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Making sustainable smallholder tea farming a viable business : baseline study of the Mufindi Outgrowers Project, Tanzania : appendices [Monograph]
Waarts, Yuka \ Plaisier, Christine \ Puister, Linda \ 2016
Coping with price risks on Dutch farms [Monograph]
Asseldonk, Marcel van \ Meer, Ruud van der \ 2016
FarmDigital: compliance to international certification schemes mapped : the melon, grape and potato case explained [Monograph]
Dijkxhoorn, Y. \ Robbemond, R. \ Kruize, J.W. \ 2016
ESBL Evaluation framework [Monograph]
Bondt, Nico \ Asseldonk, Marcel van \ Bergevoet, Ron \ 2016
extended spectrum beta-lactamases - livestock - epidemiology - animal welfare - animal health - public health - food safety - risk management

Extended-spectrum bèta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become increasingly common in animals and humans. The goal of the presented ESBL evaluation framework is to help policy makers to evaluate the effectiveness of possible interventions aimed to reduce ESBL levels in livestock. An objective-driven ESBL policy approach (i.e., setting more clear and stringent objectives, for example maximum ESBL prevalence on national level) is preferable since much is unknown about other potential relevant measures and moreover the accountability of individual agents is hampered, which are both requisites for a measure-driven policy approach. In addition, for the nearby future, an additional measure is to extend the ban on some other antibiotics that are related to ESBLs.

An updated generic architecture describing compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains : (D1.2.3) [Monograph]
Kruize, J.W. \ Robbemond, R.M. \ Verwaart, T. \ 2016
agro-industrial chains - food chains - food supply - computer software - efficiency - business economics

In this report a generic architecture is presented comprising an inventory of the most important actors, roles, processes and information that are relevant in the processes of standardisation, certification and compliance in Agri-Food Supply Chains. This architecture becomes part of an architectural framework. The architectural framework aims to reduce the paper -based administration by improving digitalisation of compliance processes and to enable a more efficient and effective data exchange in the field of compliance.

Gender dynamics in cashew and shea value chains from Ghana and Burkina Faso [Monograph]
Ingram, Verina \ Yago-Ouattara, Emma Lucie \ Lartey, Abraham \ Mogre, Diana \ Wijnands, Jo \ Berg, Jolanda van den \ 2015
Impact of UTZ certification on cocoa producers in Ghana, 2011 to 2014 [Monograph]
Waarts, Yuca \ Ingram, Verina \ Linderhof, Vincent \ Puister-Jansen, Linda \ Rijn, Fedes van \ Aryeetey, Richmond \ 2015
cocoa - certification - farmers - small farms - peasant farming - ghana

This study evaluates the impact of the UTZ-Solidaridad cocoa programme in Ghana , by comparing the situation of a sample of farmers from six projects in 2014 with their situation in 2011, and by comparing the development over time for certified and uncertified farmers. We also analysed the programme’s inclusiveness and shed light on the effect of UTZ certification on hired labourers’ working conditions.

Energiebelasting in de glastuinbouw in Noordwest-Europa [Monograph]
Velden, Nico van der \ Smit, Pepijn \ 2016
greenhouse horticulture - energy expenditure - energy consumption - energy - taxes - tariffs - fuels - electricity - northern europe - western europe - europe

In Europe, a tax is levied on energy. The taxes levied on the most essential forms of energy in the greenhouse horticulture sector in the countries of north-western Europe have been examined. The greenhouse horticulture sectors in individual countries use various types of fuels, purchase heat and electricity and utilise CHP installations. There are significant differences in the energy taxes of different countries and between the different forms of energy per country. Reduced rates and exemptions for the greenhouse horticultural sector exist in each of the countries that were examined. Generally, the costs of energy tax are the highest in Denmark, followed by the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium and Poland. In terms of energy taxes, north-western Europe does not offer greenhouse horticultural holdings a level playing field.

Ruimte in regels voor natuur en biodiversiteit : een inventarisatie van knelpunten voor innovatieve ondernemers [Monograph]
Burg, Sander van den \ Borgstein, Marien \ Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen \ Kistenkas, Fred \ 2016
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef [Monograph]
Duijn, Arie Pieter van \ Beukers, Rik \ Cowan, Roberta B.. \ Judge, Lucas \ Pijl, Willem van der \ Römgens, Indra \ Scheele, Fleur \ Steinweg, Tim \ 2016
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world

This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.

Decentraal aalbeheer in Friesland : een economische analyse [Monograph]
Prins, Henri \ Zaalmink, Wim \ 2015
freshwater fisheries - eels - european eels - anguilla - fisheries - fish catches - quotas - fishery management - economic development - friesland - netherlands - inland waters

Within the framework of the eel recovery plan, restrictive measures have been in force in Dutch eel fisheries since 2009. Since 2011, Frisian inland fishers, associated through the Frisian association of inland fishers (Friese Bond van Binnenvissers), have been experimenting with fishing quotas for eel. This approach is also known as 'decentralised eel management' (decentraal aalbeheer). This quota is in lieu of the statutory eel fisheries system, which includes a three-month period in which no eel may be fished. This report will explore the economic development of Frisian inland fisheries since 2007, as well as the question whether fishing quotas are economically viable.

Effects of seabed protection on the Frisian Front and Central Oyster Grounds : a cost benefit analysis [Monograph]
Oostenbrugge, Hans van \ Slijkerman, Diana \ Hamon, Katell \ Bos, Oscar \ Machiels, Marcel \ Valk, Olga van \ Hintzen, Niels \ Bos, Ernst \ Wal, Jan Tjalling van der Wal \ Coolen, Joop \ 2015
cost benefit analysis - fisheries - aquatic ecosystems - protection - benthos - ecosystems - oyster culture - north sea

This report provides an overview of the important benefits and costs for six variant closures for the protection of the benthic ecosystem on the Frisian Front and the Central Oyster Grounds. The proposed closures lead to a range of ecological benefits and economic costs. The current study facilitates an informed discussion about an optimal allocation of the closures.

Competitiveness of the EU food industry : ex-post assessmentof trade performance embedded in international economic theory [Monograph]
Wijnands, Jo. H. M.. \ Verhoog, David \ 2016
food industry - market competition - competitive ability - terms of trade - economic indicators - international trade - world markets - european union - usa

This study assessed the competitiveness of the EU food industry benchmarked against USA, Australia, Brazil and Canada. This assessment is based on trade indicators (Relative Net trade advantage and export share on the world market) and on economic indicators (value added, labour productivity and share value added in total manufacturing). This study is an update of an earlier study executed in 2007. The overall competitiveness performance of the EU28 (intra-EU trade excluded) remained weak: the three economic indicators weakened and the trade indicators improved in period (2) 2008-2012 compared to period (1) 2003-2007. The position in period 2 was even weaker than the relative weak position in period 1. Brazil remained the strongest and the USA became strong.

The Kenyan meat sector opportunities for Dutch agribusiness [Monograph]
Bergevoet, Ron \ Engelen, Anton van \ 2014
meat and livestock industry - meat - livestock - agribusiness - investment - netherlands - kenya

This study identifies opportunities for the Dutch agribusiness sector (industry as well as research and education) in Kenyan meat value chains at all levels. It can serve as a background document for Dutch agro-food business companies as well as other stakeholders. At the moment there is increased interest in exploring agro-food business opportunities in Kenya. This report will guide potential and interested investors to areas of interest and potential business partners within the Kenyan meat sector, and indicates a number of areas and directions in which Dutch experience and capacity can assist in all aspects of the further development of the Kenyan meat sector.

Opties voor energieneutrale agrosectoren in 2025 [Monograph]
Silvis, Huib \ Smekens, Koen \ Verhoog, David \ Daniëls, Bert \ Smit, Bert \ Doornewaard, Gerben \ Velden, Nico van der \ Wisman, Arjen \ Briel, Jaap van den \ Oldenburger, Jan \ 2015
agricultural sector - energy saving - sustainability - sustainable energy - netherlands - future

Deze studie is bedoeld om kansen en knelpunten voor het bereiken van energieneutrale agrosectoren in 2025 inzichtelijk te maken. Getoond wordt hoe de primaire agrosectoren de situatie van netto energieneutraliteit kunnen benaderen. Naast energiebesparende maatregelen worden de belangrijkste bijdragen daaraan geleverd door de productie van duurzame energie: zonnepanelen, windmolens en geothermie. Technisch kan ook mest een aanzienlijke bijdrage leveren als grondstof voor groen gas. De opties zijn niet beoordeeld op economische en financiële haalbaarheid. Geconcludeerd wordt dat forse publieke en private inspanningen nodig zijn om de technische mogelijkheden te realiseren.

Economic impact of the Commission's 'opt-out' proposal on the use of approved GM crops : quick assessment of the medium-term economic consequences [Monograph]
Hoste, Robert \ Wagenberg, Coen van \ Wijnands, Jo \ 2015
transgenic plants - crops - genetic engineering - soyabeans - economic impact - agricultural sector - food industry - feed industry - european union - france - germany - poland - hungary

The European Commission proposed the opportunity for individual EU Member States to restrict or prohibit the use of GMOs in food or feed on their territory (a national ‘opt-out’). The economic impact on individual sectors of the feed and food chain (the vegetable oil and meal industry, trade, animal feed industry, livestock sector) of a possible opt-out policy for soy by individual Member States has been assessed by LEI Wageningen UR. A single scenario was defined in which the four countries France, Germany, Poland and Hungary choose an ‘opt-out’ policy for soy. Consequences of this switch to non-GM soy and substitutes were assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively for feed prices, for production costs for animal production, for crushing industry and for trade, with a focus on the medium term.

Effects of increased VAT rates for ornamentals : situation 2015 [Monograph]
Bunte, Frank \ Galen, Michiel van \ 2015
ornamental horticulture - value added tax - change - effects - turnover - economic evaluation - employment - european union - netherlands

This report evaluates the effects of a possible application of the general VAT rate to ornamentals on turnover and employment in the Dutch and European ornamental supply chain. The effects are calculated for the scenario in which the Netherlands decide to apply the general VAT rate and the scenario in which all member states of the European Union (EU) decide to apply the general VAT rate. In 2015, the lower VAT rate is applied to ornamentals in 13 EU member states. The effects are measured using the Hortus model of LEI Wageningen UR, which models demand and supply in European horticulture.

The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia : a quick scan [Monograph]
Jongeneel, Roel \ Smit, Bert \ Bakker, Tom \ Jager, Jakob \ 2015
sugarbeet - processing - arable farming - ethanol production - biofuels - economic viability - slovenia - cap - european union - biobased economy

This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail after the liberalisation of the EU’s sugar policy in 2017, direct processing of sugar beets is a profitable activity. This result is conditional on a number of requirements.

Sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen : prestaties 2014 in perspectief [Monograph]
Reijs, J.W. \ Doornewaard, G.J. \ Jager, J.H. \ Beldman, A.C.G. \ 2015
dairy farming - dairy farms - milk production - agriculture and environment - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - sustainability - policy goals - monitoring - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal health - animal housing

Via het initiatief de Duurzame Zuivelketen streven zuivelondernemingen en melkveehouders gezamenlijk naar een toekomstbestendige en verantwoorde zuivelsector. De Duurzame Zuivelketen heeft doelen geformuleerd op 4 duurzaamheidsthema’s. Deze sectorrapportage doet verslag van de voortgang op deze doelen in 2014. Deze rapportage laat zien dat de Duurzame Zuivelketen sinds de nulmeting (2011) op het gebied van antibiotica, energie-efficiëntie en verantwoorde soja veel vooruitgang heeft geboekt en dat de doelen voor 2020 binnen handbereik zijn in 2014 of zelfs al gehaald. Ook bij levensduur en duurzame energie zijn er ontwikkelingen in de goede richting maar is er meer vooruitgang nodig om de doelen te kunnen halen. Op het gebied van broeikasgassen, fosfaat en ammoniak zorgt het toegenomen productievolume ervoor dat de afgesproken productieplafonds in gevaar komen. Op het thema weidegang is het vooralsnog niet gelukt om de ingezette dalende trend te keren. Voor dierenwelzijn en biodiversiteit is monitoring nog in ontwikkeling.

Kansen en belemmeringen voor omschakeling naar de biologische sector [Monograph]
Meeusen, Marieke J.G \ 2015
farm management - farming - organic farming - agricultural sector - decision making - investment decisions - farmers - netherlands

De vraag naar biologische producten groeit harder dan het aanbod van de Nederlandse biologische sector. De vraag die het ministerie van Economische Zaken stelt is welke factoren de omschakeling van de gangbare naar de biologische sector belemmeren en hoe deze omschakeling gestimuleerd kan worden. Daartoe heeft ze het LEI Wageningen UR gevraagd om interviews met marktpartijen te houden en een enquête uit te zetten om de overwegingen bij biologische boeren te peilen. Belangrijke uitkomst is dat de sector vooral zelf de regie wil houden op het omschakelproces en voor de overheid een faciliterende rol ziet.

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