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Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food, Kabul (Afghanistan). Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Information Management and Policy UnitFAO, Rome (Italy). Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Div.ESA8200
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food, Kabul (Afghanistan). Marketing, Economics and Statistics Div.FAO, Rome (Italy). Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Div.ESA5200
At head of t.p.: Year 2: Volume 2
Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Food, Kabul (Afghanistan). Marketing, Economics and Statistics Div.FAO, Rome (Italy). Agriculture and Economic Development Analysis Div.ESA4200
At head of t.p.: Year 2: Volume 3
Kathleen DohertyS. Barron FrazierMatthew ClarkAnna ChildersSumit PruthiDavid A. WengerJessica Duis2019
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease mainly caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A activity. The typical clinical course of patients with the late infantile form includes a regression in motor skills with progression to dysphagia, seizures, hypotonia and death. We present a case of a 4-year-old female with rapidly progressive developmental regression with loss of motor milestones, spasticity and dysphagia. MRI showed volume loss and markedly abnormal deep white matter. Enzymatic testing in one laboratory showed arylsulfatase A activity in their normal range. However, extraction of urine showed a large increase in sulfatide excretion in a second laboratory. Measurement of arylsulfatase A in that laboratory showed a partial decrease in arylsulfatase A activity measured under typical conditions (about 37% of the normal mean). When the concentration of substrate in the assay was lowered to one quarter of that normally used, this individual had activity <10% of controls. The patient was found to be homozygous for an unusual missense mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene confirming the diagnosis of MLD. This case illustrates the importance of careful biochemical and molecular testing for MLD if there is suspicion of this diagnosis. Keywords: Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Leukodystrophy, Arylsulfatase A, Lysosomal storage disease, Inborn error of metabolism
Sigurnjak, I.Brienza, C.Snauwaert, E.Dobbelaere, A., DeMey, J., DeVaneeckhaute, C.Michels, E.Schoumans, O.Adani, F.Meers, E.2019
(stripping-)scrubbingAmmonium nitrateAmmonium sulfateNitrogen recovery
Ghanbari, JalalKhajoei-Nejad, GholamrezaRuth, Saskia M., vanAghighi, Sonia2019
Apo-carotenoidsArbuscular-mycorrhizal fungusChemical fertilizerCormOrganic amendmentsSaffron
Hafner, Sasha D.Pacholski, AndreasBittman, ShabtaiCarozzi, MarcoChantigny, MartinGénermont, SophieHäni, ChristophHansen, Martin N.Huijsmans, JanKupper, ThomasMisselbrook, TomNeftel, AlbrechtNyord, TavsSommer, Sven G.2019
PPO/PRI AGRO Field Technology InnovationsAgro Field Technology InnovationsPPO/PRI AGRO Field Technology InnovationsAgro Field Technology Innovations
Qiu, J.Boom, R.M.Schutyser, M.A.I.2019
Leerstoelgroep LevensmiddelenproceskundeLevensmiddelenproceskundeVLAGFood Process EngineeringFood Process EngineeringVLAG
Zhao, ZhanqingQin, WeiBai, ZhaohaiMa, Lin2019
Crop-livestock systemHaihe BasinNitrogenNUFERPhosphorusWater pollution
Linderhof, VincentJanssen, ValerieAchterbosch, T.J.2019
LEI Groene Economie en RuimteGroene Economie en RuimteWASSLEI Internationaal BeleidInternationaal BeleidLEI Green Economy and LanduseGreen Economy and LanduseWASSLEI International PolicyInternational Policy
Frazao, J.F.T.A.Goede, R.G.M., deCapowiez, Y.Pulleman, M.M.2019
Bodembiologie en biologische bodemkwaliteitLeerstoelgroep Bodembiologie en biologische BodemkwaliteitBodembiologiePE&RCChair Soil Biology and Biological Soil QualitySoil Biology and Biological Soil QualitySoil BiologyPE&RC
Leip, AdrianLedgard, StewartUwizeye, AimablePalhares, Julio C.P.Aller, M.F.Amon, BarbaraBinder, MichaelCordovil, Claudia M.D.S.Camillis, Camillo, DeDong, HongmingFusi, AlessandraHelin, JanneHörtenhuber, StefanHristov, Alexander N.Koelsch, RichardLiu, ChunjiangMasso, CargeleNkongolo, Nsalambi V.Patra, Amlan K.Redding, Matthew R.Rufino, Mariana C.Sakrabani, RubenThoma, GregVertès, FrançoiseWang, Ying2019
Leerstoelgroep Dierlijke productiesystemenDierlijke ProductiesystemenAnimal Production SystemsAnimal Production Systems
Verdi, L.Kuikman, P.J.Orlandini, S.Mancini, M.Napoli, M.Marta, A., Dalla2019
BiogasDigestateGreenhouse gassesMaizeNitrogenStatic chambers
R. N. SchubertT. B. G. A. MorselliS. M. ToniettoJ. M. O. HenriquezR. D. TrechaR. P. EidD. P. RodriguezS. R. PiesantiM. R. S. MacielA. P. F. Lima2019
macrofauna edaphicEisenia foetidaorganic waste
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to degrade organic matter by edaphic macrofauna (worms), carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and hydrogenation potential (pH) during the vermicomposting process in different organic residues. The treatments were constituted by organic residues of animal origin (bovine, ovine and equine manure) and vegetable (herb-checkmate and coffee drag), which were conditioned in plastic pots with a capacity of 10 liters, comprising five treatments in a completely randomized experimental design, with five replications. Were inoculated 150 earthworms of the species Eisenia foetida, into each plot. After 87 days, the evaluation of the multiplication of the earthworms was carried out, through its manual count and its cocoons. At the beginning and at the end of the experiment, the samples were submitted to analysis of humidity at 60 °C, pH, volumetric density, chemical analysis of macronutrients and C/N ratio. There was a dominance of worms and cocoons in the process of vermicomposting in the residues of ovine manure and herb-checkmate. The macronutrients (P, K and Mg) and C/N ratio were higher in the vegetal residues, while for N higher values were found in ovine manure and coffee drag treatments, and for Ca higher value among treatments was observed in the coffee drag treatment at the end and the lowest value at initiation. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the importance of the edaphic macrofauna to the vermicomposting process, since it allows more information about its influence on the continuity of soil organic matter decomposition processes.
Julia E. BerendsLauri M.M. van den BergMartina A. GuggeisNikki F.T. HenckensIsrat J. HosseinMinke E.J.R. de JoodeHossy ZamaniKirsten A.A.J. van PeltNicky A. BeelenGunter G. KuhnleTheo M.C.M. de KokSimone G.J. Van Breda2019
Beetroot juicehuman dietary interventionnitratenitriteN-nitroso compoundsvitamin C
Consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ) by athletes induces a number of beneficial physiological health effects, which are linked to the formation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrate. However, following a secondary pathway, NO may also lead to the formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), which are known to be carcinogenic in 39 animal species. The extent of the formation of NOCs is modulated by various other dietary factors, such as vitamin C. The present study investigates the endogenous formation of NOCs after BRJ intake and the impact of vitamin C on urinary NOC excretion. In a randomized, controlled trial, 29 healthy recreationally active volunteers ingested BRJ with or without additional vitamin C supplements for one week. A significant increase of urinary apparent total N-nitroso Compounds (ATNC) was found after one dose (5 to 47 nmol/mmol: p &lt; 0.0001) and a further increase was found after seven consecutive doses of BRJ (104 nmol/mmol: p &lt; 0.0001). Vitamin C supplementation inhibited ATNC increase after one dose (16 compared to 72 nmol/mmol, p &lt; 0.01), but not after seven daily doses. This is the first study that shows that BRJ supplementation leads to an increase in formation of potentially carcinogenic NOCs. In order to protect athlete&rsquo;s health, it is therefore important to be cautious with chronic use of BRJ to enhance sports performances.
Jung, MaartjeBlok, C.Voogt, W.2019
WUR GTB Gewasgezondheid Bodem en WaterGTB Gewasgez. Bodem en WaterWUR GTB Gewasgezondheid Bodem en WaterGTB Gewasgez. Bodem en Water
Vilmar Müller JúniorLeoncio de Paula KoucherMonique SouzaAndria Paula LimaClaudinei KurtzRafael da Rosa CoutoPaulo Emílio LovatoSandro José GiacominiGustavo BrunettoJucinei José Comin2019
N2Onitrogencover crop residueorganic fertilizergreenhouse gases
ABSTRACT The use of cover crops and poultry manure (PM) is an alternative to reduce the use of synthetic inputs and can contribute to the nutrient cycling in onions ( Allium cepa L.) grown under a no-tillage system. However, this management practice may contribute to an increase in N2O emissions to the atmosphere. The aims of this study were to evaluate the immediate effect on N2O emissions of adding PM onto cover crop residues and to verify the effect of different no-tillage systems on N2O emissions. Two studies (laboratory and field) were conducted with the addition of oilseed radish (OR), black oat (BO), and weed (WD) residues with and without PM under a no-tillage (NT) system. Emission of N2O (kg ha-1) was influenced by the different residue-management systems and was higher in treatments with OR residues (2.96 ± 0.67 kg ha-1 for OR and 5.28 ± 1.04 kg ha-1 for OR + PM). The other treatments behaved similarly with emissions of approximately 1.91 ± 0.17 kg ha-1 of N-N2O. The highest N2O emissions in the field study were found within the first 15 days and represented 50.3 % of the average emissions. Poultry manure showed high emissions when the cover crop was OR, but not when it was BO and WD.
JoungDu ShinSangWon ParkSunIl Lee2019
blended biochar pelletmodified Hyperbolanutrient releaseslow release fertilizer
The nutrient releasing characteristics of a blended biochar pellet comprising a mixture of biochar and pig manure compost ratio (4:6) uploaded with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrient solutions were investigated with the application of a modified Hyperbola model during a 77-day precipitation period. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., the control, as 100% pig manure compost pellet (PMCP), a urea solution made at room temperature (TN), a urea solution heated to 60 &deg;C (HTN), N, P and K solutions made at room temperature (TNPK), and N, P and K solutions heated to 60 &deg;C (HTNPK). The cumulative ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) in the blended biochar pellets was slow released over the 77 days of precipitation period, but nitrite nitrogen (NO3-N) was rapidly released, i.e., within 15 days of precipitation (Phase I), close behind on a slower release rate within the final precipitation (Phase II). Accumulated phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations were not much different, and slowly released until the final precipitation period, while the highest accumulated K amount was 2493.8 mg L&minus;1 in the TNPK at 8 days, which then remained at a stage state of K. Accumulated silicon dioxide (SiO2) concentrations abruptly increased until 20 days of precipitation, regardless of treatments. For the application of the releasing model for nutrient releasing characteristics, the estimations of accumulated NH4-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, K and SiO2 in all the treatments were significantly (p &lt; 0.01) fitted with a modified Hyperbola model. These findings indicate that blended biochar pellets can be used as a slow release fertilizer for agricultural practices.
Stadtlander, TimoFörster, SvenjaRosskothen, DennisLeiber, Florian2019
Feeding and growthAquaculture
Liquid manure from livestock production systems is a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus release from nutrient cycles and a cause of ecosystem eutrophication. Duckweeds, small aquatic plants, may be used to recover N and P from livestock slurry while producing high-quality protein feed. In order to assess N and P uptake efficiency and utility for fish feed, two duckweed species, Landoltia punctata and Spirodela polyrhiza, were grown in controlled climate chambers on two nutrient-rich media: diluted (1:10) cattle slurry and mechanically filtered household sewage. Treatments were in triplicate, each running in four cycles with fresh substrate (one week each). Spirodela polyrhiza exhibited the strongest growth (96 g fresh matter m−2 day−1) and highest protein content (306 g per kg dry matter) on diluted slurry. The weakest growth was found for L. punctata on treated sewage (52 g fresh matter m−2 day−1). Average removal of total provided and utilizable inorganic N from the media was 73.2% and 83.9% for sewage and diluted slurry, respectively. Spirodela polyrhiza grown on diluted slurry was subsequently tested as feed ingredient for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Two different ingredient levels of S. polyrhiza meal (6.25% and 12.5% of feed) were fed to rainbow trout fry for 4 weeks, during which fish growth, feed and nutrient utilization and gut health were assessed. Feed was accepted, but both duckweed meal treatments resulted in 5–10% poorer growth traits and feed efficiency compared to control. The intestine somatic index was not affected. This is the first time the potential of duckweed as feed for rainbow trout fry has been demonstrated. Furthermore, our experiments found considerable N and P uptake from diluted slurry by S. polyrhiza, which produced protein at a high rate per unit time and area.
Elias, EyasuOkoth, P.F.Smaling, E.M.A.2019
Blend fertilizerBread wheatEthiopian highlandsPedogenetic class
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