Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Grassnuitkevers, een toekomstige bedreiging in gazons?
Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2016
lawns and turf - plant pests - curculionidae - external traits - properties - host plants - netherlands - spain - usa

Met de uitbreiding van grassnuitkevers in diverse landen zoals de Verenigde Staten en Spanje neemt de zorg toe dat er zich ook grassnuitkeversoorten in Nederland gaan vestigen door het verslepen van plantmateriaal of via vakantiegangers. Grassnuitkevers zijn vooral schadelijk voor gras, maar doen zich ook te goed aan mais, tarwe en varens.

Competitiveness of the EU food industry : ex-post assessmentof trade performance embedded in international economic theory
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-018) - ISBN 9789086157358 - 79 p.
food industry - market competition - competitive ability - terms of trade - economic indicators - international trade - world markets - european union - usa - voedselindustrie - marktconcurrentie - concurrerend vermogen - ruilvoet - economische indicatoren - internationale handel - wereldmarkten - europese unie - vs
This study assessed the competitiveness of the EU food industry benchmarked against USA, Australia, Brazil and Canada. This assessment is based on trade indicators (Relative Net trade advantage and export share on the world market) and on economic indicators (value added, labour productivity and share value added in total manufacturing). This study is an update of an earlier study executed in 2007. The overall competitiveness performance of the EU28 (intra-EU trade excluded) remained weak: the three economic indicators weakened and the trade indicators improved in period (2) 2008-2012 compared to period (1) 2003-2007. The position in period 2 was even weaker than the relative weak position in period 1. Brazil remained the strongest and the USA became strong.
Critical ethical issues in USA animal production : executive summary
Hoste, R. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR VR2015-137) - 2 p.
animal welfare - animal ethics - animal husbandry - legislation - european union - usa - eu regulations - animal production - animal housing - dairy cattle - pigs - veal calves - beef cattle - broilers - dierenwelzijn - dierethiek - dierhouderij - wetgeving - europese unie - vs - eu regelingen - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - melkvee - varkens - vleeskalveren - vleesvee - vleeskuikens
In 2014, the non-governmental organisation Wakker Dier in the Netherlands criticised ING for financing animal farms outside the European Union (EU). The NGO expressed its concern that local regulation would not sufficiently guarantee animal welfare standards up to the level guaranteed under EU regulations. Early 2015, LEI Wageningen UR was requested to identify potential detrimental activities in the United States of America (USA) animal husbandry sector due to gaps between EU and USA legislation and local animal welfare standards applied in the USA. Activities covered by ING clients in the USA and thus in scope of this research involve pigs, layers, broilers, veal calves, dairy cows and beef cows. The aim of this report is to provide a qualified comparison of animal welfare standards in the USA and the EU and to identify animal welfare and other potential ethical issues within animal farming in the USA and to identify critical issues on which ING is advised to take a strategic position.
Stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation: insights from Philadelphia – an early adapter
Uittenbroek, C.J. ; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie ; Runhaar, H.A.C. - \ 2016
International Journal of Climate change Strategies and Management 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 1756-8692 - p. 38 - 56.
climate adaptation - stimuli - governance approaches - Philadelphia - institutional entrepreneurship - political leadership
An in-depth understanding of these stimuli is currently lacking in literature as most research has focussed on overcoming barriers to climate adaptation. The aim of this paper is to identify stimuli for municipal responses to climate adaptation and examine how they influence the governance approach to addressing climate adaptation through explorative case study research. Fort this, an early adapter was selected as case: Philadelphia (USA). By reconstructing the organization of two municipal responses to climate adaptation in this city, we have been able to identify stimuli and gain insight in the city’s governance approach. The reconstruction is based on data triangulation that consists of semi-structured interviews with actors involved in these responses, policy documents and newspaper articles. The research illustrates the importance of stimuli such as strategically framing climate adaptation within wider urban agendas, political leadership and institutional entrepreneurs. Moreover the research reveals that it is the combination of stimuli that influences the governance approach to climate adaptation. Some stimuli will trigger a dedicated approach to climate adaptation, while others initiate a mainstreaming approach. This research is important especially to municipalities to recognize stimuli within their own (policy) context and subsequently, make informed decisions to exploit all or some of these stimuli to initiate a governance approach to climate adaptation.
Beter benutten van eigen gewas maakt import soja overbodig
Sanders, Johan - \ 2014
protein plants - protein foods - protein sources - soyabean oilmeal - soya protein - regional specialty products - grasses - biorefinery - sustainability - imports - european union countries - netherlands - usa - latin america

In de jaren vijftig gold de boer nog als een ‘achterlijke lomperik’, die via speciale streekverbeteringsprogramma’s de twintigste eeuw ingeloodst moest worden. Nu boeren agrarische ondernemers zijn geworden, overheerst de nostalgie naar het landleven in de jaren vijftig.

'Meer concurrentie door handelsakkoord'
Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2014
trade liberalization - international trade - trade agreements - trade barriers - agricultural trade - european union - usa - exports
Effects of an EU-US trade agreement on the Dutch agro-food sector
Berkum, S. van; Rutten, M.M. ; Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-021) - ISBN 9789086156801 - 84
agrarische handel - handelsakkoorden - voedselproducten - landbouwproducten - europese unie - vs - agricultural trade - trade agreements - food products - agricultural products - european union - usa
Biofuels and Vertical Price Transmission: The Case of the US Corn, Ethanol, and Food Markets
Drabik, D. ; Ciaian, P. ; Pokrivcak, J. - \ 2014
KU Leuven, LICOS
voedsel versus brandstof - biobrandstoffen - marktprijzen - agrarische economie - economische analyse - maïs - bioethanol - voedselprijzen - vs - biobased economy - food vs fuel - biofuels - market prices - agricultural economics - economic analysis - maize - food prices - usa
This is the first paper to analyze the impact of biofuels on the price transmission along the food chain. We analyze the U.S. corn sector and its vertical links with food and ethanol (energy) markets. We find that biofuels affect the price transmission elasticity in the food chain compared to a no biofuel production situation but the effect depends on the source of the market shock and the policy regime: the price transmission elasticity declines under a binding blender’s tax credit and a food market shock. Our results also indicate that the response of corn and food prices to shocks in the corn and/or food markets is lower in the presence of biofuels. Finally, the sensitivity analyses indicate that our results are robust to different assumptions about the model parameters.
Hydrological drought : characterisation and representation in large-scale models
Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van - \ 2014
University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Henny van Lanen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739414 - 124
hydrologie van stroomgebieden - droogte - klimaatverandering - wateropslag - scenario-analyse - modellen - europa - vs - catchment hydrology - drought - climatic change - water storage - scenario analysis - models - europe - usa
De verwachting is dat door klimaatverandering de intensiteit van droogte zal toenemen in verschillende gebieden op de wereld. Uitkomsten van vijf hydrologische modellen in combinate met drie klimaatmodellen voor het A2 emissie scenario zijn gebruikt om effecten van klimaatverandering op hydrologische droogte te analyseren voor verschillende stroomgebieden. Droogtes en lage afvoeren (maandelijkse 20ste percentiel waarden, Q20) zijn geïdentificeerd uit de uitkomsten van de hydrologische modellen voor een historische periode (1971–2000) en een periode in de toekomst (2071–2100). De gesimuleerde lage afvoeren voor de historische periode zijn vergeleken met geobserveerde lage afvoeren van de verschillende stroomgebieden. De modelcombinaties (combinatie van een klimaatmodel en een hydrologisch model), die de beste resultaten gaven, zijn gebruikt voor verdere analyse. In koude klimaten werd een verschuiving in het hydrologische regime (de piek van sneeuwsmelt zal eerder optreden) waargenomen en een verhoging van de lage afvoeren tussen de historische periode en de periode in de toekomst. Voor aride klimaten gaven de modelcombinaties aan dat omstandigheden nog droger zullen worden in de toekomst. Voor vochtige klimaten werden zowel drogere als nattere situaties verwacht op basis van de modelcombinaties
Ernest Oberholtzer : het belang van rollen en ambiguïteit voor het landschap (Forumbijdrage)
Assche, K.A.M. van - \ 2013
Landschap : tijdschrift voor Landschapsecologie en Milieukunde 30 (2013)2. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 68 - 74.
natuurbescherming - deskundigen - veldwerk - biografieën - vs - nature conservation - experts - field work - biographies - usa
De Amerikaanse natuurbeschermer Ernest Oberholtzer (1884-1977) is ten onrechte in de vergetelheid geraakt. Hij werkte in een omgeving die vijandig stond ten opzichte van de natuurbescherming, maar wist door zijn verhalen, netwerken en optreden toch invloed uit te oefenen. Zijn leven en werk zijn ook voor ons in Nederland nog steeds, en misschien wel steeds meer, een studie waard.
Gastropolis voedsel planning en landschap
Valk, Arnold van der - \ 2013
food production - urban agriculture - usa - social problems - sustainability
Stadslandbouw in de Big Apple : meer dan 700 voedselproducerende tuinen
Veen, E.J. ; Vijn, M.P. - \ 2013
Ekoland 33 (2013)1. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 16 - 17.
stadslandbouw - pergola-associaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - vs - new york - excursies - urban agriculture - community supported agriculture - farm management - usa - field trips
In oktober 2012 organiseerde Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving (PPO) van Wageningen UR een reis naar New York voor ondernemers, beleidsmakers en onderzoekers die zich willen laten inspireren door de stadslandbouw in die stad. Onderzoeker Esther Veen was één van hen. Zij hield een blog bij over de vijfdaagse excursie. Dit artikel is een bewerkte, ingekorte versie van deze blog.
Think globally act locally; hoe een gemeenschap opbloeit dankzij een lokaal voedselweb
Vijn, M.P. ; Jansma, J.E. - \ 2013
Ekoland 33 (2013)2. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 22 - 23.
regionale voedselketens - pergola-associaties - samenwerking - regionale economie - regionale ontwikkeling - biologische landbouw - vs - regional food chains - community supported agriculture - cooperation - regional economics - regional development - organic farming - usa
Hardwick is een inspirerend voorbeeld van wat een aantal voedselproducenten kunnen bereiken als ze verbinding leggen met elkaar en met hun omgeving. Het restaurant Claire’s is een Community Supported Restaurant (CSR). Aan Main Street staat ook de Buffalo Mountain Food Co-op. In de Co-op liggen producten van lokale producenten naast gangbare. Boven de Co-op is een café waar lokale lunches worden aangeboden. De Co-op heeft zo’n duizend leden die ieder jaarlijks 12 dollar contributie betalen.
Risicoanalyse import ei- en spermacellen van honingbijen uit de Verenigde Staten en Canada
Steen, J.J.M. van der; Cornelissen, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Biointeracties en Plantgezondheid (Rapport / Plant Research International 486)
apis mellifera - sperma - honingbijen - bijenziekten - quarantaine - nederland - vs - canada - semen - honey bees - bee diseases - quarantine - netherlands - usa
The economics of regulation in agriculture : compliance with public and private standards
Brouwer, F.M. ; Fox, G. ; Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2012
Wallingford [etc.] : CABI - ISBN 9781845935573 - 278
landbouwbeleid - agrarische economie - regelingen - landbouw - milieubeleid - gezondheid - dierenwelzijn - europese unie - vs - canada - nieuw-zeeland - agricultural policy - agricultural economics - regulations - agriculture - environmental policy - health - animal welfare - european union - usa - new zealand
This volume investigates the cost implications and competitiveness effects resulting from regulations and standards in the fields of environment, human health and animal welfare and production-linked rules of "good agricultural conditions" for a range of agricultural products in the EU, USA, Canada and New Zealand. Part I of the book (chapters 2-6) highlights changes taking place in developed country agricultures. Part II (chapters 7-11) offers a commodity approach linking public concerns with trade and competitiveness. Emerging policy perspectives are identified in Part III (chapters 12-16).
Voedselplanning en Landschap in de Gastropolis New York
Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2012
Topos : periodiek over landschapsarchitectuur, ruimtelijke planning en sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse 2012 (2012)22. - ISSN 1572-302X - p. 12 - 21.
voedselproductie - stadslandbouw - vs - food production - urban agriculture - usa
De rol van voedsel in de planning van duurzame vormen van grondgebruik in de Verenigde Staten - in het bijzonder New York
Affective foodscapes in an economy of passion : repetition, opposition and adaptation in Mexican restaurants in Amsterdam, Madrid and San Francisco
Matus Ruiz, M. - \ 2012
University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor; K. Lindström. - [S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732828 - 274
mexicaanse kookkunst - restaurants - eetgelegenheden - amsterdam - nederland - spanje - pacifische staten van de vs - vs - voedselconsumptie - identiteit - landschap - adaptatie - stedelijke samenleving - mexico - mexican cookery - dining facilities - netherlands - spain - pacific states of usa - usa - food consumption - identity - landscape - adaptation - urban society

from the
 and U.S.
“Real”‐ Mex

Sturen op innovatie in de levensmiddelenindustrie – wat levert het op? Meten en evalueren in een internationale context
Galen, M.A. van; Logatcheva, K. ; Bakker, T. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2011
Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR - 12
voedselindustrie - innovaties - concurrerend vermogen - nieuwe producten - middelgrote bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - internationale vergelijkingen - nederland - landen van de europese unie - vs - food industry - innovations - competitive ability - new products - medium sized businesses - small businesses - international comparisons - netherlands - european union countries - usa
Nederland exporteert relatief veel levensmiddelen en de bedrijfstak is belangrijk voor de Nederlandse economie in termen van toegevoegde waarde en omzet. De Nederlandse levensmiddelenindustrie (voedingsmiddelen en dranken) bestaat voor 98% uit MKB bedrijven. MKB bedrijven zijn goed voor ongeveer 45% van de omzet in de voedingsmiddelenbranche en 24% in de drankenindustrie. Een groot deel van de MKB bedrijven exporteert niet. De cijfers hierover verschillen een beetje per bron; maar op basis van CBS cijfers schatten we dat in 2011 circa 75% van de MKB bedrijven niet exporteerde. In de periode 2006-2008 heeft minder dan de helft van de bedrijven op de één of andere manier geïnnoveerd. De omzet die Nederlandse levensmiddelenbedrijven gemiddeld in 2006-2008 uit nieuwe producten haalden was minder dan 10% van de totale omzet. Ter vergelijking, in Duitsland was dat bijna 18%. De Duitse levensmiddelenindustrie wordt overigens niet als erg innovatief gezien. Nederlandse bedrijven doen het wel redelijk goed als het gaat om het percentage bedrijven met geheel nieuwe producten (‘novel product innovators’), maar ook daar moet Nederland bijvoorbeeld Denemarken en Duitsland voor zich dulden. Het LEI heeft in opdracht van het ministerie van EL&I de Nederlandse levensmiddelenindustrie op het gebied van innovatie vergeleken met een achttal andere landen: Denemarken, Duitsland, Frankrijk, Italië, Polen, Spanje, het VK en de VS. Er is gekeken naar een groot aantal indicatoren van innovatie; zowel input, output, als contextvariabelen. Daarnaast is gekeken naar de rol van het MKB voor innovatie en de belemmeringen die juist kleine en middelgrote bedrijven ondervinden.
Economic Analysis of Feed-in Tariffs for Generating Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2011
economie - wetgeving - energiebeleid - energie - hernieuwbare energie - vervangbare hulpbronnen - fossiele energie - vs - biobased economy - Nederland - economics - legislation - energy policy - energy - renewable energy - renewable resources - fossil energy - usa - Netherlands
Working paper over de economische aspecten van en mogelijkheden voor wetgeving om het gebruik van energie uit hernieuwbare bronnen in de Verenigde Staten te stimuleren.
Value added: modes of sustainable recycling in the modernisation of waste management systems
Scheinberg, A. - \ 2011
University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730114 - 120
recycling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - afvalbeheer - vuilnis - vs - bulgarije - sustainability - waste management - refuse - usa - bulgaria

For many centuries urban waste management in Europe and Northern America consisted of private – to – private arrangements to remove waste from the city centre and so restrain the spread of cholera and other diseases, odour and nuisances. The agricultural and industrial value chains provided a destination and a motivation to extract and valorise rags, ashes, dust, excreta, metals, food scraps, and many other forms of secondary resources which had some value to someone. The business of recycling developed alongside of municipal waste management, and absorbed many discarded materials, but remained a separate sector with its own practices, institutions, and economic rationality. The management of solid waste management became primarily focused on dumping waste outside the city boundaries.

The ‘discovery’ of the relationship between open dumping and groundwater contamination in the 1960s set the stage for a round of modernisation of waste management practices and institutions in high-income countries. The widely recognised and celebrated result was the shift from open dumping and open burning of waste to the engineered “regional sanitary landfill” as a large technical facility that concentrates waste, isolates it from population centres, protects ground-water and thus allows for safe modern disposal of increasingly complex materials.

This proved to be a costly affair though, and triggered a process of ecological modernisation in solid waste management characterised by institutional and financial reforms, which elevated the cost of removal. Disposal became costly, and as cities expanded, land to dump became a scarce resource. This set the stage for incorporating valorisation into the modernised waste management landscape as an alternative to modernised disposal. The ecological modernisation process that took place in Northern Europe and North America in the 1980s and early 1990s changed the policies and practices of waste management in fundamental but seldom understood ways. Pricing of disposal in high-income countries represents a core financial reform which in turn stimulates local authorities to invest in their own recycling (composting, reuse) infrastructure as a lower-cost and environmentally attractive alternative. Municipal recycling emerges as a key modernised institution in the landscape of integrated waste management, where investment in recycling produces higher and higher recovery rates and a virtuous circle of more investment, more recovery, less waste, co-operation with the value chains which have been re-constituted as “recycling markets,” and lower system costs. In municipal recycling, the agricultural and industrial value chains function as alternative and lower-cost sinks, complementing the landfill and lowering costs for the whole waste management system.

In low- and middle-income countries, in contrast, the ecological modernisation of solid waste is problematic and incomplete, and ‘recycling’ becomes a key new area of global conflict. Priced disposal does not come about, either because of low levels of disposable income or unwillingness of elected officials to impose a burden on tax- and rate-payers, or because the motivation to modernise disposal comes from global institutions and is insufficiently embedded in genuinely local policymaking. Without it the system-internal benefits of diverting materials from disposal to valorisation are missing. Municipal recycling does not emerge, and the virtuous cycle of increasing recovery ambitions and performance is replaced by a vicious cycle of interrupted private value chain transactions, declining valorisation rates, and increasing volumes of materials requiring expensive disposal.

City authorities in low- and middle-income countries seeking to gain the financial benefits of selling materials compete with private (informal) waste pickers, recyclers, and livestock feeding operations, claim monopoly rights to materials, and criminalise value chain activities. But they are unable to organise effective valorisation themselves, as they lack knowledge and commercial channels to reach the value chains. The value chain actors are blamed for not buying materials, but also for exploiting poor workers in miserable working conditions. Valorisation businesses are unwilling to do business with municipalities who supply low-quality materials, so the value chain transactions fail, and both avoided costs of disposal and offsetting revenues from valorisation remain elusive.

Municipalities, waste system users, and the environment lose in this situation when local authorities are unable to pay landfill operating costs, and the expensive sanitary landfill infrastructure reverts to the status of a pre-modern dumpsite, which has to handle more and more waste. Agricultural and industrial value chains also suffer, because the thousands of individual and family enterprises in waste picking, recycling, and animal feeding are at risk to lose their livelihoods, or see reduced returns on their efforts due to monopoly behaviour, criminalisation, or harassment from the formal waste system actors. Mid-level value chain enterprises get fewer materials, and increasing volumes of potentially recoverable resources end up in the dump.

But there are already some examples of how changing the model can produce improved results. In a small number of cities in low- and middle-income countries, the ecological modernisation of the waste management system appears to be leading to the emergence of a new model for institutionalised valorisation, provisionally called inclusive recycling. Inclusive recycling is a model for public sector acceptance of private value chain activities of valorisation. It is a model of shared ownership, risks, and benefits, where each set of actors does what they are best at. While it builds upon the techniques for participatory planning and stakeholder engagement, as well as on technical innovations for separate collection, processing, and environmental education that characterised the development of municipal recycling in the 1980s in OECD countries, inclusive recycling does not rely on the institutional reform of priced disposal. Rather, it maintains the centre of gravity of valorisation activities in the industrial or agricultural value chains, where the knowledge and infrastructure exists to receive, process, and market materials. Instead of re-inventing recycling as a part of the municipal solid waste department’s responsibilities, inclusive recycling looks to intermediary institutions such as labour unions or recycling co-operatives to facilitate shared risks and responsibilities between local authorities and value chain actors.

Inclusive recycling can be seen in some of its emerging forms in Asia and Latin America, particularly in situations where there is a tradition of co-operation between civil society and local authorities, large numbers of waste pickers at the base of the value chain pyramid, and where the paper and metal value chains are long, healthy, and deeply rooted. In place of a single municipal recycling system, inclusive recycling is a mixed system where there are many different types of actors, economic niches, and business models. The results may be high levels of recovery and diversion from disposal, making it comparable to municipal recycling as a modernised institution. Like municipal recycling, inclusive recycling contributes to the pluralism of the modernised system, with a proliferation of actors, activities, and economic niches, which qualify it as what ecological modernization scholars have called a ‘modernised mixture’.

However, inclusive recycling is not municipal recycling, and in the absence of priced disposal, the risks for both local authorities and value chain actors remain high. Combining global knowledge with local control of ecological modernisation processes is one approach to keeping the risks limited and enlarging the space for the virtuous circle of inclusive recycling to take root and flourish.

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