

Jonge tomaten- en paprikaplanten, maar ook een aantal andere gewassen, houden soms opeens op met groeien. Koploosheid was lange tijd een lastig maar zeer slecht begrepen fenomeen. De laatste jaren is het inzicht in een stroomversnelling gekomen. In ieder geval is het aantal mogelijke oorzaken drastisch ingeperkt.
Eerste proef met dynamisch lichtrecept in tomaat geeft 8% meerproductie
Dieleman, Anja ; Weerheim, Kees - \ 2016
led lamps - colour - cultivation - light - tomatoes - plants - greenhouse horticulture - lamps
Susceptibility pays off: insights into the mlo-based powdery mildew resistance
Appiano, Michela - \ 2016
University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Yuling Bai; Anne-Marie Wolters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579484 - 265
solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - disease resistance - susceptibility - oidium neolycopersici - genes - gene expression - genomics - molecular breeding - plant breeding - tomaten - ziekteresistentie - vatbaarheid - genen - genexpressie - genomica - moleculaire veredeling - plantenveredeling

Powdery mildew (PM) is a worldwide-occurring plant disease caused by ascomycete fungi of the order Erysiphales. A conspicuous number of plant species are susceptible to this disease, the occurrence of which is increasing due to the influence of climate change. Symptoms are easy to recognize by the powdery whitish fungal structures growing on the surface of plant organs. Severe infections cause significant losses in crops, such as tomato, cucumber and wheat, as well as in ornamentals, like rose and petunia. Accordingly, breeding crops with a robust immunity to this disease is of great economic importance.

A significant step in this direction was the discovery of mlo (mildew locus o) mutant alleles of the barley HvMlo gene, which are responsible for the non-race specific resistance to the barley PM pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). During the years, this recessively inherited resistance was observed to be durable, contrary to the short life-span of resistances conferred by dominant resistance (R-) genes used in barley breeding programs. Studies on the histological mechanisms of the mlo-based resistance showed that the PM pathogen was stopped during penetration of the cell wall by the formation of a papilla. This structure prevents the formation of the feeding structure of the pathogen, called a haustorium.

After sequencing many plant genomes, we are discovering that MLO genes are not only typical of this cereal, but are ubiquitously present in higher plant species in multiple copies per species, forming a gene family. The impairment of some members of a number of ever increasing plant species lead to broad-spectrum resistance towards their adapted PM pathogens. For example, in tomato the ol-2 gene, naturally harbored by the cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, represents the loss-of-function allele of the SlMLO1 gene, conferring resistance to the PM pathogen Oidium neolycopersici (On). Consequently, the use of mlo mutants represents a suitable alternative to the classical use of R-genes in breeding programs.

In Chapter 2, we describe the in silico identification of the complete tomato SlMLO gene family using the available information in the SOL genomic network database. In total, 16 tomato SlMLO members were cloned from leaf, root, flower and fruit of the susceptible tomato cv. Moneymaker to confirm the sequences retrieved from the database and to verify their actual expression in these tissues. We observed the presence of various types of splicing variants, although their possible functional meaning has not been investigated. Motif analyses of each of the translated protein sequences and phylogenetic studies highlighted, on one hand, amino acid stretches that characterize the whole MLO family, and, on the other hand, stretches conserved in MLO homologs that are phylogenetically related. Following a gene expression study upon On inoculation, we identified members of the SlMLO family that are upregulated few hours after pathogen challenge. Except SlMLO1, none of the three newly identified homologs in clade V, thus phylogenetically close to SlMLO1, are induced. Interestingly, two homologs, each found in different clades, are upregulated similarly to SlMLO1. Using an RNAi approach, we silenced the additional clade V-SlMLO homologs, namely SlMLO3, SlMLO5 and SlMLO8, to investigate their possible role in PM resistance. We observed that none of these homologs if individually silenced, leads to PM resistance. However, if SlMLO5 and SlMLO8 are silenced together with SlMLO1, a significantly higher level of resistance is achieved compared to plants carrying the ol-2 allele. The role of SlMLO3 could not be verified. We, therefore, concluded that there are three SlMLO genes in tomato unevenly contributing to the PM disease, of which SlMLO1 has a major role.

Chapter 3 focuses on the components of the tomato mlo-based resistance. In Arabidopsis, it is known that four members of the SNARE protein family, involved in membrane fusion, are involved in mlo-based resistance. In this chapter, we focused on the identification of tomato homologs of the Arabidopsis syntaxin PEN1 (AtSYP121). Among the group of syntaxins identified in tomato, two were closely related to each other and also to AtPEN1, denominated SlPEN1a and SlPEN1b. Another Arabidopsis syntaxin that shows a high level of homology with PEN1, called SYP122, was also found to group together with the newly identified SlPEN1 genes. However, the role of SYP122 in plant immunity was not shown in literature. After obtaining individual silencing RNAi constructs, we transformed the resistant ol-2 line, and we challenged the obtained transformants with the adapted PM On, and the non-adapted Bgh. Interestingly, we observed a significant On growth and an enhanced Bgh cell entry only in SlPEN1a silenced plants but not in SlPEN1b silenced ones. We performed a protein alignment of tomato and Arabidopsis functional and non-functional PEN sequences. The presence of three differently conserved non-synonymous amino-acid substitutions is hypothesised to be responsible for the specialization in plant immune function.

In Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, we build up a body of evidence pointing to the fact that the function of the MLO susceptibility genes is highly conserved between monocot and dicot plant species.

In Chapter 4 we started by identifying and functionally characterizing two new MLO genes of Solanaceous crops affected by the PM disease, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena). We named them NtMLO1 and SmMLO1 in the respective species, as they are the closest homologs to tomato SlMLO1. By overexpressing these genes in the resistant ol-2 line, we obtained transgenic plants that were susceptible to the PM pathogen On. This finding demonstrates that both heterologous MLO proteins can rescue the function of the impaired ol-2 allele in tomato. In addition, we found in tobacco NtMLO1 an amino acid (Q198) of critical importance for the susceptibility function of this protein.

In Chapter 5, we used the same approach adopted in Chapter 4 to show that other MLO proteins of more distant dicot species, like pea PsMLO1, can rescue the loss-of-function of the tomato ol-2 allele. And finally, we stretched this concept also to monocot MLO proteins, using barley HvMlo. While performing these experiments, we could verify that the function of the monocot and dicot susceptibility MLO proteins does not rely on the presence of class-specific conservation. The latter can be the reason for the phylogenetic divergence, placing monocot MLO proteins in clade IV and dicot MLO proteins in clade V of the phylogenetic MLO tree. However, functional conservation might depend on crucial shared amino acids of clade IV and V MLO proteins. Therefore, we also conducted a codon-based evolutionary analysis that resulted in the identification of 130 codons under negative selection, thus strongly maintained during evolution.

In Chapter 6 we introduce the PM disease in cucumber caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px). We cloned the candidate susceptibility gene for PM in cucumber, CsaMLO8, from susceptible and resistant genotypes. The latter was described as an advanced cucumber breeding line characterized by hypocotyl resistance. In this line, we found the presence of aberrant splicing variants of the CsaMLO8 mRNA due to the insertion in its corresponding genomic region of a Class LTR retrotransposon. Heterologous expression of the wild-type cucumber allele in the tomato ol-2 line restored its PM susceptibility, while the heterologous expression of the aberrant protein variant failed to do so. This finding confirms that the resistance of the advanced cucumber breeding line is due to the disruption of the coding region of this gene. We also showed that the expression of CsaMLO8 in the susceptible genotype is induced by Px in hypocotyl tissue, but not in cotyledon or leaf. Finally, by examination of the resequencing data of a collection of 115 cucumber accessions, we found the presence of the TE-containing allele in 31 of them among which a wild cucumber accession that might have been used in breeding programs to obtain resistance to the PM disease in cucumber.

In Chapter 7 a novel loss-of-function allele of the SlMLO1 gene is described, designated m200. This allele was found in a resistant plant (M200) from a mutagenized tomato Micro-Tom (MT) population obtained with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The m200 mutation corresponds to a nucleotide transversion (T à A) which results in a premature stop codon. The length of the predicted SlMLO1 protein in the M200 plant is only 21 amino acids, thus much shorter than the predicted protein of the previously described ol-2 allele, consisting of 200 amino acids. Thanks to the development of a High-Resolution Melting (HRM) marker designed to detect the m200 mutation, we observed that this allele confers recessively inherited resistance in backcross populations of the resistant M200 plant with MT and Moneymaker. Histological study showed that the resistance of the m200 mutant is associated with papilla formation. Finally, we compared the rate of On penetration in epidermal cells of m200 plants with the one of plants carrying the ol-2 allele and the transgenic plants in which multiple SlMLO homologs were silenced, generated in Chapter 2.

Ultimately, in Chapter 8 the results of the previous chapters are discussed in the context of 1) practical applications in breeding programs aimed at introducing the mlo-based resistance in new crops, 2) possible research aimed at unraveling the function of the MLO protein and 3) the role of other SNARE proteins.

Voorkomen vochtschokken beste remedie om bladrandjes te vermijden
Voogt, Wim - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - tomatoes - plant disorders - calcium absorption - nutrient accounting system - chlorine - iron - climatic factors - illumination - nutrient solutions - moisture - agricultural research
Bladgewassen geschikt voor waterteelt, bij bloemen meer kennisopbouw nodig
Streminska, Marta - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - cultural methods - hydroponics - soilless culture - leafy vegetables - cut flowers - tomatoes - vegetables - lettuces - spices - chrysanthemums - ornamental horticulture - agricultural research
Grote productiestijging door verrood licht bij onderzoek tomaat
Dieleman, Anja - \ 2016
crop production - tomatoes - illumination - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - far red light - experimental plots - agricultural research
Het Nieuwe Gewas : sturen van de plantvorm voor verhoogde lichtbenutting
Gelder, Arie de; Janse, Jan ; Warmenhoven, Mary - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1407) - 62
tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - kasgewassen - glasgroenten - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - plantenontwikkeling - gewasteelt - licht - tomatoes - greenhouse crops - greenhouse vegetables - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - plant development - crop management - light
Wageningen UR Greenhouse horticulture searched in the “The New Crop” project for the crop structure that best contributes to the goal of energy-efficient production and therefore energy saving, by removing 33, 44 or 55% of the leaves at a young stage. On October 10th 2014 the experiment started with topped plants of the tomato variety Brioso grafted on Maxifort. Dry matter production was lowest in the very open crop, however partitioning to the fruits was highest in that treatment. Therefore, this crop produced in the winter under assimilation lighting most. In summer, the standard treatment was the best and the production in this treatment was highest. The plants in the very open treatment were shorter and had smaller leaves than the plants of the standard treatment. This is might be due to a different red: far red ratio of light in the crop. Leaf picking at a young stage contributes to better distribution of assimilates to the fruits. This can be used as a crop management measure as the plant in winter develops too much leaves. The project was funded by the Dutch energy transition program “Kas als Energiebron”.
Plantmonitoring op basis van fotosynthese sensoren : ontwikkelen en testen van sensoren
Dieleman, Anja ; Bontsema, Jan ; Jalink, Henk ; Snel, Jan ; Kempkes, Frank ; Voogt, Jan ; Pot, Sander ; Elings, Anne ; Jalink, Vincent ; Meinen, Esther - \ 2016
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1405) - 86
teelt onder bescherming - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - sensors - fotosynthese - kooldioxide - energie - energiebesparing - verlichting - kunstlicht - kunstmatige verlichting - ventilatie - kunstmatige ventilatie - fluorescentie - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - protected cultivation - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - photosynthesis - carbon dioxide - energy - energy saving - lighting - artificial light - artificial lighting - ventilation - artificial ventilation - fluorescence - tomatoes
The basic process for crop growth and production is photosynthesis. Measuring crop photosynthesis is therefore important to monitor the status of the crop and whether the greenhouse climate is set to the needs of the crop. In this project, two monitoring systems for crop photosynthesis were developed and tested. (1) The crop photosynthesis monitor is a soft sensor that can calculate the CO2 uptake of an entire crop. The basis for these calculations are the balance between CO2 supply and CO2 loss via ventilation and crop photosynthesis. By measuring the CO2 concentration and humidity inside and outside the greenhouse, the crop photosynthesis can be calculated. (2) The CropObserver is a fluorescence sensor that measures the light use efficiency of photosynthesis of a large crop area (3 x 3 m2). The crop receives light pulses from a laser in the top of the greenhouse, the sensor measures the fluorescence signal of the crop. Both sensors were tested in a tomato crop in 2014 with promising results. The sensors functioned without problems and delivered patterns of daily photosynthesis which matched the reference measurements reasonably well up to well.
White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients : healthy roots are fundamental for a healthy plant
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2016
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 5 (2016)3. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 44 - 45.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - worteloppervlak - wortelharen - wortels - wateropname (planten) - voedselopname - opname (uptake) - calcium - tomaten - pythium - plantenontwikkeling - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - rhizoplane - root hairs - roots - water uptake - food intake - uptake - tomatoes - plant development
The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired
Philosophising about The New Crop : 'Open crop can bring forward production and save energy'
Gelder, Arie de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - tomatoes - plant development - crop production - energy saving - yields - leaf area - agricultural research

Research into the extreme removal of leaves from tomato plants has yielded surprising results. Not only does it seem possible to bring forward production by removing extra leaves but it also saves energy. The challenge now will be to see if the results achieved in research units at Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture can be reproduced in practice

Parthenocarp ras kan oplossing zijn bij vruchtzettingsproblemen
Heuvelink, E. ; Kierkels, T. - \ 2016
Onder Glas 13 (2016)5. - p. 12 - 13.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - groenten - tomaten - paprika's - komkommers - fotosynthese - vruchtzetting - groeiregulatoren - parthenocarpie - cytokininen - gibberellinen - auxinen - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - vegetables - tomatoes - sweet peppers - cucumbers - photosynthesis - fructification - growth regulators - parthenocarpy - cytokinins - gibberellins - auxins
Samen met een goede fotosynthese staat voldoende vruchtzetting op de gedeelde eerste plaats bij het welslagen van de teelt van vruchtgroenten. Het zou echter veel gemakkelijker zijn als die bevruchting helemaal niet nodig was. Bij verscheidene gewassen is parthenocarpie inmiddels gewoon, maar bij een belangrijk deel blijft het zaak de juiste omstandigheden voor vruchtzetting te creëren.
Perspectieven voor kastuinbouw als duurzaamheidssprong in tropen : Low-tech kas in Rwanda leerproject voor bedrijfsleven
Elings, Anne - \ 2016
horticulture - protected cultivation - tropics - rwanda - research projects - vegetables - tomatoes - food supply - agricultural education

Het Nederlands bedrijfsleven en kennisinstellingen zijn betrokken bij het kastuinbouwproject Smart Horticulture Rwanda. Anne Elings van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw hoopt op kansen voor de tuinbouwtoeleveranciers.

Alleen spuiten waar een plant staat, bespaart veel middel : mogelijk met een sensor die bladgroen ‘ziet’
Os, Erik van; Zande, Jan van de - \ 2016
horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - vegetables - pot plants - cyclamen - tomatoes - spraying equipment - sensors - chlorophyll - sustainability - botrytis - pesticides

Bij de gang naar een duurzamere tuinbouw ligt de nadruk vaak op vervangen van chemie door biologie. Maar ook bij het spuiten zelf valt nog veel te verbeteren. Als je weet te voorkomen dat grond, tafels of gevels worden meegepakt, bespaar je veel middel en beperk je de emissie. Een stap verder is alleen spuiten op aangetaste delen.

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