While out-migration and movement to cities or overseas has long been a fact of life in peripheral agricultural communities in the Global South, in recent decades migration emerged as a core component of many household livelihoods, with remittances often eclipsing what is earned from the rural sector. According to the International Organisation for Migration, worldwide 258 million people lived outside their country of birth as of 2017 – a figure which has risen by 69 % since 1990. Added to this are the FAO-estimated 740 million internal migrants, a large proportion of whom have moved from rural to urban areas.
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