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Author Guidelines

1. Manuscripts should be in English (spelling according to Oxford Dictionary) and should include the following elements:
- A title that adequately conveys the contents of the paper.
- A running title not exceeding 55 positions.
- An abstract of not more than 200 words.
- Additional keywords, i.e., keywords not mentioned in the title. The number of additional keywords must not exceed eight. A keyword must not be a trade name or a phrase.
- The main text of the paper.
- The references.
- The figures and tables.

2. The first page of the manuscript should contain the following information:
- The surnames and all initials of the author and of any co-authors.
- The full name and postal address of the organization where the senior author is employed and where the work has been carried out.
- The full name of the organizations, places and countries where the co-authors are employed.
- The corresponding author and his e-mail address.
- If the paper is a specific contribution from an organization, this may be indicated by a footnote to the full title.

3. Papers should usually be structured into conventional sections: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion (or Results and discussion), Acknowledgement(s), References. These text sections may be divided into subsections and sub-subsections, but not into lower levels.

4. The Abstract – read in conjunction with the title – should be complete within itself. It should briefly indicate why the work was done, and draw attention to the salient results. It should not contain literature references.

5. The Introduction must clearly state the rational for doing the work, its aim and its scope, but it is not the place for a lengthy literature review; only essential references should be cited. It may conclude with a brief statement of the achievements presented in the paper.

6. The section Materials and methods should contain sufficient information to enable others to repeat the work. New methodology and experimental design must be given in full; accepted techniques should not be described in full – literature references suffice. Ensure that the basis of your experimental layout and design is adequately defined, and your method of analysis is clearly stated and referenced.

7. Trade names must not appear in the title. Names of pesticides and herbicides may be cited only once in the text, and the first citation should be by the common name followed – in brackets – by the trade name and the name and location of the manufacturer; the common name alone should be used thereafter. If a common name has not been adopted or if only a manufacturer’s code number is available then a provisional common name or the code number may be used, but on first citation the full chemical name should be given in brackets. Treatments should be given as quantities of active ingredients followed – in brackets – by a trade identification where relevant; thereafter, as above, only the common name should be used, for instance late blight control by hidehip 2.38 kg a.i. in 200 l water ha-1 (Barbrog, 70% WP, Novy (UK) Ltd.).
Give the amounts of fertilizers in kilograms of the element applied per hectare and define the amount of active ingredient per hectare separately if it is not readily identifiable from the trade name description.
All agricultural chemicals should be identified. Please remember that the same chemical or formulation may be sold in different countries with different trade names. So active ingredients should always be identified by their accepted common chemical name as well as by their trade name. The trade name may also serve to identify adjuvants that may affect performance.

8. If a piece of apparatus is mentioned, identify – in brackets – the model code and the manufacturer.

9. Ensure that planting material can be identified and give all relevant details about it.

10. A Latin name cited in the title or in the additional keywords must appear in full. The full name and its authority must also appear in the text where it is first cited. Thereafter the generic name should be abbreviated but not in paragraphs where use of the same initial abbreviation for different genera may cause confusion. Common or colloquial names for plants, pathogens, pests etc. when first cited in the text must be followed by the Latin name in brackets.

11. Do not abbreviate an expression unless it appears repeatedly in the text; always write in full on the first citation followed by the abbreviation (acronym) in brackets, for instance Scottish Crop Research Institute (SCRI), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

12. Use direct not indirect sentence construction; be brief; use short, common words; do not use technical jargon and colloquial expressions. Remember that the first language of many of your readers is not English.

13. Diagrams, graphs, and illustrations including photographs are taken together as figures and are numbered in one series as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Tables are numbered consecutively, Table 1, Table 2, etc. Each table and figure must have a caption. Tables, figures and the figure captions should be submitted separately from the text. Each of the tables and figures must be mentioned in the text. Tables and figures will be printed as closely as possible to the place in the text where they are first mentioned, unless the author wishes otherwise and indicates this in the margin. Photographs should be submitted in electronic form on diskette.

14. Give as much information as possible in the captions of tables and figures to minimize detail given within the tables or superimposed on figures. Avoid footnotes. Never use asterisk symbols (*) in tables or in figures as identifiers for footnotes; their use must be restricted to denoting levels of statistical significance (commonly: * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01, *** = P < 0.001; your usage must be defined at the foot of the table). For identifiers, use superscript figures (or lower case letters) as follows: in the table, 7.8¹ and as a footnote: ¹ transformed to log10(x+l) before analysis.

15. Arrange your tables so that they can be reproduced and read in the same direction as the main text. A long table is better than a wide table that has to be printed sideways (landscape).
Do not use vertical or horizontal lines within the table but divide elements by line-spacing. Horizontal lines should be used only to divide column headings into subheadings.

16. References must be listed at the end of the article according to the Harvard System as follows: name and initial(s) of the author (if known) – year of publication or last revision (further distinguished by the addition of a lower case a, b, c, etc., to the year if more than one reference to the same author(s) in the same year is cited – title of document – title of complete work (if relevant) – full title of the periodical as given in the World List of Scientific Periodicals (in italics) – volume number in arabic figures – first and last page number of the article, or total number of pages in case of separate document. In the text, references should be denoted by giving the name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication in brackets, for example Smith (1985), or (Smith, 1986; Jones & Smith, 1982a, b). Where more than two collaborating authors are cited, only the first name is given followed by ‘et al.’. References to publications other than periodicals, such as books, must give the pages cited and should include the name of the publisher and the place of publication. Publications without a named author should be listed alphabetically under ‘Anonymous’, abbreviated in the text to ‘Anon.’. References should be restricted in number and limited to primary sources that are normally accessible to readers.

17. To document a file available for viewing or downloading via the World Wide Web, provide the following information: author’s name (if known) – date of publication or last revision – title of document – title of complete work (if relevant) – Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in angle brackets (< >) – date document was (last) accessed.

Manuscripts on diskette

Authors are requested to submit the final version of their manuscript in the form of both a printout (hard copy) and an electronic version on a standard 3-inch diskette. The manuscript should be typed on an IBM-compatible word processor, with operating system Windows 95/98 or later and word-processing package Word 97 or later.

Do's
1. Files. Identify your files clearly with a sensible name. Please make sure that you send us your final version and that the printout is identical to what you have sent us on diskette.
2. Consistency. Be consistent and check the use of punctuation, abbreviations, capitals and lower case in headings, spelling, etc.
3. Font and size. The letter type (font) Times New Roman, size 12 pt should be used throughout the text of the manuscript. Letter size headings: 14 pts for main headings and 12 pts for subheadings and sub-subheadings. The sub-subheadings should be in italics.
4. Headings. Start headings (bold) etc. flush left. Separate main headings (Abstract, Introduction, Materials and methods, etc.) by one space line above and one space line below (two hard returns). Use the same letter type for the headings as you use for the text. Subheadings are separated by one space line above (two hard returns); sub-subheadings are not separated from the text.
5. Paragraphs. The first paragraph after a main heading, a subheading or a sub-subheading is not indented. All subsequent paragraphs are indented. For indenting use only the [Tab] feature!
6. Special characters. If the ASCII character set or the character set(s) of your word processing package does not contain the special characters or (mathematical) symbols you need, key in a code between angle brackets (< >) and use this each time you want the character to appear. You could, for example, use <δ> for a lower case Greek delta and <Δ> for an upper case Greek delta. Always make the code self-explanatory. Note: Always supply us with a list of the codes that you have used.
7. Graphs and diagrams. Submit graphs and diagrams as Word or Excel files; they can be converted and edited. If conversion is not possible the graph or diagram will be placed directly in the final document. The size of graphs and diagrams should be such that they fit within the type page of the journal (12.5 cm wide) without having to be enlarged or reduced.
Do not frame the graphs and diagrams.
Use Times New Roman font for all letters and numerals in graphs and diagrams.
Lines should have a minimum thickness of 0.25 mm.
Use hatching rather than tinting to indicate differences. If different percentages of hatching are used within the same figure, make sure the minimum difference between degrees of shading is 20 percent points.
Do not use large black areas in your graphs or diagrams.
Please send us the graphs and diagrams, and their captions, as separate files on the same diskette as your main text.
8. Tables. Please separate columns only with [Tab] codes (not with spaces, or by using the [Table] function or [Column] function of your word processor). Adjust the tabulator stops to position the columns. The columns and their headings should be aligned left. Note: If necessary, the printers will take care of any further alignment.
Please send us the table(s), including their captions, as a separate file on the same diskette as your main text.
9. Equations. One-line equations without fractions can be typeset from the diskette if they are keyed in as plain text. Conversion and editing of one-line equations is possible.
Equations consisting of more than one line cannot be converted; they will be typeset manually from the hard copy or are placed directly into the final document. Please mark such equations in the margins of the hard copy.
10. Variables. All variables in the main text, in equations, formula, tables and diagrams should be in italics. All other symbols, including the super- and subscripts of variables, should be in lower case.
11. Illustrations. Submit illustrations – including photographs – in the form of TIFF or EPS files; they can be converted and edited. If conversion or editing is not possible the illustration has to be scanned and will be placed directly in the final document. See also 7. Graphs and diagrams.
12. References. Follow strictly the ‘Instructions for Authors’ for the style of referencing and the use of notes.
13. Foot notes. Avoid footnotes in the text. If at all necessary, type footnotes at the end of the page where they belong, separated from the main text by two hard returns.

Don'ts
1. Hyphenation and word splits. Do not divide words – including hyphenated words – at the end of a line.
2. Hard returns. Do not use hard returns except when absolutely necessary, such as at the end of paragraphs, headings, etc. Let the word wrap feature of your word processor do this work for you.
3. Tab feature and spacebar. If you need more than one space between two items, for instance when you write in columns, always use the [Tab] feature.
Note: Use the spacebar only for separating words. Do not use the spacebar to format tables, for centring or laying out texts, or for any other form of line or page formatting.

February 2006

 

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  3. All URL addresses in the References (e.g., http://pkp.sfu.ca) are activated and ready to click.
  4. At least one of the following criteria is met:
    - the research has been carried out in the Netherlands, or
    - the first author is an alumnus of Wageningen University, or
    - the research is carried out by Dutch scientists in other countries, or
    - at least one of the contributors is a member of KLV, the Royal Netherlands Society for Agricultural Sciences.
  5. Hereby the first author assures the following:
    1. that the research results have not been published heretofore and that they shall not be released to any other publisher unless it is first released by NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences;
    2. that the co-authors have read the manuscript and approve of its printed publication and website publication in NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences;
    3. that with the publication of this paper in NJAS the copyright comes into the hands of the publisher;
    4. that the reproduction rights are assigned to the publisher. (The Reproduction revenues (€ 11.35 per author) collected by the foundation ‘Reprorecht’, will be paid into the NJAS Fund.)
  6. Please give the names, addresses and email address of two knowledgeable and independant reviewers. These reviewers should not be
    - a co-author of the authors of this submission in the last five years, and
    - should not be a colleague or a partner in the same project with the authors of this submission.
    NJAS is not obliged to follow these suggestions.
 

Copyright Notice

© Copyright KLV
All rights reserved. The copyright covers the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute the contribution, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online), or any other reproductions of similar nature.
The Author may publish his/her contribution on his/her personal Web page provided that he/she creates a link to http://library.wur.nl/ojs/index.php/njas and that together with this electronic version it is clearly pointed out, by prominently adding "© KLV", that the copyright for this contribution is held by KLV. The full-text version may be available from the Author's Web page only after a delay of 12 months following the publication of the paper, whereas such a delay is not required for the abstract.

 

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