Record nummer 1924932
Titel Fate of the estrogen nonylphenol in river sediment: availability, mass transfer and biodegradation
toon extra info.
Jasperien P.A. de Weert
Auteur(s) Weert, J.P.A. de
Uitgever [S.l. : s.n.]
Jaar van uitgave 2009
Pagina's 143 p fig., tab
Annotatie(s) Proefschrift Wageningen  toon alle annotatie(s)
Met lit. opg. - Met samenvatting in het Engels en Nederlands
ISBN 9789085854661
Tutor(s) Rijnaarts, Prof. Dr. Ir. H.H.M. ; Langenhoff, Dr. Ir. A.A.M. ; Grotenhuis, Dr. Ir. J.T.C.
Promotiedatum 2009-12-16
Proefschrift nr. 4756
Samenvatting door auteur toon abstract

Many river sediments have become polluted with various estrogenic compounds, which

can cause toxicological effects on aquatic organisms, like the feminization of male fishes.

On of these estrogenic compounds is nonylphenol (NP). Nonylphenol exists of a phenol

group with a linear or a branched chain of nine carbon atoms, and mixtures of the branched

isomers are mainly present as a pollutant in the environment. Sediments polluted with

NP may act as a secondary source of NP for the river water due to desorption, where it

can cause toxicological effects on aquatic organisms. The toxicological risk of NP in the

sediment depends on the availability in the sediment, the mass transfer from the sediment

to the river water and the biodegradation potential of NP. The aim of this thesis is to obtain

insight into the availability, the mass transfer and the biodegradation potentials of NP in

polluted river sediment.

An analysis method was developed to measure NP concentrations in samples with liquid

and liquid and sediment (Chapter 2). Anaerobic and aerobic degradation experiments

were performed with aged NP polluted sediment and the involved microorganisms were

identified (Chapters 3 and 4, respectively). Furthermore, aerobic degradation of NP was

combined with the availability and the estrogenic activity under optimized conditions

for biodegradation (Chapter 5). In addition, a continuous flow-through experiment was

performed under settled sediment and resuspended sediment conditions to mimic

varying hydrodynamic conditions in a river system at lab scale (Chapter 6).

AAThe developed method to analyse NP in samples with liquid and liquid and sediment

was based on solid phase micro extraction with extraction from the headspace (Chapter

2). Sediment particles in the samples influenced the measured NP concentration. Dilution

of the slurry samples below 1.8 g sediment.l-1 reduced this effect.

hhUnder nitrate reducing conditions, linear NP could be degraded (Chapter 3). The

involved microorganisms were related to alkane degrading species, which might indicate

that degradation of linear NP under nitrate reducing conditions starts at the carbon chain.

The branched isomers were persistent under nitrate reducing, sulphate reducing, and

methanogenic conditions. Under aerobic conditions all isomers could be biodegraded

(Chapter 4). During this aerobic biodegradation a nitro-NP isomer was formed and

the involved microorganisms showed to be different from aerobic NP degrading

microorganisms that are described in literature so far. This indicates that aerobic NP

degradation can be performed by a wide range of microbial species.

AAThe NP in the sediment was found to be almost completely available (- 95%) and

could desorb rapidly from the sediment under optimal mixed conditions (Chapter 5). Due

to the aerobic biodegradation, the available NP fraction was completely biodegraded,

which resulted in an equal reduction of the estrogenic activity. Besides NP, the sediment

contained other estrogenic compounds, which showed an equal pattern in availability

and biodegradation as NP. Therefore, NP might function as a model compound to predict

the estrogenic activity of sediments.

AADue to the persistence of branched NP under anaerobic conditions, NP will remain

present in the anaerobic sediment for a long time (decades) because it will only be

degraded at the interface between the anaerobic sediment and the aerobic river water

and in the aerobic river water itself. Experiments in a flow-through experiment showed

that NP desorbed continuously from the sediment bed into the bulk water, and this

desorbing NP was degraded at the interface as long as sufficient oxygen was present

(Chapter 6). Resuspension of the sediment increased the mass transfer of the NP from

the sediment to the bulk water, and this resulted in higher NP concentrations in the bulk

water compared to the settled sediment conditions. In this experiment, the amount of

dissolved NP could not be completely biodegraded due to oxygen limitations. The results

showed that resuspension of sediments loaded with NP and other estrogenic organic

compounds will lead to enhanced environmental risks for effects on aquatic organisms.

These findings need to be taken into account in managing the environmental quality of

rivers and other surface waters, and besides the water quality, also the sediment quality

should be monitored.

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Trefwoorden (cab) verontreinigde sedimenten / rivieren / bodemverontreiniging / verontreinigende stoffen / oestrogenen / waterorganismen / biodegradatie / aquatische toxicologie / bodemsanering
Rubrieken Bodemverontreiniging / Waterverontreiniging
Publicatie type Proefschrift
Taal Engels
Toelichting Veel riviersedimenten zijn in het verleden verontreinigd geraakt met estrogene verbindingen, die toxische effecten kunnen veroorzaken op aquatische organismen, zoals de vervrouwlijking van mannelijke vissen. Een van deze estrogene verbindingen is nonylfenol (NP). Nonylfenol is een organische verbinding die bestaat uit een fenolgroep met een lineaire of een vertakte keten van negen koolstofatomen. Voornamelijk mengsels van vertakte NP-isomeren komen voor als verontreiniging in het milieu. Sedimenten die verontreinigd zijn met NP kunnen functioneren als secundaire bron van verontreiniging van het rivierwater, waar het toxische effecten kan veroorzaken op aquatische organismen. Het risico van toxische effecten door NP, dat aanwezig is in het sediment, wordt bepaald door de beschikbaarheid van NP in het sediment, het massatransport vanuit het sediment naar het rivierwater en de mogelijkheid voor biologische afbraak van NP in het sediment of het rivierwater.
Betrokken instanties Deltares
WUR, Sectie Milieutechnologie
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